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The Reading Process

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Your first decision is to choose the size your desire. Once you have made your selection, examine the general shape to determine where to start. ... Rose Napoli, 2004 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Reading Process


1
The Reading Process
2
(No Transcript)
3
The Reading Process
  • Reader
  • Strategies
  • Frontloading
  • Context
  • Text

4
  • Your first decision is to choose the size your
    desire. Once you have made your selection,
    examine the general shape to determine where to
    start. The initial incision is always at the
    top, and you should continue until you can lift
    it cleanly. The removal of the interior portion
    can be fun, although some people regard this as
    the least enjoyable aspect. Once the shell is
    empty, you can begin to craft a personality.
    Some prefer a forbidding likeness, while others
    follow a more humorous direction. Finally,
    arrange for a source of illumination. Enjoy your
    results while you can, for your work will soon
    begin to sag.

5
  • Instead of having students read, we may resort to
    telling them what they need to know or we may
    turn to other media for instruction.
  • Students need to develop effective reading
    behaviors in order to survive and be successful
    in school.

6
  • Students who will not read are as disadvantaged
    as students who cannot read.
  • Readence, Moore, and Rickelman Prereading
    Activities for Content Area Reading and Learning
    (2000)

7
  • Three elements work interactively to determine
    the meaning a reader constructs from a text
  • the reader
  • the learning climate
  • text features

8
  • The reader constructs meaning using
  • schema knowledge framework
  • prior knowledge
  • metacognition fix-up strategies
  • reading and writing
  • collaboration

9
  • The questions that p_______ face as they raise
    ch_____ from in_______ to adult life are not easy
    to an____. Both f_____ and m_____ can become
    concerned when health problems such as co______
    arise any time after the e_____ stage to later
    life. Experts recommend that young ch_____
    should have plenty of s____ and nutritious food
    for healthy growth. B____ and g_____ should not
    share the same b_____ or even sleep in the same
    r____. They may be afraid of the d_____.

10
  • The questions that poultrymen face as they raise
    chickens from incubation to adult life are not
    easy to answer. Both farmers and merchants can
    become concerned when health problems such as
    coccidiosis arise any time after the egg stage to
    later life. Experts recommend that young chicks
    should have plenty of sunshine and nutritious
    food for healthy growth. Banties and geese
    should not share the same barnyard or even sleep
    in the same roost. They may be afraid of the dark.

The questions that poultrymen face as
11
  • When they (students) arent successful at
    comprehending what they read, they blame the
    text, themselves, even their teacher.
  • Billmeyer and Barton Teaching Reading in the
    Content Areas (1998)

12
The Learning Climate
  • Acceptance
  • Help students feel like they matter
  • Safety and Order
  • Sense of emotional safety
  • Classroom rules
  • Purpose for each reading assignment
  • To learn specific facts
  • To acquire a general understanding of a concept
  • To interpret and evaluate authors message


13
Competence and Value Feel capable of succeeding
  • Confidence in ability to access prior knowledge
  • Fill in any gaps
  • Chunk up assigned work into manageable pieces
  • Acknowledge small/large successes
  • Encourage risk-taking
  • Validate responses (give credit for correct
    aspects of an incorrect response)

14
Competence and Value Relevance of the learning
activity
  • What the students will gain from
    learning the content material

15
Scaffolding
  • Supporting students before, during, after
    they read
  • Prereading
  • - relating passage contents to
    students worlds
  • - presenting key vocabulary prior to
    encountering it in the text
  • - noting the organization

16
  • Opposite of simply handing out challenging text
    passages and expecting students to learn.
  • Readence, Moore, and Rickelman, Prereading
    Activities for Content Area Reading and Learning
    (2000)

17
Vocabulary Development Strategies
  • Concept Definition Mapping
  • Frayer Model
  • Prereading predictions
  • Semantic Feature Analysis
  • Semantic Mapping
  • Stephens Vocabulary Elaboration Strategy (SVES)
  • Student VOC Strategy
  • Word Sorts

18
Text Features
  • Reader aids
  • Any pictorial, typographical, graphic, and
    structural representations whose purpose is to
    convey information
  • Bold print
  • Headings
  • Italics
  • Bulleted material
  • Pictures

19
Text Features
  • Reader aids
  • Vocabulary
  • Terminology the author uses to express ideas and
    concepts

20
Cone

21
Juice
22
Eye
23
Shutter
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Hunker
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  • We are in the cone so we had better shutter our
    windows, hunker down, and hope we dont lose our
    juice when the eye passes.

