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New Steps of Chinas Software Industry

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Title: New Steps of Chinas Software Industry


1
???
2
New Steps ofChinas Software Industry
Director of China Software Industry
Association VP of China System Software Process
Improvement Association Member of Shanghai
Informatization Expert Committee October 28,
2008 at IPA Forum, Tokyo
3
Outline
  • Booming Software/IT Industry
  • New Targets
  • New Outsourcing Fever
  • Software Benchmarking In China
  • Talents Engineering From Process Maturity To
    People Maturity
  • Constructing IT Talents Public Information
    Platform Modern Knowledge Services
  • Towards Innovation-Oriented Country

4
Booming Software/IT Industry

5
Software Industry As A Pillar Industry
  • The software industry has been targeted by
    Chinese government as a new strategic pillar
    industry with preferential development
  • A series of policies for supporting and propping
    up have been appeared in China, such as
  • Some Policy to Encourage the Development of
    Software and IC industry -- No.18 Document,
    issued by the State Council in 2000
  • "Action Plan for Invigorating Software Industry
    Development,2002-2005 No.47 Document, issued
    by the State Council in 2002

6
No. 18 Document (SC18)
  • The most important central government policy for
    the software industry
  • The document policies for software companies
    include
  • Value-added Tax (VAT) refund for RD and expanded
    production
  • Tax preferences for newly established companies
  • Fast-track approval for software companies
    seeking to raise capital on overseas stock
    markets
  • Exemption from tariffs and VAT for software
    companies imports of technology and equipment
  • Direct export rights for all software firms with
    over USD 1 million in revenues
  • Right to set salary levels and to grant bonuses
    to investors
  • The Chinese government has also actively
    encouraged partnerships and joint ventures with
    foreign companies to assist in the development of
    Chinese software services firms

7
Tax Policy In No.18 Document
  • The new tax policy for SW enterprises Before
    2010, tax administration authority will collect
    tax of 17, but it will pay back to the companies
    if the tax rate is higher than 3
  • The new software companies can enjoy the free
    income tax for the first two years and half
    income tax in next three years since its
    profiting year. The subsidy can be used for RD
    investment and further production
  • So the real income tax for software firms falls
    to 3 from previous 17. It is a real big
    favor

8
Some Regulations In No.47 Document
  • The document explicitly specified that when
    government needs to purchase software, it should
    buy the domestic product first in the same
    condition
  • It also suggests government office to use
    licensed and autonomous developed software
  • It also requests that in governments information
    engineering project, the minimum cost for
    software is no lower than 30 of total investment
  • It explicitly requests that during the tenth
    five-years plan government should spend more than
    4 billions for RD in software industry
  • It clearly puts training and education of
    software talents in governments agenda

9
Software Industry Bases Parks Constructed
Regional SW Cluster
  • A number of software industry bases and parks
    have been constructed in China as a main measure
    in developing local software industry
  • 11 State Software Industry Bases were established
    under the support of Ministry of Information
    Industry and the State Development and Reform
    Committee, they are Beijing, Shanghai,
    Guangzhou, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Xian, Chengdu,
    Dalian, Jinan, Changsha, and Zhuhai
  • 2004 announced 6 State Software Export Bases
    Shanghai, Dalian, Shenzhen, Tianjin, Xian, and
    Beijing
  • 22 State Software Parks were opened under the
    Torch Plan, Ministry of Science Technology
    (MOST). These parks accounted over 80 of
    China's total software sales from the 7128
    companies

10
National Key Projects
  • 1995, the MOST launched the National Torch
    Program, which is to establish software parks and
    software production bases
  • Golden Projects Series
  • City Funded Information Port or Digital City
    Projects
  • November 2003, China Offshore Software
    Engineering Project (COSEP) launched by Torch
    High Technology Industry Development Center,
    Ministry of Science Technology
  • Fund For Electronics Information Industry,
    Ministry of Information Industry
  • 863 High-Tech Program, MOST
  • The National Basic Research Program (973 Program)
  • National ST Breaking-Through Program
  • Fund For ST Based SME Innovation, MOST

11
Torch Programme
  • The Torch Programme is a guidance programme for
    developing new/high tech industries in China
  • It was approved by the State Council and is
    implemented by the MOST
  • The purposes of the programme are to implement
    the strategy "Promote the development of the
    country with science and education", carry out
    the general policy of reform and opening to the
    outside world, bring into full play the
    advantages and potential of China's scientific
    and technological forces, take market for
    orientation, promote the commercialization of
    new/high tech achievements, industrialization of
    new/high tech good and internationalization of
    new/high tech industries

12
The Main Contents of Torch Program
  • Create a Proper Environment for the Development
    of New/high tech Industries
  • Establish New/high tech Industrial
  • Development Zones and Pioneering Service Centres
  • Projects -- an important component of the
    programme
  • Internationalization of New/high tech Industries
  • Training

13
The COSEP Project
  • In November of 2003, The Torch Center, a high
    tech development program started by the MOST,
    launched the China Offshore Software Engineering
    Project (COSEP)
  • Working in conjunction with US based
    ExperExchange, and using ExperExchange's Offshore
    Software Engineering Model (OSEM), COSEP is to
    provide outsourcing services from China to
    overseas corporate customers
  • The COSEP program will select a number of Chinese
    software companies from regional software parks. 
    These companies will go through a training
    program based on the OSEM process supervised by
    ExperExchange
  • Upon successful completion of the OSEM training
    program, a Chinese software company is then
    certified to take on offshore software
    engineering projects
  • This training program is an official seal of
    approval from the Chinese government to foreign
    companies that the companies that have gone
    through this training program have the processes
    and procedures in place to handle complex
    software outsource projects

14
Progress In Homemade Software
  • COSIX Operating System
  • Nuwa Project (Embedded OS)
  • COSA System Software Platform
  • Redflag Linux
  • KingBase Database
  • Electronic Typesetting System
  • Financial Packages
  • Virus Killing Packages
  • Language Translation Software
  • Search Engines

