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WORKING MEMORY CAPACITY

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Title: WORKING MEMORY CAPACITY


1
ADVANCED APPLIED EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY PSYC
451 / APSY 610 Dean Owen Introduction contd
22 July 2005
2
APPLICATION - THEORY CYCLE
EXPOSE
APPLIED PROBLEMS
THEORIES
PROPOSE
3
THREE CATEGORIES OF RESEARCH
THEORY DRIVEN
PRINCIPLE DRIVEN
PROBLEM DRIVEN
BASIC RESEARCH
APPLICABLE RESEARCH
APPLIED RESEARCH
LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS
SIMULATION EXPERIMENTS
REAL-WORLD EXPERIMENTS
4
Vicente, 1994
5
MAJOR PROBLEMS OF THE 21ST CENTURY
6
TAKE THE BUS AND LEAVE THE DRIVING TO US
  • A bus carrying families home to north-eastern
    Brazil plunged off a cliff, killing 22 people and
    injuring 43.
  • The bus failed to negotiate a sharp curve, went
    off the highway and fell 40m.
  • Seven children were among the dead.

7
TAKE THE BUS contd
  • Fifteen Iraqi pilgrims were killed and 25 injured
    when a bus taking them on a tour of Shite Muslim
    sites in Iran slid off the road and hit an
    electricity pylon.
  • The crash occurred in the mountainous west of the
    country.
  • Ten of those killed died from electrocution.

8
TAKE THE BUS contd
  • A speeding bus in Bangladesh lost control and
    crashed into a tree killing at least 11 people
    and injuring 25.
  • About 5000 people are killed in road accidents in
    Bangladesh every year due to faulty vehicles, lax
    traffic rules, unskilled drivers, and poor road
    conditions. The Press 18
    December 2003

9
A CRITICS OPINION
  • Sadly, psychologists are notoriously gullible.
  • Psychology is not a science.
  • It has no agreed theoretical foundation and after
    a century of floundering around has failed to
    come up with any general theory of human
    behaviour.
  • The differences between schools of psychology are
    not about detail, they are about
    fundamentals. contd

10
A CRITICS OPINION contd
  • Nor does psychology grow.
  • While physical sciences constantly refine and
    expand their understanding of the world,
    psychology is swept by new ideas which wipe out
    everything that went before.
  • Nor is psychology of much practical value.
    Bernard Robertson
    Editor of The New Zealand Law Journal

11
PSYCHOLOGYS STRENGTHS
  • Psychologists bring important strengths to an
    interdisciplinary science of human-environment
    interactions.
  • Substantively, psychology is the pre-eminent
    science for understanding behavior at the
    individual level. contd

12
PSYCHOLOGYS STRENGTHS contd
  • It is uniquely positioned for replacing
    unexamined beliefs about human behavior with
    findings based on solid empirical analysis.
  • Methodologically, it is the strongest of the
    human sciences in the use of experimentation and
    thus is in the best position to clarify issues of
    cause and effect. Stern, 2000

13
HOW TO SAVE THE WORLD
  • The notion of affordance is the crucial key to
    ergonomic designs for the coming century.
  • The reason is the need to coerce desired
    behaviour whether or not people intend it.
  • Systems with strong affordances coerce people
    without their realizing It.
  • Moray,1995

14
TRANSPORTABILITY
  • There is a persistent rumour that the new
    armoured vehicle will not fit into a C130
    aircraft without removing its turret.
  • All that is necessary to load the vehicle onto
    the aircraft are a few simple tasks including
    folding back mirrors, removing storage racks and
    antennae and lowering the suspension
    approximately 10 minutes of work in all.
  • Their air transportability by our C130 Hercules
    was a condition of contract. Mark
    Burton Minister of Defence

15
MULTI-FUNCTION TECHNOLOGY
  • A British-based firm is selling the AK-MP3
    music player, built into the ammunition clip of a
    Kalashnikov.
  • It can be swapped with the magazine carrying
    bullets and inserted into the weapon.
  • It has enough storage space to hold 3,000 audio
    books or 9,000 songs.
  • Cost of MP3 accessory NZ544
  • With hundreds of books NZ1,088
  • Cost of a Kalashnikov NZ1,007

16
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17
COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS
  • IT TAKES 13.4 LONGER TO READ TEXT PASSAGES IN
    ALL UPPER CASE THAN IN ALL LOWER CASE.
  • It takes 13.4 longer to read text passages in
    all upper case than in all lower case.
  • Tinker Paterson, 1932

18
COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS
  • Gregory, M., Poulson, E. C. (1970). Even
    versus uneven right-hand margins and the rate of
    comprehension in reading. Ergonomics, 13, 427-434.