26
  • The gap between what your students already know
    and what passages present helps determine what
    teachers need to provide during the prereading
    stage of an assignment.
  • Readence, Moore, and Rickelman Prereading
    Activities for Content Area Reading and Learning
    (2000)

27
  • Vocabulary knowledge is the single most important
    factor contributing to reading comprehension.
  • Billmeyer and Barton Teaching Reading in the
    Content Areas (1998)

28
Vocabulary
  • Consists of major concepts
  • Rarely associated with concepts that students
    already know
  • Are often semantically related

29
Vocabulary
  • Students need
  • Strategies that can help them learn what new
    concepts mean and see the connections between
    these concepts
  • Multiple opportunities to learn how the words are
    conceptually related

30
  • Studies reveal that teachers devote most of their
    time to presenting new content, but this does
    little to prepare students to read text
    assignments or to internalize what they read.
  • Wood and Muth, 1991

31
Text Structure
  • The organizational pattern the author employs to
    express his ideas
  • The student makes meaningful connections
  • Locate and identify important information
  • Recognize the relationships
  • Organize into a mental pattern or sequence

32
  • Narrative text Primary purpose is to entertain.
    (Novels, short stories, etc.)
  • Informational text/Expository text (textbook
    chapters, newspaper, magazine articles, reference
    material)

33
  • Content area teachers can help students improve
    reading comprehension by making sure their
    students understand
  • The difference between narrative text and
    informational text
  • The organizational patterns typically used in
    each
  • How to recognize these different organizational
    patterns

34
  • The procedure is actually quite simple. First
    arrange items into different groups. Of course
    one pile may be sufficient depending on how much
    there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else
    due to lack of facilities that is the next step
    otherwise, you are pretty well set. It is
    important not to overdo things. That is, it is
    better to do too few things at once than too
    many. In the short run this may not seem
    important but complications can easily arise. A
    mistake can be expensive as well. At first, the
    whole procedure will seem complicated. Soon,
    however, it will become just another facet of
    life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the
    necessity for this task in the immediate future,
    but then, one never can tell. After the procedure
    is completed, one arranges the materials into
    different groups again. Then they can be put
    into their appropriate places. Eventually they
    will be used once more and the whole cycle will
    then have to be repeated. However, that is part
    of life.
  • Bransford Johnson, 1972, pg. 722

35
Organizational Patterns
  • Compare/contrast Organizes information about
    two of more topics according to their
    similarities.

36
Organizational Patterns
  • Descriptive Organizes facts that describe the
    characteristics of specific persons, places,
    things, and events. These characteristics do not
    need to be given in any particular order.

37
Organizational Patterns
  • Episode Organizes a large body of information
    about specific events. This information includes
  • the time and place
  • specific people
  • specific duration
  • specific sequence of incidents that occur
  • the events particular cause and effect
  • ex. Watergate

38
Organizational Patterns
  • Process/cause-effect
  • Organizes information into a series of steps
    leading to a specific product
  • or
  • Organizes information in a causal sequence that
    leads to a specific outcome

39
Organizational Patterns
  • Time sequence

40
Organizational Patterns
  • 6. Concept/Definition
  • Organizes information about a word or phrase that
    represents a generalized idea of a class of
    persons, places, things, and events (e.g.,
    dictatorship, economics, culture, mass
    production).
  • Concept/definition text defines a concept by
    presenting its characteristics or attributes, and
    sometimes examples of each.

41
Organizational Patterns
  • Generalization/principle Organizes information
    into general statements with supporting examples.

42
Organizational Patterns
  • There are many key words that indicate
    organizational patterns.
  • For example difference, alike, place,
    how long, in order, the order of, since, the
    following, after, before, can be defined as,
    means, first, last, because, due to

43
  • Students need to be encouraged to examine the
    text closely and interact with the text. Thought
    provoking questions help to make that happen
    before, during and after reading. Classrooms
    rich with student talk facilitated by the teacher
    will result in real learning and deeper
    understanding of text.
  • Rose Napoli, 2004

44
  • The battles for greater student
    literacy must be fought in classrooms and can be
    only be won by teachers, administrators, and
    parents who understand the complexities of
    reading.
  • Cris Tovani
  • I Read It, but I Dont Get It (2000)

45
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