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Forage crops3233

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New tiller development is suppressed. Stem of those inflorescence buds elongate rapidly ... ??????? (Viability) ??????????? (Germination rate) Tetrazolium test ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Forage crops3233


1
????????????? Forage crops3(2-3-3)
  • ?????????? Feed
  • Concentrate
  • Roughage
  • ????????????? Feed for ruminants Roughage
    Forage crops
  • ??????????????????????????????????????? 2
    ????????????
  • ???????????????????? (Tropical forage crops)
  • ?????????????????????? ??????????? (Temperate
    forage crops)

2
???????????????????????????
  • ??????????????
  • ?????????????????????? ?????????????????
  • ????????????????????????????????????????????????

3
????????????? ???????????????? ?
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????? ?????????????????????
    ????????????????????? ????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????? ??????????????
    ???????????????????????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????? (Photosynthesis) ???????????
    (Respiration)

4
Photosynthetic pathway of C 3
CO2
epidermis
Stomata
Intercellular space
Rubisco
ATP
RuDP
Chloroplast in Photosynthetic cell
PGA
CH2O
ATP NADPH
CALVIN - BENSON cycle
5
Photosynthetic pathway of C 4
CO2
epidermis
Stomata
Rubisco
Intercellular space
Mesophyll
OAA
PEP
pyruvate
CO2
RuDP
ATP
Chloroplast in bundle sheath
PGA
CH2O
ATP NADPH
CALVIN - BENSON cycle
6
C3 vs C4 Plants
  • First biochemical product
  • Phosphoglyceric acid vs
  • Maleic acid, Aspatic acid
  • CO2 carboxylase
  • RuDP ase vs PEP ase
  • O2 limitation
  • Yes vs No
  • Optimum Temp
  • 20 - 5 vs 30 - 5 oC

7
C3 vs C4
  • Photosynthesis rate
  • 45 vs 20 - 100 mg CO2 dm-2 hr-1
  • Light saturation
  • no or at full sun vs 1/2 - 2/3 of full sun
  • Photorespiration
  • yes vs no
  • Water use efficiency (P/E)
  • lower vs higher

8
C3 vs C4
  • Morphology of leaf (CHMg appear)
  • at mesophyll vs at both mesophyll bundle
    sheath (Krantz anatomy)
  • Mitochondria
  • smaller vs larger
  • Species
  • most of dicotyledon vs tropical grasses in
    Panicoinideae

9
C3 vs C4
  • Productivity
  • lower vs highger (22 vs 80 t ha-1)
  • Lolium multiflorum vs Pennisetum purpureum
  • Quality
  • higher vs lower

10
Growth of forage crops
  • Vegetative stage
  • Increase in size of existing tillers
  • Increase in tiller number
  • Sexual or reproductive stage
  • New tiller development is suppressed
  • Stem of those inflorescence buds elongate rapidly

11
Growth of forage legumes
  • Vegetative and reproductive stages
  • Determinant main apex become floral eg.
    Stylosanthes guianensis
  • Indeterminant main apex stay vegetative and
    some auxillary buds become floral eg.
    Macroptilium atropupureum cv. Siratro

12
General growth stage of forage crops
  • full bloom (late anthesis)
  • late bloom (late post anthesis)
  • milk stage (early seed)
  • dough stage (soft dent)
  • mature (dent , ripe seed)
  • regrowth
  • germination
  • establishment
  • early vegetative (young immature)
  • late vegetative (before bloom)
  • early bloom (anthesis)
  • mid bloom

13
Flowering of forage crops
  • Juvenility
  • Interaction of daylength Temperature
  • Photoperiod nonsensitive (Day neutral) Chloris
    gayana, Eragrostis curvula cv. Ermelo, Paspalum
    dilatatum, Leucaena leucocephala