15
Multiple Funding Channels
  • The development of software enterprises is often
    eager for investment
  • Besides financial input from government, multiple
    funding channels have also been created in China,
    including venture capitals, private investment,
    venture fund, Overseas Return (HaiGui) Venture
    Fund etc.
  • So far dozens of Chinese software companies have
    went IPO on the domestic stock market, Hong Kong
    and Nasdaq
  • Some of the best performing IPOs of 2004 came
    from VC-backed Chinese companies. American
    depositary shares of Shanda Interactive
    Entertainment, a Shanghai-based online game
    company, have risen 238 since the company went
    public on the Nasdaq last May. ADSs of 51job, a
    Shanghai-based online job-listing service, are up
    222 since its Nasdaq debut in September
  • VCs and investment bankers have been flocking to
    China to get in on the action, and that kind of
    excitement should put an extra clench in any
    investor's stomach. There's genuine
    opportunity here, but pay attention to the risks

16
Market Driven
  • The state policy Industrialization Driven By
    Informatization creates a huge inner need and
    market for IT systems from 20 million Chinese
    enterprises
  • Financial package, office software, ERM, CRM,
    SCM, enterprise applications, e-business, system
    integration have became the hot spots pursued by
    Chinese software companies and give them much
    vitality
  • Many successful software companies often have a
    dedicated vertical domain with special advantage
    in either technology or business strategy

17
Enterprise IT Applications Market
18
National 863 Projects On SE Technologies --
Examples
  • Software Process Technology and Quality Assurance
    Platform
  • UDCORE(User-driven Domain-specific
    COmponent-based Requirements Elicitation method
  • Management of Software Testing Process and
    Quality Assessment
  • Data Mining and Knowledge Management Technologies
    For Software Enterprises
  • Research On New Generation ERP System
  • Large Scale GIS
  • Quality Assurance Platform and Application
    Oriented To Software Enterprises
  • CMM-Based Software Quality Assurance Platform and
    Applications
  • Testing Technology For Embedded Application
    Software
  • Project Information Portal PIP

19
Driven By Government Procurement
  • Nationwide e-Government Project stimulates a huge
    new wave in software market
  • The enactment of Chinas new Government
    Procurement Law (GPL) has specifically addressed
    the procurement of software the overall efforts
    of the Chinese government to protect and promote
    an indigenous software industry
  • In 2004 Chinese provincial governments purchased
    office software 410K sets in total, among them
    more than 280K sets are homemade (68.4). The
    cost for domestic SW packages is only 61.2
    millions, just occupying 24 of 250 millions
    total SW cost. Homemade OS purchased are 45K
    sets (39.2), breaking through past all of the
    same Microsoft products. Homemade Virus
    Killing Packages exceed 97

20
e-Government Projects In China
21
Progress In Electronic/IT Industry
  • 2004 RMB 2650 billion
  • 2005 RMB 3340 billion
  • 2006 RMB 4750 billion (625 B)
  • -- Largest Industry In China, 2nd in the
    World
  • By 2006 830 Million Phone Subscribers
  • (461 Million Mobile Phone)
  • Internet Users 137 Millions (World Second)
  • Broadband Users 77 Millions
  • Online PCs 54.5 Million Units
  • 4 Industrial Bases Built Pearl River Delta,
    Yangtse Delta, Bohai Gulf and Middle Western Area
  • By 2010 Revenue 10 Trillion
  • 1 Billion Phone Subscribers 200M Internet
    Users

22
High Growth Software Industry
2010 Target Revenue 1300 Billion, Software
Export USD 12.5 Billion Software Employees 2500
Thousand From current 1500 Thousand
23
CMMI Appraisal ResultsCMU/SEI Process Maturity
Profile March 2008
24
What Is Our Next Breakthrough Point

25
New Targets
26
China Development Objectivesof 11th Five-Years
Plan
  • Target IT Industry Strong Country
  • Keeps 17.6 Average Growth Rate
  • By 2010, 10 trillion and 10 GDP contribution
  • 1B Phone Subscribers 600M Mobile Phones
  • 200M Internet Users
  • 7 Measures, 12 Big Projects, 8 Key Tasks, and
  • 5 Objectives
  • Software Industry 30 High Growth Rate
  • By 2010, 1.3 trillion revenue and USD 12.5B SW
    Export, 2.5M SW Professionals, Some Backbone SW
    Enterprises with 5B revenue

27
Nationwide Software Take-Off
  • Beijing Aiming at Software Capital(????). By
    2010, 200B revenue, 1B SW Export and 400K SW
    Professionals.
  • Software Industry turns to be a pillar
    industry in Beijings economic development
  • Xian Constructing Chinas Outsourcing
    Capital(????????). By 2010, 200K SW
    Professionals 45B revenue. A base with
    direct connections to American, European
    Japanese outsourcing markets
  • Shenyang Targeting at A Animation Cartoon
    City(????). By 2010, 50B revenue and 1B SW
    Export, within Top 5 SW cities. Annual
    production volume of AC industry is more than
    30000 minutes with direct income of 6B and driven
    industries of 60B

28
Nationwide Software Take-Off
  • Nanjing Aiming at Famous Software City(????).
    By 2010, SW revenue reaches 60-80B, quadrupled
    within five years and 15 GDP contribution.
    Keeping a leading position in Chinas cities
  • Chengdu Striving for Global Famous Software
    City(??????). By 2010, 60-80B revenue, 200K SW
    professionals, 300-500M SW Export, with 45
    annual growth rate. 20 enterprises with 1B
    revenue/year and 3-5 with 10K developers, 10
    CMM/CMMI Level 5 and 60 over Level 3

29
Nationwide Software Take-Off
  • Wuhan To be Software Capital In Central China
    (??????) within 10 years. By 2015, the total
    revenue of Wuhan Guanggu Software Park will be
    50B, with three leading application domains
    Space, Information Security Advanced
    Manufacturing
  • Dalian An International Software Model
    City(?????????????). By 2010, 40B revenue,
    1.5B SW Export and 120-140K SW Professionals
  • Guangzhou Keep 35 growth rate in next five
    years. By 2010, 100B SW revenue and 1.3B SW
    Export. Within 5-10 years, making software
    industry to be the pillar one of Guangzhou

30
Nationwide Software Take-Off
  • Hangzhou Aiming at Software Heaven(????)/Heav
    en Silicon Valley(????) and International
    Software City(?????)
  • Hefei Towards Anhui Silicon Valley(????).
    By 2010, 10B revenue, fostering 3 SW enterprise
    with annual revenue of 100M
  • Xiamen To be One of The Largest Domestic SW
    Industry Bases(????????????). 3.3B investment
    to 2nd phase construction of Xiamen Software Park
    and focus on the Animation Cartoon industry
  • Shenzhen Keep in the Lead of Chinas SW
    Industry (??????). 2006 2.9B SW Export lists the
    first position in China. The revenue of
    embedded development occupied 70 of whole
    country market
  • Suzhou Constructing National Software
  • Park(??????)