19
  • The promise of cognitive psychology lies in the
    progress of cognitive technology.
  • The International Journal
  • of Cognitive Technology
  • And cognition supported by technology may be
    different from unaided cognition.

20
WAY-FINDING AIDS
  • Silver ferns turned over on path to find ones
    way back by the reflected moonlight.
  • A ball of string unrolled during exploration of
    a cave, to be followed back out.

21
WAY-FINDING AID
22
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23
SIGNAGE AMBIGUITY
  • Psychologist Aidan Moran, of Dublins University
    College, discovered that many signs on Irish
    roads were not conveying the intended
    information.
  • Road users were questioned about a sign showing a
    skidding car and a running figure, aimed at
    warning of the dangers of speeding through
    residential areas.
  • Of those questioned, 6 interpreted the sign as
    urging drivers to watch out for joggers.

24
SIGNAGE SPECIFICITY
25
RECIPROCITY OF HUMAN TECHNOLOGY
  • The relationship between the human and technology
    is reciprocal
  • The human has always been influenced by
    technology, and
  • the human influences that technology by imposing
    certain requirements and constraints on how the
    technology is created.
    contd

26
RECIPROCITY contd
  • The physical form of the human dictates some
    aspects of the technology (e.g., the shape of the
    arm and the hand had to be taken into account
    when designing the rifle), and
  • the humans cognitive (e.g., creative)
    capabilities determine what new computerized
    technology will be developed.
  • We have postulated that the human-technology
    relationship is the essence of human
    factors. Meister Enderwick, 2002

27
RECIPROCITY OF UNCERTAINTY INFORMATION
  • Information indexes a relation between a
    psychological state of an individual and an event
    in the environment.
  • Uncertainty is a property of an individual
    taken with reference to the information required
    to support the performance of the task.
  • Information is a property of the environment
    taken with reference to the uncertainty generated
    in the performance of a task.

28
WORKING MEMORY CAPACITY
  • Many failures to develop a solution plan are
    caused by limitations of working memory.
  • That is, often a long sequence of action
    packets must be composed into a plan.
  • Then a cognitive simulation must be carried out
    to evaluate the plan.
  • This process frequently involves too many bits
    of information to be handled in working
    memory. Wickens, Gordon, Liu, 1998

29
CONSTRAINTS
  • The lift memory can only hold 3 floors at one
    time.
  • A goldfish has a memory span of three seconds.

30
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
  • With the cannabis-growing season well under way,
    police have asked bush users who stumble across
    any plots to log them on their GPS (global
    positioning system) devices and send the
    co-ordinates to police.
  • Detective Sergeant Dave Beattie, of Taupo police,
    said cannabis plots were sometimes booby-trapped.
  • Do not enter the plot, simply log your position
    on the GPS and move on.

31
DEVICES THAT REMIND
  • Memory can be aided by devices
  • String tied on finger
  • Post-it
  • Checklist
  • Diary
  • Personal data assistant

32
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33
DEVICES THAT REMIND
  • Memory can be aided by devices
  • String tied on finger
  • Post-it
  • Checklist
  • Diary
  • Personal data assistant

34
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35
DEVICES THAT REMIND
  • Memory can be aided by devices
  • String tied on finger
  • Post-it
  • Checklist
  • Diary
  • Personal data assistant
  • Speed bugs

36
A device that reminds Speed bugs indicate
critical air speeds for takeoff landing.
37
Violating the clockwise standard
38
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39
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40
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41
FATAL ROAD RAGE
  • A man who held up traffic when he was dropped off
    at an intersection in Melbourne has been stabbed
    to death in a road rage attack.
  • The victim suffered a single, fatal knife wound
    when he leant in the car window of an irate
    driver with whom he remonstrated when the driver
    sounded his horn.
  • Given the society we live in, its a thing that
    people do, arm themselves. Its a fact of life,
    said homicide detective Senior Sergeant Charlie
    Bezzina.

