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Forage Budgeting

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proper fertilizer matches water limitation ... Water travel zones. Rooting Zone. Traffic pan. Subsoil acidity. Fertility stratification ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Forage Budgeting


1
Forage Budgeting
  • Using it when it grows

2
Forage Budgeting
  • Matching forage utilization with forage growth
    and accumulation
  • Methods
  • Preserved forages
  • Hay
  • Silage
  • Controlled grazing
  • Variable stocking rate
  • Stockers
  • Cull/Weanling sell

3
Primary Forage System
  • Ryegrass (green)
  • Cool season annual
  • High Quality/Quantity
  • Ambient Temperature factors
  • Minimum 43oF
  • Maximum 90oF
  • Optimum 60oF
  • Bermudagrass (yellow)
  • Warm season perennial
  • High Quantity/medium quality
  • Most abuse tolerant
  • Ambient Temperature factors
  • Minimum 50oF
  • Maximum 98oF
  • Optimum 85oF

4
Forage Budgeting
  • Forage Growth
  • Species/variety selection
  • Site specifications
  • Genetic potential
  • Rainfall
  • nuff said
  • Weed Control
  • Shading
  • Nutrient competition
  • Soil Fertility
  • Rest period
  • TNC recharge
  • Daylength
  • Shortening daylength hastens reproduction
  • Animal Requirements
  • Livestock class
  • Growth
  • immature vs. mature
  • Lactation
  • dry needs less
  • Pregnancy
  • barren needs less
  • Animal Weight
  • metabolic stocking rate
  • Animal Movement
  • Other needs
  • livestock water
  • minerals, etc.

5
Limitations to forage growth
  • Soils
  • Renovation
  • Fertilization
  • Species and Variety Selection
  • Establishment
  • Weed Control
  • Grazing Management

6
Soils (An Overview)
7
Soil
  • Is
  • Dynamic
  • always changing
  • Alive
  • fauna and flora
  • Complex
  • combination of living, dead, mineral materials
  • Nothing short of amazin!!
  • Alright, Im a nerd.
  • Is not
  • Static
  • Dirt
  • dirt is soil in the wrong place
  • Potting soil
  • growth medium
  • Sand
  • silicon is chemically inactive

8
Soil Composition
  • Constantly changing
  • Mineral
  • rock derivative
  • Pore space
  • water
  • air
  • Organic Matter
  • plant and animal matter
  • living and dead

9
Soil Profile
  • Surface A horizon
  • Active
  • biological
  • plant/animal activity
  • chemical
  • organic matter accumulation
  • Subsurface E
  • Pan formation
  • nutrient mining
  • Subsoil B
  • Low OM
  • Clay accumulation (B2t)
  • Subsoil acidity
  • Parent Material

10
Physical Properties of Soils
  • Color
  • Texture
  • Structure
  • Drainage
  • Depth
  • Surface features

11
Soil Color
  • Determining factors
  • Organic Matter
  • Drainage Condition
  • Oxidation
  • Indications
  • Red-Brown
  • Good drainage
  • Yellow
  • fair drainage
  • Grey to Dark
  • poor drainage

12
Texture
  • Particle size
  • Properties
  • Drainage
  • SandgtSiltgtgtgtClay
  • Water Holding Capacity
  • ClaygtgtSiltgtgtgtSand
  • Water availability
  • SiltgtClaygtSand
  • Fertility
  • ClaygtSiltgtgtgtSand
  • Workability
  • SandgtSiltgtClay
  • Classes
  • Textural groups
  • Textural classes

13
Texture Determination
  • Particle size composition
  • Feel method
  • Form a Ribbon
  • mix water soil (1 tblspn) ball
  • press between thumb and forefinger
  • Signs
  • sand gritty
  • silt slick, talcum powder
  • no ribbon sand, loamy sand
  • lt1 sandy loam, loam, silt loam
  • 1-2 silty clay loam, clay loam
  • gt2 clay
  • Volumetric
  • accurate, slow, costly

14
Textural Relationships
15
Soil Structure
  • Soil Aggregate (ped) formation
  • Organic matter driven
  • Traffic impacted
  • Long term development
  • Pore space development
  • Air flow
  • root breathing
  • Regulates water
  • infiltration rate
  • root penetration
  • drainage

16
Soil Structures
17
Soil Depth
Factors - bedrock - water table -
compaction - subsoil pH - nutrient
stratification
18
Soil Organic Matter
  • Composition
  • Carbon Cycle
  • living and dead
  • plant and animal
  • dynamic system
  • Advantages
  • Improves structure
  • increased infiltration
  • increased water holding capacity
  • increased workability
  • increased CEC
  • OM has high number of exchange sites
  • Increase to 3-4 OM in Northeast Texas under
    perennial pastures

19
Chemical Properties
  • Soil pH
  • Cation Exchange Capacity
  • Organic matter content
  • Clay mineralogy
  • Essential Plant Nutrients
  • Nutrient Movement
  • Root/soil interaction