31
Shanghai Development Objectivesof 11th
Five-Years Plan
  • IT industry keeps 17 Average Growth Rate
  • By 2010, total revenue will breakthrough 1
    trillion and make 15 GDP contribution
  • Focus on three core sections Software Industry,
    Integrated Circuits, New Electronic Devices
  • By 2010, Software Industry 120B revenue, USD 2
    billion SW Export and 200K SW Professionals

32
Strategy Adjustment
  • From Industrialization Driven By
    Informatization To The Fusion of The
    Informatization and Industrialization
  • A New Way of Industrialization the Innovation on
    China's Development Path in the Information Age,
    Specially Stressing on Applications of IT
    characterized by the information industry-led
    industrialization
  • Simultaneous Development of Five
    -izationindustrialization, informatization,
    urbanization, marketization, and
    internationalization
  • A New Ministry has been Established Ministry of
    Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) from
    original Ministry of Information Industry (MII)
  • This new state policy will bring about new
    opportunities for development Chinas Software
    Industry

33
Adjustment of Industry StructureDevelopment of
Modern Service Industry
  • Opinions of the State Council concerning
    Accelerating the Development of the Service
    Sector SC 2007 No.7
  • During the 11th Five Years Plan, the industry
    restructuring will focus on the transformation
    from industrial economy into service economy
  • Developing Modern Service Industry has become a
    strategic, macro and policy issue
  • High attention is paid to the development of
    Knowledge Intensive Business Services (KIBS) and
    Information Technology enabled Services (ITeS)

34
New Promoting Policies Released
  • The New No.18 Document is a wide hearsay and
    under deliberation for a long time
  • The software industry is expecting its quick
    release which will promote a new leap in China
  • In this year the Ministry of Finance and Ministry
    of Commerce have released the FT 2008 No.32
    Opinions on Finance-Taxation Policy of Supporting
    Contract for Global Outsourcing Services

35
New Outsourcing Fever
36
The 1000-100-10 Project More Ambitious Targets
  • Within 3-5 years
  • Fostering 1000 More CMMI Level 3 Enterprises (300
    CMMI Level 5)
  • Attracting 100 MN companies to migrate their
    outsourcing business to China
  • Building up 10 National Training Bases for
    Outsourcing Professionals
  • Sponsored By Ministry of Commerce

37
The Base City of Service Outsourcing
  • China is planning to build 10 Base Cities of
    Service Outsourcing within 3-5 years
  • So far the Ministry of Commerce, Ministry of
    Information Industry and Ministry of Science
    Technology have announced 16 Base Cities of
    Service Outsourcing
  • They are Dalian, Shanghai, Xian, Shenzhen,
    Beijing, Chengdu, Tianjin, Guangzhou, Nanjing,
    Hangzhou, Wuhan, Jinan, Suzhou, Changsha, Hefei,
    Chongqing
  • More cities like joining in, such as Wuxi,
    Xiamen, Shenyang, Zhengzhou,
  • The China Development Bank will provide 5 billion
    loan support to base cities

38
2010 Target of Base Cities
39
Wuxis 123 Project
  • By the end of 2010, 100 international service
    outsourcing and software export enterprises will
    cluster in Wuxi, each of which has over 2,000
    employees and an annual export volume of over US
    30 million
  • Supporting Policies
  • Rent Reduction and Exemption the software export
    enterprise will be offered a leasehold office,
    the area of which can be figured as 10 m2 per
    employee. The corresponding rent will be
    exempted for the first year and half for the
    second and third years
  • Financial Subsidy the software export enterprise
    will be granted a lump-sum subsidy of RMB 5-10
    million yuan for the introduction and training of
    talents if it has over 500 employees and an
    annual export volume of more than US 3 million
  • Export Reward the software export enterprise
    will be rewarded RMB 10,000 yuan for every
    increase of US 50,000 in export over the
    previous year
  • Reward for Talents will get a 30 rebate of
    their individual income tax for five consecutive
    years

40
Continuous Support For International
Certifications
  • Chinese government has promised its continuous
    financial support for software enterprises to get
    international certifications in service
    outsourcing
  • Including
  • CMMI/CMM
  • PCMM
  • ISO27001/BS7799
  • ISO20000
  • SAS70

41
Software BenchmarkingIn China
- Towards Quantitative Management - Speak With
Data
42
CSSPI or China SPIN (CSPIN)
  • To further promote SPI in China, in February of
    2007 the China System Software Process
    Improvement Association (CSSPI) and the China
    SPIN (CSPIN) are established at Beijing
  • A chapter of the China Software Industry
    Association (CSIA) which has currently more 50
    enterprises members and 70,000 plus individual
    professional members in China
  • Their mission is to promote process and
    productivity improvement in software, hardware
    and modern services industries, creating values
    and influencing communities with a culture of
    open, learning, innovation
  • and pleasure

43
Main Activities CSSPI Focuses On
  • Software Benchmarking as an infrastructure of
    software industry
  • Salon/Forum Groups development Building
    Learning Organizations Sharing Best Practices
  • Hosting National Conferences (CSSPI Annual
    Conference since 2002, International Forum in
    Software Measurement)
  • Research on Industrial Statistics
  • Supervising and Urging Autonomy in Industries for
    Process Improvement
  • Industrial Action Planning for Process
    Improvement
  • Introducing and Spreading out New Methods,
    Technologies, Tools and Services
  • Edit and Publish Monthly Journal System
    Software Process Improvement
  • Manage and Maintain A Group of Websites
    (CSPIN?CSBSG?CSSPI?PKSPIN?and Portal for
    China-Japan-Korea SW Measurement Alliance)
  • Exploratory Studies in Benchmarking and
    Engineering in Modern Services etc.