42
THE SYSTEMS APPROACH
  • Aggressive driving is a syndrome of
    frustration-driven behaviours, enabled by the
    drivers environment.
  • Exclusive focus on characteristics of the
    aggressive drivers and how to control them is
    short-sighted.
  • Specific aggressive behaviours such as honking
    and running red lights are associated with
    actual delays in travel, and congestion.
  • Ergonomics-oriented approaches that involve
    environmental modifications are needed.

    Shinar, 1998

43
The system
Territoriality in motion!
44
DIVIDE CONQUER APPLIED TO DYSLEXIA
  • Reading requires your brain to rejigger its
    visual and speech processors so that artificial
    markings become linked to the sounds they
    represent.
  • When you see the written word cat, your brain
    must hear the constituent phonemes and associate
    the result with an animal that purrs.
    contd

45
Dyslexic? Blame it on the brain.
  • Dyslexia is a flaw of biology specifically of
    the brain a glitch in the neurological wiring
    that makes reading extremely difficult.
  • Up to 1 in 5 kids may not be wired to
    read. TIME, 28 July 2003

46
A systems approach
47
LEARNING IS BRAIN CHANGE
  • Focused instruction can help jump start the
    brains of dyslexic children.
  • With appropriate intervention early on, much of
    the dyslexia can be eliminated.
  • Specialised training exercises can activate
    circuits in the brains of children with dyslexia
    that match those used by normal readers.
  • Virginia Berninger, educational psychologist
    Centre of Human Development and
    Disability University of Washington

48
GRAPHEMES VS PHONEMES
  • New Zealand anti-war protest
  • One, two, three, four,
  • We dont want your dirty war.
  • New Zealand anti-apartheid protest
  • One, two, three, four,
  • We dont want your Springbok tour.

49
WRESTLING WITH GRAPHEMES
  • A sign of dyslexia in a preschooler is that they
    may have trouble learning the alphabet.
  • Signs of dyslexia in kindergarten to the fourth
    year of primary school are reading and spelling
    errors such as
  • letter reversals d for b in dog and bog,
    and
  • letter inversions m for w, u for
    n. Earl Lane, The Press, 2 March 2004

50
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51
  • b

52
  • p

53
  • b

54
  • p

55
  • ?

56
  • ?

57
  • ?

58
  • ?

59
Dyslexic? Blame it on the written word.
  • English is notoriously irregular.
  • For example, if tongue is pronounced tung, why
    isnt argue pronounced arg?
  • And if enough is enuff, why isnt bough
    pronounced buff? contd

60
DYSLEXIA contd
  • Scientists compared the reading ability of
    dyslexics from Britain, France and Italy and
    found that Italian dyslexics read far better than
    their French and English counterparts.
  • The difference is not in the languages
    themselves, it is in their writing
    systems. contd

61
DYSLEXIA contd
  • English has 1,120 different ways of spelling its
    40 phonemes.
  • Italian needs only 33 combinations of letters to
    spell out its 25 phonemes.
  • Many Italian dyslexics are not even aware they
    have a problem and would notice it only if
    given a battery of psychological
    tests. TIME, 26 March 2001

62
SUBJECTIVE MEASUREMENT
  • On the basis of the 2002-2003 Health Survey, Id
    dump the entire health budget into psychological
    medicine.
  • Why? Because despite over 90 of us saying
    were in good or excellent health, the survey
    also found that
  • half of us are overweight (with 20 classified
    as obese),
  • one in five of us are addicted to nicotine,
  • one in seven of us are dopeheads,
    contd

63
SUBJECTIVE MEASUREMENT contd
  • one in six of us engage in hazardous drinking
    habits,
  • one in five adults over 45 years has heart
    disease,
  • the same proportion have asthma,
  • one in three has a back problem, and
  • one in twelve has diabetes.
  • We are so removed from reality, we have utterly
    lost the ability to separate fact from
    fiction. Michael Laws

64
  • END
  • 22-7-05
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