20
Cation Exchange Capacity
  • Natural Fertility
  • Exchange sites
  • Organic matter
  • Clay
  • Edge charges
  • other materials
  • Function
  • Attracts Cations
  • Repels Anions

21
Liebergs Law of Limits
  • Crop yield
  • barrel water
  • Yield limitations
  • shortest stave
  • 2000 water
  • fertilize to match limitations
  • over fertilize lost
  • under fertilize lost yield
  • proper fertilizer matches water limitation

22
Coastal yield, CP and water use as affected by
Nitrogen Rate
23
Influence of Nitrogen and Potassium on Coastal
Bermudagrass Survival
24
Soil Fertility
  • Physical
  • Texture
  • Structure
  • Infiltration rate
  • Utility
  • Aesthetics
  • Crop selectivity
  • Chemical
  • Soil pH
  • Essential Nutrients
  • Macro
  • Nitrogen
  • Phosphorus
  • Potassium
  • Secondary
  • Micronutrients
  • Beneficial Nutrients

25
Nutrient Uptake Problems
  • Root growth limited
  • traffic pan
  • soil chemistry
  • surface root hair activity
  • Acidity
  • hostile pH (lt5.5)
  • plant specific
  • solution
  • soluble Ca source
  • Stratification
  • subsoil mining
  • limited nutrient movement
  • solution
  • banding
  • soluble nutrients
  • soil mixing

26
Water Storage
  • Soil
  • Seasonal storage
  • Texture
  • loamy best
  • Infiltration
  • Ground cover
  • Water travel zones
  • Rooting Zone
  • Traffic pan
  • Subsoil acidity
  • Fertility stratification

27
Soil Compaction
  • Rooting Barrier
  • Limit water infiltration
  • Limit root growth
  • Prevalent in Grazing and Machine
  • Sometimes difficult to control

28
Traffic Pans
  • Compression of fine soil particles into the pore
    space between large particles.
  • Limits water infiltration and root growth
  • Occurs on wet soils
  • Equipment movement
  • Cattle Treading

29
Equipment Pans
  • Location
  • varies
  • change in soil texture
  • not all soils are susceptible
  • Thickness
  • usually thin
  • Time
  • short term
  • thin pans
  • long term
  • Structure destruction

30
Treading
  • Location
  • usually in upper 4
  • change in soil texture
  • most visible in clay soils
  • all soils susceptible
  • Site exposure to animals
  • short term
  • Thin pans
  • long term
  • Rough field
  • Structure destruction
  • Long Term Solution
  • protect susceptible sites
  • manage for dense sods

31
Treatments
  • Prevention
  • protect susceptible sites
  • competitive sward
  • Soil Regeneration
  • soil type
  • rooting activity
  • fauna activity
  • mid to long term solution
  • Mechanical
  • depth determinant
  • short term solution

32
Mechanical
  • Break the traffic pan
  • Reforms under moist conditions and traffic
  • Shattering vs. slicing
  • Root damage
  • Timing is critical
  • Proper moisture
  • Late Winter/early spring

33
Depth Treatments
  • Dormant sod
  • Dec.- early March
  • Shallow
  • 0-3
  • Disk Harrow
  • Moderate
  • 3-6
  • Spike type aerator
  • Deep
  • gt6
  • Chisel

34
Deep chiseling
  • Horsepower hog
  • 35-50 hp/shank
  • Drier soils get better breakage but require
    greater horsepower
  • Options
  • bigger tractor
  • smaller chisel
  • Cost
  • Paratill 8000
  • used single shank??

35
Subsoiling/plowing
  • Multiple Implements
  • paraplow, aeroway, etc.
  • standard chisel or disc
  • Timing
  • During dormancy
  • preferably drier soil
  • increase pan shatter
  • prior to spring rains
  • bermuda recovery

36
Soil pH
  • pH log (H)
  • limits nutrient availability
  • Crop tolerance highly variable
  • Al toxicity apparent before low pH affects plant
    survival
  • preferred pH 6-7
  • Ryegrass/small grains pHgt5.8
  • Clovers pH specific

37
Sixteen Essential Nutrients
  • CHOPKNS CaFe Mg B Mn CuZn MoCl
  • Primary
  • C, H, O
  • Macronutrients
  • N, P, K
  • Secondary Nutrients
  • Ca, Mg, S
  • Micronutrients
  • B, Cl, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Mo
  • Beneficial
  • Na, Ni, Si, Co

38
Primary Nutrients
  • Function
  • Cell Wall formation
  • Basic building blocks
  • Electron Transfer
  • Carbon, Oxygen
  • Plant available form
  • Plant takes in CO2
  • Plant gets O2 from roots
  • Hydrogen
  • Plant available form H2O
  • Releases O from water

39
Nitrogen (N)
  • Most responsive fertilizer nutrient
  • especially grasses
  • Absorbed as NO2, NO3, NH4
  • Very Mobile in both plant soil
  • Function
  • major component of plant chemicals amino acid,
    etc.
  • Excess
  • excess vegetative growth, limited fruits
  • Deficiency
  • limited growth, chlorosis, symptoms on old growth
    first
  • Notes
  • Changes form rapidly in the soil
  • N soil tests have little value