44
China Software Benchmarking Standard Group
(CSBSG)
  • In benchmarking area, we have cooperated with the
    International Software Benchmarking Standard
    Group (ISBSG) and established the China Software
    Benchmarking Standard Group (CSBSG) as its member
    to increase the profile and utilization of
    software measurement, project estimation,
    benchmarking and functional size measurement in
    Greater China, as a core competency area within
    the China Software Process Improvement Network
    (CSPIN)
  • The mission of CSBSG is to promote more Chinese
    software enterprises joining the SPI projects and
    knowing how to apply process-based benchmarking
    for their quality improvement

45
Organizational Structure of CSBSG
46
CSBSG Functions
  • So far CSBSG has developed 356 users with quite
    different application domains and established
    cooperations with such international
    organizations, like ISBSG, IFPUG, SPR, Total
    Metrics, JFPUG and KOSMA etc.
  • We have developed a Common Benchmark Platform,
    standards, and the Benchmarking Database of
    Software Productivity which collected domestic
    benchmark data from
  • 538 projects with different area and
    application distribution as in figures below
  • In 2007 we released first time the report on
    Country Software Productivity Index

47
CSBSG Benchmarking Platform and Data Repository
  • The CSBSG benchmarking platform and data
    repository can provide following services to its
    users
  • Query single Project Delivery Rate, including
    productivity, quality, duration, efforts, project
    size and team size
  • Benchmarking your rate against similar industry
    projects
  • Comprehensive statistical analysis
  • Estimation
  • http//www.csbsg.org/

48
CSBSG Benchmarking Platform
49
Geographical Distribution of CSBSG Data
50
Domain Distribution of CSBSG Data
51
CSBSG Data Collections
  • Project Size
  • Development Effort
  • Project Duration
  • Productivity Analysis
  • Defect Density
  • Capability in Project Estimation

52
Productivity In Different Regions
53
Defect Density With Languages
54
Proper Value of Productivity
Statistical Table of Domestic Productivity
Loc/MM
?????????
55
Productivity Analysis Results
  • 1011 projects in total
  • Log (Effort) 0.576 0.714 Log (Size)
  • By Type
  • New Development
  • Log (Effort) - 1.001 0.839 Log (Size)
  • Secondary Development
  • Log (Effort) 0534 0755 Log (Size)
  • By Programming Language
  • C Log (Effort) 0.155 0.79 Log (Size)
  • C Log (Effort) 1.398 0.644 Log
    (Size)
  • Java Log (Effort) -0.324 0.806 Log
    (Size)

56
CSBSG Main Objectives Milestones
57
ESE Forum In CSSPI 2008
  • A Joint Event in CSSPI 2008 at NanJing, China,
    Co-Sponsored by Japanese and Chinese SE Experts
  • The Guest Experts From Japan Are
  • Prof. Katsuro Inoue, Osaka University
  • Prof. Kenichi Matsumoto, NAIST
  • Takahashi, SEC, Japan
  • They introduced the EASE project, STAGE project
    and Software Tags in Future Offshore Development
  • Potential Cooperation between two countries was
    discussed

58
Software Tag Model
Purchase order
Development data record
Delivery
Software developer
Software purchaser
Data collection
Feedback
Software Products
Attach
Empirical data
Extract Tag
Software Tag
59
CSSPI 2008 In China
  • 7th China System and Software Process Improvement
    Annual Meeting
  • DateSeptember 22th-24th, 2008
  • LocationNanjing
  • Branch Meeting Location Shanghai, Guangzhou,
    Wuxi
  • Steering Organizations Ministry of Information
    Industry, Ministry of Science and Technology,
    Peoples Government of Jiangsu Province

60
Talents Engineering-- From Process MaturityTo
People Maturity

61
Talents - The No. 1 Strategic Selection
  • Based on such essential cognition of that future
    economic competition is, in the end, the
    competence race of human resource, especially in
    the software professionals
  • High qualified human resource development has
    been listed as a national strategic task and an
    important measure for that
  • The CPC Political Bureau has put forward the
    state strategy Strengthen The Country By
    Talents in 2003. It calls for to better
    train and utilize talented professionals, and to
    foster a batch of high rank experts who are
    competent to the needs of socialist modernization
    and reformation and opening policy
  • Now there are common consensus in the whole
    country ST Is The First Productive
    Force and Talents Are The First Resource
  • In the State Next (11th) 5 years plan
    (2006-2010), a key issue has been listed is how
    to Construct the IT Talents Highland

62
Towards SE/IT Professionalism-- A New Target
  • To solve the HRD problem from the root, Shanghai
    has put forwarded a clear new target Marching
    towards SE/IT Professionalism
  • Although Chinas IT/SW industry is still in their
    infancy age, it is demanded to be mature more
    quickly
  • IT/SE professionalism has became a global trend
  • Its Better For Us To Go This Direction More
    Consciously Right Now Than an Enforced Adoption
    In The Future
  • Earlier awareness for that is favorable for us to
    implement a jump development and aim at a high
    standard at HRD

63
A Current Urgency Fostering Middle-Level
Senior Professionals
  • An Objective of State Strategy Strengthen The
    Country By Talents and A Must For implementing
    the Prospering Country By Science Technology
    and Education strategy
  • Decision of the Central Committee of the
    Communist Party of China and the State Council on
    further strengthening the talent work Stressed on
    Putting education and training of quality
    talents at a prominent strategic position while
    striving to build an innovative country with rich
    human resources
  • It Counts For Our Core Competence. They will be
    the Backbone of IT Talents, Directly Reflecting
    The Gold Content in the Knowledge Capital
  • There is a Serious Gap in Current Chinas IT
    Talents from both Quantity and Quality. Lack
    of Middle-Level Senior Professionals Causes a
    Bottleneck Restricting Our Development
  • Successful Informatization Requires Leaderships
    and Strong Technical Support. This is also a
    Basis for Innovation and Tracking Technology
    Development
  • This is also Essential For Developing A Sound
    Talents Structure
  • For Shanghai, There is No Alternative But To
    Develop High-End Talents

64
Framework For A Mature Professional
65
Elements Of A Mature Profession
  • Initial professional education SE Schools
  • Accreditation CCSE -gt SE2004
  • Skills Professional Development
  • Continuous Education System
  • Related BOKs SWEBOK, PMBOK,
  • Certification Licensing CSDP, PMP,
  • Professional societies IEEE-CS,ACM,SSIA
  • Code of Ethics SEEPP
  • Towards Professionalism, Also A Chance For
    Borrowing and Introducing Western Advanced
    Talents Training Models

66
Talents Training Plan ForImplementing
1000-100-10 Project
  • Ministry of Commerce Notice On Implementing the
    1000-100-10 Project 2006 No.556
  • Arrange Special Funding For Public Training of
    Service Outsourcing
  • Establish 10-15 training bases in the Base Cities
    of Service Outsourcing
  • Support For University Students to increase their
    knowledge and skills for service outsourcing,
    training 300-400K outsourcing professionals
    within 5 years and recruiting 200-300K
    undergraduates into outsourcing business
  • 15 of training fee for outsourcing can return
    from government funding
  • Build outsourcing information public service
    platforms