14
Flowering of forage crops
  • Photoperiod sensitive
  • Short day plants Stylosanthes guianensis, S.
    humilis, Andropogon gayana, Melinis minutiflora,
    Paspalum plicatulum, Brachiaria ruziziensis,
    Panicum maximum cv. Gatton, Macroptilium
    atropurpureum cv. Siratro, Stylosanthes hamata
    cv. Verano
  • Long day plants Medicago sativa, Trifolium
    repens, Paspalum notatum cv. Argentine,
    Stylosanthes guianensis var intermedia cv. Oxley
  • Long-short day plants Stylosanthes guianensis
    cv. Cook

15
Photoperiod
  • floral stimulus is mediated by Phytochrome
    pigment system
  • Pr(P660) Pfr (P730)
  • Day length

Red light
Darkness Far-red light
16
Temperature
  • Minimun temperature 5 - 8 o C
  • Maximum temperature 50 - 52 o C
  • Optimum temperature 31 o C

Temperate grasses legumes
Tropical grasses
Tropical legumes
Growth index
10 20 30 40 50
17
Moisture
  • Rainfall amount (P) distribution
  • Evaporation (E)
  • Transpiration (T)
  • Run off (R)
  • S P - E - T - R
  • Soil water lateral seepage deep
    percolation soil moisture storage
  • Soil moisture availability FC - PWP

18
Land and soil
  • Topography and land form
  • lowland and alluvial land
  • upland
  • slope land
  • mountainous and hilly country
  • Soil
  • Parent materials
  • Factors of soil formation
  • Climate
  • Vegetation type

19
Great group and soil series in South Thailand
  • Total area 44.19 M rai (13.78 of THAILAND)
  • Quartzipasments ???????????? ??????????
    ????????? ?????????
  • Paleadults ????????????? ???????? ???????
    ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????
    ????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????
    ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????
    ????????? ????????

20
Great group and soil series in South Thailand
  • Plinthaquuals ???????????? ???????? ?????????
    ???????????? ??????? ?????????
  • Tropohumods ??????????
  • Tropaquepts ???????? ??????????? ???????????
    ????????? ??????????? ????????????????
    ??????????????
  • Dystropepts ?????????????? ????????
  • Tropofibrists ?????? ???????????
  • ????????????????

21
Fertility of Soils in South Thailand
  • pH lt 5.5, Al toxicity is probably occured
  • Low to medium fertility, often found that P, N,
    K are insufficient and S, Mg, Cu, Zn Ca are
    also insufficient for legumes
  • Low organic matter lt 1.5
  • CEC is low

22
Soil acidity vs crop yield
100
100
Yield
Al saturation
4.0 4.4 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.0 pH
23
Land suitability
  • Soil properties (Physical chemical)
  • Land Capability class I to VIII
  • Subclass is classified due to limitation eg. e
    erosion, w water regimes, s deep soil
  • Crop consideration (crop requirement)
  • Economic consideration
  • Land suitability
  • Land Unit
  • ????????????????????? ??????????????

24
???????????????????????
???
  • ??????? 15 491 107 35.05
  • ??????????? 7 201 452 16.30
  • ????????
  • ???? ????????????? 2 109 009 4.77
  • ???? ?????????????????? 1 525 807 3.45
  • ???? ??????? 3 504 790 7.93
  • ??????? ??????????? 8 441 440 19.10
  • ??????? 858 767 1.94
  • ????? 1 972 185 4.46
  • ???????? 2 451 331 5.55

25
Major land use of 14 provinces in southern
Thailand
26
species adaptation
  • Flooding or impeded drainage
  • Brachiaria mutica, Hymenachne pseudo-interupta,
    Paspalum plicatulum, Brachiaria humidicola,
    Panicum repens, Echinochloa spp. Aeschynomene
    americana, Sesbania sesban, S. rostrata
  • Poor tolerance to flooding Brachiaria
    ruziziensis, Urochloa mosambicensis,
    Macroptilium atropurpureum cv. Siratro
  • Drought tolerance
  • Cenchrus ciliaris, Melinis minutriflora, Panicum
    antidotale, Urochloa mosambicensis, Andropogon
    gayanus, Leucaena leucophala, Stylosanthes hamata

27
species adaptation
  • Tolerance to poor soil
  • acidic soils legumes is more sensitive to
    acidity than grasses due to effect of pH on
    Rhizobium activity. Arachis sp. Centrosema
    pubescens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes
    spp. are tolerant to acid soil. Pennisetum
    purpureum, Panicum maximum, and Digitaria
    decumbens, Paspalum plicatulum are tolerant to
    acid soil.
  • low fertile soil Brachiaria humidicola. Legume
    is more adapted to low fertile soils than grasses
    if P is applied.

