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CASE STUDIES IN TERRORISM

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CASE STUDIES IN TERRORISM Nationalism and Globalization Spring 2007 Nationalism and Terrorism Conditions that foster extreme nationalism or terrorism: Poverty ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CASE STUDIES IN TERRORISM


1
CASE STUDIES IN TERRORISM
  • Nationalism and Globalization
  • Spring 2007

2
Nationalism and Terrorism
  • Conditions that foster extreme nationalism or
    terrorism
  • ? Poverty (landlessness, deprivation)
  • Repressive Governments
  • Ideological Differences (Marxism)
  • Anarchism (Destroy the System)
  • Criminality
  • Neo-colonialism and /or imperialism

3
DEFINING TERRORISM
  • A premeditated, politically motivated use of
    violence or its threat to intimidate or coerce a
    government or the general public.
  • A strategy of violence designed to achieve
    desired outcomes by instilling fear and
    insecurity.

4
CATEGORIES OF TERRORISM
  • State sponsorship and support
  • Italy and Hunger in Yugoslavia, pre-1920s
  • Iraq pre-2003
  • Iran (Hezbollah)
  • U.S. and Nicaragua (Contras)
  • North Korea (anyone who will listen!)

5
CATEGORIES OF TERRORISM
  • Religious justifications
  • Sikhs and Khalistan
  • Algeria in the 1990s
  • Aum Shinrikyo (Supreme Truth)
  • Al Qaeda

6
CATEGORIES OF TERRORISM
  • Ethnic and Nationalist justifications
  • Mau Mau in Colonial Kenya
  • Basque Nationalists in Spain
  • Albanians in Kosovo and Macedonia
  • Palestinians

7
CATEGORIES OF TERRORISM
  • Ideologies of the Left
  • Baader-Meinhof in West Germany
  • Italian Red Brigades
  • Montoneros in Argentina
  • Islamic Republic of Iran
  • Animal Liberation Front

8
CATEGORIES OF TERRORISM
  • Ideologies of the Right
  • Weimer Germany and the Stormtroopers
  • Neo-Nazis and skinheads in Europe
  • American militia/patriot movement
  • Fundamentalism

9
CATEGORIES OF TERRORISM
  • Multiple motivations for terrorism
  • Malaya insurgency
  • Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) in Peru
  • Irish Republicanism
  • Colombia narcotics, regionalism

10
CATEGORIES OF TERRORISM
  • State use of terrorism and repression
  • French Revolution (1789-1793)
  • Cherokee Nation in Georgia
  • East Timor paramilitary
  • Zimbabwe Farm Invasions (Mugabe)
  • Ethnic cleansing by Serbia in Bosnia
  • Genocide in Rwanda

11
CREATION OF YUGOSLAVIA
12
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13
NICARAGUA AND THE CONTRAS
14
CATEGORIES OF TERRORISM
  • Religious justifications
  • Sikhs and Khalistan
  • Algeria in the 1990s
  • Aum Shinrikyo (Supreme Truth)
  • Al Qaeda

15
SPANISH INQUISITION, 1480-96
16
SIKHS OF KHALISTAN
17
                                                  
                                                  
                    
Civilians, Police and Terrorist casualties in
Punjab - 1981-1996
18
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19
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20
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21
Al Qaida (The Base)
  • Founded in 1979
  • Based in Afghanistan originally
  • Funded by Usama bin Laden
  • Idea came from Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, which
    recruited young idealistic Muslims to fight the
    Communist Infidels

22
  • Usama bin Laden Saudi civil
  • engineer
  • Personal fortune at 300 million
  • Al Qaida Task Force joined with the Afghani
    Mujahadeen (tribal leaders) to rout the Soviet
    Red Army.
  • Usama supplied with weapons by the CIA
  • By 1988, Soviets defeated and withdrew from
    Afghanistan.

23
  • Historical Roots of Contemporary Al Qaida
  • Terrorism practiced during Roman times
  • Religious Zealots assassinated Roman soldiers and
    officials, as well as fellow Jews viewed as
    heretics or collaborators
  • Jews expelled from Judea by Romans
  • Ashkenazim to Eastern Europe
  • Sephardim to North Africa/Iberia

24
  • Rise of Islam, 571-632 Mohammed
  • Split after Mohammeds death in 632
  • Shia believe that caliphate succeeds directly
    from descendents of Mohammed
  • Sunni believe in a more democratic succession
    following the caliphate of Ali.
  • Differences exist in prayer form, history,
    marriage, and Fatwa (religious ruling)

25
  • THE SHIITE ORDER OF ASSASSINS
  • Sworn to expel Christians from Palestine in 11th
    and 12th C. crusades.
  • Also murdered Sunni Muslims whose beliefs and
    rituals they detested.
  • Believed in the concepts of martyrdom and
    paradise, and Jihad (means to strive)

26
  • The Al Qaida Agenda 1990s-Today
  • ? Stand and fight for the Truth of Islam
    crusade against those who defile it
  • Cleanse the sacred Arab lands of heathen
    attackers (especially in Saudi Arabia).
  • - Dislodging the US military necessitates a
    ruthless mission.
  • ?A Muslims duty (crusade or Jihad) is to take
    the battle for rightful Islam into every American
    tent, anywhere on the planet.
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