67
Role of BOK
Self Assessment
Body of Knowledge
Roles Career Development
Curriculum
Certification
68
Building A Solid Foundation
  • To build a complete framework for
    professionalism, we insist on our efforts
    starting from basic research on related bodies of
    knowledge (BOKs)
  • In recent three years, we have systematically
    collected, compiled and developed 127 BOKs within
    three domains
  • Software Engineering
  • Information Technology
  • New Product Development Innovation

69
A Comprehensive Survey
  • To response the state talents promotion projects
    and the new challenges in HRD, Shanghai has done
    a comprehensive survey on outsourcing training in
    the world to seek for best solutions of
    developing high-quality outsourcing professional
    urgently needed

70
Outsourcing Training In The World
71
BPO Certifications
72
Why Develop Our Own OPBOK
  • After doing a comprehensive survey on training
    models for outsourcing professionals, we found
    quite scattered solutions. Even each one has
    its merits and specific views, lack of unified
    framework is obvious problem
  • Many of them declared to be suitable for both
    clients and providers side, however, actually
    more clients-oriented after a careful examination
  • In view of these problem, we tried to integrate
    these existing models for assimilating the
    best of them
  • Now we have compiled a draft of OPBOK, which is
    provider-oriented and can be used in training of
    domestic outsourcing professionals
  • The design guideline behind the OPBOK is as
    follows

73
Insights Behind OPBOK
  • Outsourcing Is Technology/Knowledge Intensive Job
  • Outsourcing Is Service
  • Outsourcing Is Business
  • Outsourcing Is Management Practice
  • Outsourcing Focuses on People Factor
  • Outsourcing Is a global activity with new
    challenges
  • Based on these recognition, we follow the
    framework of CMUs eSCM model to re-organize the
    OPBOK into five management, which avoid overlaps
    appeared in many existing models
  • The new OPBOK integrates all merits of existing
    models and provides a good basis to match with
    them

74
OPBOK Five Management
  • Business Management
  • People Management
  • Technology/Knowledge Management
  • Global Project Management
  • Service/Operation Management

75
A New Starting Point
  • Even it is still a draft to be further refined,
    we can consider it as a starting point towards a
    perfect OP training schema
  • We are determined to make a real contribution to
    training business of outsourcing professionals
  • After seeking comments and finalizing the
    manuscript, we will develop related training
    materials ASAP based on our OPBOK

76
A Proposal For Developing SPIBOK
  • To improve the SPI awareness and foster much more
    high maturity SPI professionals urgently needed
    by implementing 1000-100-10 project, a proposal
    for developing the Body of Knowledge for Process
    Engineers has been put forward in the CSSPI/CSPIN
    and a task force has been formulated then
  • The SPI BOK will be built as a basis for
    developing future SPI training and talent
    qualification program
  • To meet this new challenge, international
    collaborations are highly expected

77
IISPs SPIBOK
  • Core Knowledge Areas (CKAs)
  • Defining and Documenting Software Processes
  • Measuring Software Processes
  • Evaluating Software Process Capability and
    Effectiveness
  • Planning and Managing an SPI Program and
    SPI Projects
  • Implementing Software Process Change
  • Survey of Software Engineering Topics
  • Survey of Quality Assurance and Testing
    Topics
  • Application Knowledge Areas (AKAs)
  • Requirement Engineering and Management
  • Software Development, Integration, Release,
    and Support
  • Configuration Management
  • Project Management and Planning
  • Risk Management
  • Verification and Validation Methods
  • Agile Software Development Methods
  • Software Quality Assurance
  • Balanced Scorecard
  • Software Measurement Analysis

78
Introducing IEEE CSDP Program
  • As a key step toward this direction, the SSIA has
    cooperated with IEEE Computer Society to jointly
    introduce the CSDP program into China
  • IEEE-CS CSDP is a high-standard international
    training/certificate program for SE professionals
    (Qualified SW Engineers), which is based on
    SWEBOK PMBOK and neutral to any specific company

79
Qualified Training Center By IEEE
  • CSDP/SWEBOK-Based SE training materials,
    developed by the ASTI Shanghai, have been passed
    the review by the IEEE International Training
    Committee for Review and thus, ASTI Shanghai has
    been recognized as a qualified training center
    (1st in China and 4th in the world)
  • It will remarkably reduce the local training cost
    for nationwide spreading out
  • See http//www.computer.org/certification/CEP
    roviders.htm http//www.computer.org/certificatio
    n/CEProviders.htmASTI

80
UMTP International UML Modeling Skill
Certification
81
Main Members of UMTP Japan
  • NRI
  • NTT Data
  • NTT Comware,
  • ITEC
  • Technologic Arts
  • CATS
  • Toyo Tecnica
  • Suntory
  • Sunmore Tech
  • CBOP
  • OGIS-RI
  • IBM Japan
  • Rational Software
  • Japan
  • Hitachi
  • Fujitsu
  • NEC
  • Toshiba
  • Unisys Japan
  • ORACL Japan

82
UML As Key Option In Future Offshore
Development For Japan
  • UMTP Japan has released the UML Application
    Guideline for Offshore Development Version 1.0 in
    May of 2007

??????? ??UML?? ?????? Ver1.0
83
ISTQB/ISEB Certificate For International
Test Professionals
CSTQB Established at Shanghai in Feb of 2007
84
ISO/IEC 15504 Certified Assessor

85
Constructing IT Talents Public Information
Platform- Modern Knowledge Services
86
Constructing Outsourcing Public Service Platforms
  • In September of 2007, the Project of the National
    SW IT Outsourcing Public Supporting Platform
    was initialed officially
  • The whole system consists of two levels the
    State and Local level
  • The State platform is sponsored by the MII
    Software and Integrated Circuit Promotion Center
  • http//www.china-sourcing.org.cn
  • The Local platforms are being constructed
    respectively by 10 State Outsourcing Base Cites,
    including Shanghai, Xian, Dalian, Shenzhen,
    Tianjin, Chengdu, Beijing, Nanjing, Hangzhou and
    Wuhan
  • All platforms were scheduled to be released by
    the end of 2008