28
Effect of pH and Ca on relative DW nodulation
100
Macroptilium lateroides
Desmodium uncinatum
Stylosanthes humilis
100
4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5
4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5
4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5
high Ca
low Ca
29
Relative response to soil salinity of some forage
species
100 DW
50
Salinity (s/m)
30
Estimate salt tolerance
  • salinity (s/m) variance
  • Medicago sativa 1.88 1.02 0.900
  • Macroptilium atropurpureum 1.78 0.95 0.979
  • Vigna unguiculata 1.29 0.72 0.999
  • Desmodium intortum 0.85 0.79 0.998
  • Stylosanthes humilis 0.84 0.51 0.997
  • Panicum coloratum 3.25 1.70 0.956
  • Cholris gayana 2.90 2.32 0.996
  • Digitaria decumbens 2.77 1.47 0.839
  • Setaria anceps 1.05 0.60 0.962

31
????????????????
  • ?????????????
  • ???
  • ?????????
  • ??????????????? ?????????? (Imperata cylindrica)
    ???????????? (Heteropogon contortus) ???????
    (Themeda triandra)
  • ???????????????????????
  • ??????????????????? ?????????
  • ????? ring barking, ??????? ?????? ???????????
  • ?????????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ??????????
    ??????

32
????????????
  • ????????????
  • ??????????? ?????????????? seed soil contact
    ?????????
  • ???????
  • Cultivation or conventional tillage
  • No cultivation (No till)
  • Herbicides paraquat, glyphosate, dalapon,
    2,4-D
  • Burning
  • Grazing or Hoof cultivation
  • Cutting

33
????????? (Planting materials)
  • ????? (seed)
  • ?????????? ???? ???? (vegetative propagation)
    ???????????? (Digitaria decumbens) ??????
    (Brachiaria mutica) ???????????? (Pennisetum
    purpureum) ???????????????? (Brachiaria
    humidicola) ?????????? (Arachis pintoi)
  • ?? 1 -2 ???????????????? ??? 15 - 30 ??.
  • ????? ??????????????????
  • ????????????? ??????????????????? ??????

34
???????????
  • ????? 1X1 ?. ???? .5 X 1 ?.
  • ????? (Broadcasting)
  • ?????????? (Band or row planting) .5 - 1 ?.
  • Direct drill
  • ????? ?????????????????? (Strip planting) 3 - 8
    ?.

35
??????????????????
  • ????????????????? (Free from contamination)
  • ??????? (Viability)
  • ??????????? (Germination rate)
  • Tetrazolium test
  • ????????????????????? (Seedling Vigor)
  • ?????? (Longivity)
  • ????????? (Dormancy)
  • ?????????(Physical seed dormancy)
  • ??????????????????? (Physiological seed
    dormancy)
  • ?????????? (Origin)
  • ???????????? (Seed size)

36
????????????????????
  • International Seed Testing Association (ISTA)
  • American Organisation of Seed Associattion
    (AOSA)
  • ?????????????????????????????????
  • Australia CSIRO, Yates Seed Co., Pacific Seed
    Co. etc.
  • CIAT ????? Cali ???????????????, IRRI ????? Los
    Banos ?????? ??????????
  • ????????????? ??????????? ????? /
    ????????????????????
  • ???. ???? ????????????????????????????

37
?????????????????????????????????
  • ???????????? ?????????????????
  • ??????
  • ???????????
  • ????????? ???????????????????
  • ?????????
  • ???????????????????
  • ????????????????? ???????????????????????????????
    ????????
  • ???????????????? (????????????????????)

38
???????????????????????
  • Physical dormancy
  • Mechanical scarification ??? ???????????????????
  • Acid scarification ?????????????????
  • Hot water treatment 80 - 100 o C for 4 sec.
  • Physiological dormancy
  • Storage in good conditions for immature embryo or
    seed with chemical inhibitor

39
Rhizobium inoculation
  • peat, liquid medium, agar medium
  • ????????????????? ???????????? ???????????????
  • ???????????????????????????????
  • ???????? Rhizobium sp.?????????????????
  • ???????? Rhizobium sp. ??????????
  • ???????????????????????
  • ????????????????? ????????????????????
  • ????????????? ?????????????? ???????????

40
Type of Rhizobium spp.
  • Bacteria in Division Protophyte, Class
    Schizomycetes, Order Enbacteriales, Family
    Rhizobiaceae,
  • Rhizobium vs Bradyrhizobium
  • Effective strain
  • Ineffective strain
  • Non-nodulating strain
  • Legume - Rhizobium symbiosis
  • Infection
  • Nodulation
  • N2 fixation

41
Cortical region
Meristematic region
Vascular tissue
Centroid infection
Nodulation
Infection thread
Infection
Freeliving bacteria in soil Bacteroid or
Flagellated form
42
Symbiosis N2 fixation
acetate
Nitrogenase enzyme Mo-Fe protein Fe protein
Acetyl phosphate
ADP
N2
Pyruvate
CH2O
Ferridoxin
NH3
H , e
Protein
43
Factors affecting nitrogen fixation
  • Internal factor
  • amount (weight) of nodule tissue time over which
    nodulation N2 fixation occured
  • growth of legume host
  • External factor
  • Temperature
  • Photosynthate supply defoliation effect
  • Mineral nutrition P, Ca, Mg, S, Mo
  • Water stress

44
Effect of defoliation on plant nodule dry
weight in Desmodium intortum
  • Treatment Plant dry wt. Nodule dry wt.
  • (g/pot) (mg/pot)
  • control 68 (100) 405 (100)
  • cut at 7.5 cm 7 (11) 142 (35)
  • all leaves removed 11 (16) 135 (34)
  • half leave removed
  • young leaves 42 (61) 214 (52)
  • old leaves 45 (65) 340 (84)

Figures in bracket are of control
45
Effect of Phosphorus level on nodulation N2
fixation of Stylosanthes humilis
  • P rate (kg P/ha) 0 3 6 12.5 25
  • No. of nodule 10 15 40 55 148
  • (/ plant)
  • Nodule wt. .1 .4 1.1 3.3 8.5
  • (g/plant)
  • N2 fixation rate 17 8 20 39 53
  • (mg N/nodule wt./d)
  • N2 yield 6 8.5 10.5 12 14
  • (mg/plant)

46
N2 fixation
  • Amount c. 23 - 450 kg N/ha/yr
  • How to measure ?
  • Direct measurement Dry matter X N2 content -
    N2 uptake from soil
  • Measure in soil N2 changes
  • Compare between pure vs mixed swards N2 yield
    in mixed sward N2 increment in soil - N2 yield
    in pure sward

47
??????????????????? (???/???/??)
  • ????? ??????? ?????? ??????
  • ?????? 2514 1085 2635 2181
  • ????????? 113 133 105 106
  • ???? 58 158 92 18
  • ????????? 273 14 312 510
  • ?????????? 2069 781 2126 1546
  • ????? 768 480 559 989
  • ?????? 38 114 14 66
  • ???? 614 310 479 873
  • ???? ? 117 57 66 50
  • ????????? ?? .14 .18 .23
    .16

48
???? ? ?????????????? ?????????????????????
  • Pelleting seed
  • Hydroseeding
  • Weeds weed control
  • Establishment phase
  • Seed germination to emergence
  • Seedling growth survival
  • Crown spreading and root anchorage
  • Flowering seeding
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