87
Supporting Environment ForOutsourcing Talent
Engineering
  • Based on core SE BOKs collected and developed,
    the Public Service Platform proposed can provide
    the following valuable knowledge service
    functions
  • A SE/IT Technology Transfer Center for promotion
    and dissemination of advanced technologies
  • A Learning Paradise for IT Talents on The
    Cyberspace, Providing One-Stop service for
    learning materials
  • An e-Learning Center with lower cost and
    time/space constraints
  • A New Generation On-The-Job Learning Platform,
    help building collaborative Communities of
    Practice (COPs)
  • It would be a comprehensive platform for
    knowledge services, a major step towards
    developing the Modern Knowledge Service Industry

88
Technology Transfer Center
  • In 2002, we have developed a technology resource
    website IT Source as an IT technology transfer
    center in China. Due to its rich contents with
    25000 URLs, it has became one of the most
    attractive IT websites in China with hit rate of
    more than 8 million and 40K standing members, and
    also naturally to be a famous brand for our
    future business
  • In view of its value, the website has got
    financial support from Shanghai Economic
    Commission and Shanghai Informatization
    Commission
  • A Golden Award Winner of Excellent Projects at
    13th National Spark Cup Innovation Competition
  • To keep a wide scope of clients, we will
    continuously remain and expand our original
    services of the public good to attract more
    eyeballs

89
A New Contents Expansion Planof Our IT Source
Website
  • Recently we have finished a content expansion
    plan of our IT Source website to attract more
    Eyeballs
  • The new design idea of the website has been
    elevated from original Technology Transfer
    Center to the Learning Paradise of IT Talents
  • 11 special columns have been developed for key
    professional jobs that urgently needed
  • All of them are based on related BOKs and
    International Certifications to ensure contents
    integrity and high standard
  • Total resource volume expanded exceeds 33000
    URLs, 132 of original
  • We will publish the underline BOKs to help
    learners reducing the learn curve further and
    attract more eyeballs

90
Eleven Professional Columns-- A Learning
Paradise For IT Talents
  • SE Domain
  • Software Architecture CMU/SEI, iSQI
  • Requirements Engineering iSQI
  • Project Management Agile/Global PM PMI
  • Software Testing ISTQB,
    QAI, IIST
  • GSE/GSD IAOP
  • CSDP, SWEBOK IEEE-CS, ACM
  • IT Domain
  • ITSM/ITIL
    ISEB, EXIN
  • Information Security CISSP, GIAC
  • Innovation Domain
  • New Product Development PDMA
  • Innovation Methods Altshuller
    Institute
  • Knowledge Management KMPro, KMI, GKEC

91
The e-Learning Center
  • A low cost and easily accessible learning
    environment
  • 5A Services -- Anytime, Anyplace, Any Topic,
    Anyway, Any Pace
  • From one-way traditional training industry to
    two-way learning industry
  • Based on the 665MB and 31700 .ppt pages of
    training materials developed by us in recent
    years An Existing Valuable Knowledge Asset

92
Training Materials Developed
  • CSDP/SWEBOK Based SE Training Materials
  • 60 hours, 18MB, 1751 .ppt
    Pages
  • SE Emerging Technologies/Directions
  • 160 hours, 92.5MB, 4062
    .ppt Pages
  • SE Practices
  • 525 hours, 232MB, 13508
    .ppt pages
  • Advanced Courses In IT
  • 152 hours,302MB,9170 .ppt
    pages
  • IT Tutorials 60 hours, 68MB, 1857 .ppt
    pages
  • Innovation Series 178 hours, 84MB 4924 .ppt
    pages
  • New Product Development (Published)
  • CTO Training (Published partially)
  • 29.735MB 1982 .ppt
    Pages
  • In Total 855 MB 40224 .ppt pages
  •  

93
A Work Support Platform For Talents
  • Provide On-The-Job Learning/Job Embedded
    Learning/ Contextual Learning, a more
    interesting and valuable learning platform a
    new direction of next-generation learning
    environment
  • Learn while working/learn by doing, learn for
    better job Provide Performance Support
  • Learning for Use, Use after Learning. For
    veterans, review what has been learned and learn
    something new. For new comers, a new model for
    internship. A high-motivation learning helps
    much deeper grasp
  • It seems that a teacher, expert, master or
    knowledge base always accompanying you, providing
    online and real-time assistance
  • A new best selling point for our business

94
LP Development Process
Resources Library
Cyberspace
Learning Platform
Learner
LP Generator
KM Directory Editing
Experts
BOK Compilation
95
A Workbench With 3 Links To CoP
  • Domain BOK Development A Link To Leading
    Experts In CoP
  • Knowledge Resource Collection A Link To
    Worldwide Experienced CoP Members
  • The Learners Forum With Idea and Experience
    Exchange A Physical Link To Active CoP Members

96
Outcomes Shared Learnings that Change Practice
  • What I gained most was the chance to
    collaborate. It was a dream come true for me.

97
What We are Doing Now At Shanghai
  • The Shanghai Software Industry Association (SSIA)
    has performed a systematic study and survey with
    SW enterprises to identify the key professional
    jobs/occupations urgently needed in current
    software industry
  • It specified the role and responsibilities of
    each specific job as well as its associated Body
    of Knowledge (BOKs) which as a basis and criteria
    for high quality professional training and
    education
  • About 21 main jobs/Occupations are identified so
    far

98
Key Jobs Identified SE CoPs
  • Project Manager
  • Software Architect
  • Requirements Engineers/System Analyst
  • Software Designer
  • Software Engineer/CSDP
  • Programmer
  • Software Test Professional
  • Software QA Professional
  • SPI Professional
  • Software Integration Engineer
  • SCM Professional
  • System Maintenance Engineer
  • Software Asset Management
  • Outsourcing Service Manager
  • Software Modeling Professional
  • Digital Media Developer
  • Software Measurement Specialist
  • Embedded Development
  • CTO For Software

99
15 Key Jobs Identified For IT Professionals
  • CIO
  • Business Analyst
  • E-Business
  • Data/Information Management
  • Information Architect
  • Application Integration
  • Business Process Monitoring
  • Information Services Support
  • Information Security
  • IT Project Manager
  • IT Engineer
  • Application Developer
  • System Network Administration
  • Digital Media Design
  • E-Government
  • 15 BOKs 1029 Pages 9.1 M
    Bytes

100
Main Features of Our Platform Design- What Make
Us Different
  • An Unique Talent Engineering Framework aiming at
    Professionalism and Internationalism
  • A Totally Knowledge Service Platform
  • OPBOK-Based Training Base for Outsourcing
    Professionals
  • An Outsourcing Information Resources Platform
  • A Supporting Environment for Software Innovation
  • An Open Source Software Resource Platform
  • (gt 6,200 URLs, 6.7 MB)

101
Conclusion
  • From Process Maturity To People Maturity We are
    seeking for new breakthrough in outsourcing
    business
  • A major objective is to improve our capability in
    global development and delivery
  • We need to make unremitting efforts during
    scaling the top peak

102
Towards Innovation-Oriented Country
103
A New Strategic Objective
  • In January of 2006, Chinese President Jintao Hu
    outlined major strategic tasks for building an
    innovation-oriented country by 2020 at a national
    conference on science and technology
  • China will embark on a new path of innovation
    with Chinese characteristics
  • The core of which is to adhere to innovation,
    seek leapfrog development in key areas, make
    breakthroughs in key technologies and common
    technologies to meet urgent requirements in
    realizing sustained and coordinated economic and
    social development

104
Reasons behind adoption of the innovation
strategy
  • Need to create an innovation-oriented country
  • Need to maintain long-term and rapid economic
    growth
  • Need to realize sustainable development
  • Need to upgrade industrial structure and
    transform the mode of growth, from resource and
    labor-driven to innovation-driven economy
  • Improvement of competitiveness

105
Indigenous Innovation New National Strategy I.
  • The Outline of National Medium- and Long-term
    Science and Technology Development Plan
    (2006-2020)
  • Promulgated in January 2006 in China
  • Initiated in July 2003
  • Its formulation work was headed by Premier Wen
    Jiabao
  • Over 20 ministries and departments and more than
    2000 experts involved in formulation of the
    Outline
  • Focus on the fields of equipment manufacturing
    and information industry, the agricultural
    science, the energy exploration and saving, the
    recycling economy and environment and etc.

106
Main Goals
  • By 2020, China will be one of the
    innovation-oriented countries
  • RD investment is 2.5 of GDP
  • Contribution rate of science technology
    progress to economic growth will exceed 60 (900
    billion RMB)
  • Dependency ratio for foreign technologies will
    decrease to below 30
  • Annual number of granted domestic invention
    patents and SCI papers will rank among world top
    5
  • A quite concrete plan, identifying 11 key
    domains, 68 precedence topics, 27 leading-edge
    techniques, 18 basin science issues and 4 major
    scientific research projects for development

107
National Strategies and Policies for Innovation
  • Building indigenous innovative capacity
    includes three aspects
  • Capacity to make original innovation in the
    domain of basic research such as scientific
    discovery, and technological inventions
  • Capacity to integrate existing technology,
    emerging technology and inventions in order to
    create new products or business lines with market
    competitiveness
  • Capacity to absorb, digest and improve imported
    technologies, and to re-create IPR based on these
    technologies

108
.
National Strategies and Policies for Innovation
  • Indigenous innovation is
  • By no means designed to close the door but rather
    to expand greater and deeper level of exchange
    and cooperation in the
  • field of science and technology with other
    countries
  • Chinas innovation strategy is global-innovation
    or learning innovation

109
The 11th Five Year Plan for Constructing State
Basic Capability in Independent Innovation
  • The construction objectives in this plan include
  • 12 major projects for ST Infrastructure
  • About 30 State Scientific Centers/Laboratories
  • About 300 National Key Labs
  • 100 National Engineering Labs
  • About 100 State Engineering Centers and 300
    Technology Centers
  • Develop the Public Platform for knowledge
    Innovation Engineering and ST Infrastructure

110
State Program On Graduate Study Abroad by Public
Expense For Developing World Class Universities
  • The key issue in constructing world class
    universities is how to develop high quality
    teachers and innovative talents
  • A main measure in fostering top-notch innovative
    talents is proposed in China is to select
    first-class students, send them to overseas
    first-class majors and universities, and accept
    the guidance from first-class scholarship
  • In 2007 total 3,952 students was selected and
    sent to abroad and more 5,000 are planned in 2008
  • The majors cover all key domains concerned
    currently
  • As the plan is supported by public finance, it
    can be executed as planned. The only issue is
    how ensure the quality in selection (Candidate,
    Major, University and Scholarship)

111
The State Projects on Innovation Pilot Zone For
Talents Education Model
  • This is a state-level program initialed by the
    Ministry of Education and Ministry of Finance
  • Its purpose is to encourage and support
    comprehensive reform in talents education models,
    explore innovative teaching ideas and
    administrative models for creating new education
    system of innovative talents
  • It is planned to develop 500 pilot zones in the
    period from 2007 to 2010
  • In 2007 there are 300 pilot zones from 200
    universities get approved. Each pilot project
    can get RMB 500K financial subsidy
  • This program is expected to drive many new ideas
    and proposals on improved education models 

112
Cheung Kong Scholars Programme
  • The Cheung Kong Scholars Programme was jointly
    established by China's Ministry of Education and
    Mr. Li Ka-shing
  • Its main objective is to further improve China's
    standard of education and intellectual
    competitiveness through the training of the
    country's best and brightest young minds
  • The application and selection process takes place
    twice a year, and the professors receive a
    special stipend of RMB 100,000 in addition to the
    regular remuneration package offered by the
    university
  • Professors who achieve outstanding academic
    distinction or make a commendable contribution
    have a chance to win the annual Cheung Kong
    Achievement Award, whose highest prize is RMB 1
    million
  • Since the programme's inception in August 1998,
    over 700 professors and over 200 lecturers have
    been appointed and three distinguished professors
    have won the Cheung Kong Achievement Award

113
State 653 ProjectOn Knowledge Renewal
Engineering
For 6 Years In 5 Domains 3 Million Trainees
114
Knowledge Innovation Program (KIP) in Chinese
Academy of Sciences (CAS)
  • CAS acts as a central role in Chinas scientific
    research and innovation
  • The KIP program initialed since 1998 with a quite
    long history and has demonstrated a significant
    progress
  • While China is entering its new stage of
    constructing Innovation-Oriented Country. The
    KIP will have its new meaning and roles
  • The key challenge is how to develop the
    capability of independent innovation demanded by
    the States MLP As a response, the KIP has
    established a 110 strategy, in which
    activities of its research institutes will be
    linked to 10 mission objectives and a commitment
    to interdisciplinary basic research in frontier
    areas

115
The 863 Program
  • The National High-tech RD Program (863 Program)
    was initiated by 4 Chinese Scientists and
    personally approved by the late Chinese leader
    Mr. DENG Xiaoping in 1986
  • The Program covers 20 subject topics selected
    from eight priority areas Biotechnology,
    Information, Automation, Energy, Advanced
    Materials, Marine, Space and Laser
  • The program has boosted Chinas overall high-tech
    development, RD capacity, socio-economic
    development, and national security

116
The 973 Program
  • The National Basic Research Program (also called
    973 Program) is China's on-going national
    keystone basic research program, which was
    approved by the Chinese government in June 1997
    and is organized and implemented by the Ministry
    of Science and Technology
  • The Program has gathered together strong
    expertise to launch innovation studies of major
    scientific issues relating to sustainable
    development such as agriculture, energy,
    information, resources and environment,
    population and health and materials in line with
    the national goals and tasks for the economic,
    social and ST development by 2010-2050

117
Examples of 973 IT Projects
  • New generation compound semiconductor electronic
    device and circuit
  • Research on Theory and Methodology of Agent-based
    Middleware on Internet Platform
  • Fundamental Theory, Algorithms of Virtual Reality
    and Its Implementation
  • Theory and Method for Real-time Intelligent
    Control and Optimization of Complex Production
    Manufacturing Process
  • Research on Future Internet Architecture
  • Fundamental Theory, Model and Method on Semantic
    Grid
  • Mathematics Mechanization and Its Applications in
    Information Technology
  • Digital Contents Understanding

118
The 11th Five Year Plan and 2020 MLP for ST
Development of Information Industry
  • This plan focuses on independent innovation and
    development of core competence, aiming at
    creating an innovation system with following
    features
  • Centered on Enterprises
  • Guided by Market
  • Taking Applications as Mainline
  • Integrated with government, industry,
    universities, research institutes and capital
  • The final achievements will be
  • Mastering a set of key techniques and owning a
    set of core patents and standards
  • The plan identified 15 key technological domains
    and 13 major projects for development
  • Eight key measures have been proposed to
    guarantee the achievement of this goal

119
How Implement Software Innovation From MOST
  • Transform current development line mainly based
    on imitation, tracking and application products
    into new strategy aiming at Leading-edge
    breakthrough, Market-driven and Organizational
    innovation
  • The Innovation of Software Technologies will be
    strengthened by five ways
  • Enhancing the strategic study on software
    innovation and industrial development, drawing up
    the technological roadmap of software industry
    for upgrading
  • Guided by market resources and oriented to key
    industrial applications
  • Put heavy research investment on leading-edge
    technologies and development of basic software
  • Promote management innovation, improve and
    perfect the development environment of software
    technology and industrialization
  • Actively promote talents strategy and strengthen
    construction of innovative software professionals

120
Huawei -- A Sample Model of Chinese Innovative
Enterprise
  • Huawei is a symbol of The Waked Chinese
    Sleeping Lion which heads for its success
    totally through its independent innovation
  • When it established in 1988 only with RMB 20K
    registered capital, however, now it has became an
    industrial giant in hi-tech domain with 40,000
    employees and revenue of USD 16.0 billion
    (2007), among which 72 came form overseas market
  • Huawei insists on higher RD investment for long
    years (10 of total sale incomes) and has 19,000
    technicians being involved in various RD
    activities working in 12 research institutes all
    over the world
  • By the end of 2007, Huawei has joined in 83
    international standard organizations
  • The total patent applications has exceeded 26,880
    (4,256 authorized patents)
  • The PCT International Patent applications has
    reached 1365 by 2007 and listed as fourth
    position in the world, merely behind Panasonic,
    Philips and Siemens

121
Guidance and Goals of IP Business in Beijing
During 11th Five Year Plan
  • Goals By 2010
  • IP fuses into Capitals economic development and
    gives full play in increasing citys competence
  • Relying on core IP zones, improve capability in
    IP creation and transformation
  • Build effective IP protection mechanism
  • Establish complete IP management and Intermediary
    Service system
  • Fostering and introducing a set of IP
  • Professionals

122
Guidance and Goals of IP Business in Beijing
During 11th Five Year Plan
  • Quantitative Targets
  • By 2010, Patent applications 1800 per million
    people (among which 1200 patents for invention)
  • Authorized patents 800 per million (among which
    500 patents for invention)
  • Total registered trademark 150,000, Well-known
    trademark 50, Famous trademark 500
  • 100 senior IP professionals proficient in IP laws
    and regulations and familiar with international
    rules, 1000 high quality IP administrative
    professionals, and 10,000 professionals for
    various IP services
  • Fostering 300 demonstrative enterprises for
    patent implementation
  • Fostering with priority 20-30 enterprises with
    own IP rights

123
Development Planning of Z-Park
  • This is a typical development plan of hi-tech
    industrial park In China
  • Zhongguancun, a famous Chinas Silicon valley,
    has composed a very successful story with its
    right market positioning, effective resource and
    opportunities utilization, and innovative
    development strategy
  • While marching a new stage, the Z-Park will
    continuously extend its success in developing
    hi-tech industry. The Z-Park now stands on a
    new jumping off point

124
Development Planning of Z-Park During the 11th
Five Year Plan
  • The Z-Park has put forward a Four-In-One
    strategy and goals for further development.
    They are
  • To be a main body for promoting technological
    progress and independent innovation
  • To be a strong engine for adjustment of regional
    industrial structure and transformation of
    forestry economic growth pattern
  • To be a service platform to help hi-tech
    enterprises participating in global competition
  • To be a front position to occupy the commanding
    elevation of world high-tech industries

125
Development Planning of Z-Park During the 11th
Five Year Plan
  • To do that, a 245 Implementation project has
    been proposed
  • 2 Construct and perfect two systems, i.e.
    Technical Innovation System and Enterprising
    Service System
  • 4 Push and deepen four systematic innovations
    i.e. Investment and Financing System, Credit
    System, IP Creating, Using and Protecting System,
    Talent Training, Attracting and Using System
  • 5 Focus and support five batches i.e. a batch
    of important industrial development, a batch of
    core technical breakthroughs, a batch of
    important innovation project settlements, a batch
    of famous corporation establishments, and a
    batch of industrial base constructions

126
Choosing Leading People By DomainThrough Public
Appraisals
  • To promote development of senior professionals
    and outstanding domain leaders, many Chinese
    cities/provinces have carried out the program of
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