40
Phosphorus (P)
  • Plant available forms
  • HPO4-2, H2PO4-
  • Fertilizer form H2PO5
  • Plant mobile, Soil immobile
  • Functions
  • ATP, ADP energy, germination, most aspects of
    plant growth
  • Excess
  • micronutrient deficiency of Zn, Fe and/or Co
  • Deficiency
  • Reduced plant growth, purpling or browning in
    foliage
  • Notes Fixes readily with cations, pH dependent
    solubility

41
Potassium (K)
  • Plant available form K
  • Fertilizer form K2O
  • Plant and soil mobile
  • Function
  • enhances fruit and flower, co-enzyme for TNC
    storage, water balance
  • Excess
  • causes N deficiency, interferes with other cation
    uptake
  • Deficiency
  • limited growth, shortened internodes, brown leaf
    edges (margin scorch), wilting
  • Notes
  • High demand in East Texas Soils. Critical for
    winter survival of perennials.

42
Calcium (Ca)
  • Plant available form Ca2
  • Plant immobile, very limited soil mobility
  • Functions Cell membrane integrity, co-enzyme
  • Excess
  • Mg uptake interference
  • Deficiency
  • Inhibited bud growth, root tip death, mature leaf
    cupping, weak growth, blossom end rot and pits on
    fruits
  • Notes
  • Usually corrected with pH, Water stress affects
    Ca relationships.

43
Magnesium (Mg)
  • Plant available form Mg2
  • Plant mobile, limited soil mobility
  • Functions
  • Chlorophyll compound, co-enzyme, seed germination
  • Excess
  • Ca uptake interference
  • Deficiency
  • Growth Reduction, marginal chlorosis, interveinal
    chlorosis in mid and lower leaves, reduced seed
    production, cupped leaves
  • Notes
  • leaches with irrigation, usually corrected with
    Lime in fields, chelates and sulfates in pots

44
Sulfur (S)
  • Plant available form SO4-
  • Plant immobile, very soil mobile
  • Functions
  • structural compound of AAs, etc. and chlorophyll
    production
  • Excess very limited information
  • Deficiency
  • Rarely deficient due to pollution and impurities
    symptoms include growth reduction, overall
    chlorosis
  • Notes
  • leaches with irrigation, usually corrected with
    other nutrients, true toxicity is rare and
    difficult to control, very high levels in low pH
    soils

45
Iron (Fe)
  • Plant available form Fe2, Fe3
  • Plant immobile, limited soil mobility
  • Functions
  • chlorophyll catalyst, co-enzyme activity
  • Excess
  • rarely occurs except on flooded soils, confounded
    with acid soils
  • Deficiency
  • Growth Reduction, interveinal chlorosis on young
    tissue, often becoming white, evident on high pH
    (gt7.5) soils, High P soils, high Cu, Zn soils and
    nematode infestations
  • Notes Deficiency corrected with foliar
    applications of chelated Fe.

46
Boron (B)
  • Plant available form BO3-
  • Plant immobile, soil mobile
  • Functions
  • cell wall formation and membrane integrity,
    calcium uptake, TLC movement
  • Excess
  • intraveinal darkening and death
  • Deficiency
  • Seed Set failure, internal (stem) breakdown,
    apical bud death
  • Notes
  • Regulate with pH control, legumes highly
    responsive to low (lt2 lbs/ac) fertilization.

47
Zinc (Zn)
  • Plant available form Zn2
  • Plant immobile, high soil mobility
  • Functions
  • co-enzyme, PGR co-factor, TLC metabolism, protein
    synthesis
  • Excess
  • Fe Mg uptake interference, seen in over manured
    soils
  • Deficiency
  • Small leaf size, leaf size reduction, rosetting
    (short internodes), distorted or puckered leaf
    margins, interveinal chlorosis
  • Notes
  • leaches with irrigation, usually corrected with
    balanced fertilizer, chelates and sulfates in pots

48
Copper (Cu)
  • Plant available form Cu, Cu2
  • limited plant mobility, not soil mobility
  • Functions
  • nitrogen metabolism, co-enzyme, TLC utilization
  • Excess
  • Fe Mg uptake interference, seen in over manured
    soils
  • Deficiency
  • Small, misshaped, wilted plants. Most commonly
    found in peat and potting soils
  • Notes
  • usually corrected with balanced fertilizer
    chelates and sulfates in pots

49
Manganese (Mn)
  • Plant available form Mn2
  • Plant immobile, soil mobile
  • Functions
  • Co-factor for Photosynthesis, respiration and
    nitrogen metabolism
  • Excess
  • Reduced plant growth, brown spotting on leaves,
    chlorosis similar to Fe deficiency, usually acid
    soils
  • Deficiency
  • interveinal chlorosis followed by browns spots,
    producing a checkered red effect.
  • Notes
  • Deficiencies usually corrected with balanced
    fertilizer

50
Molybdenum (Mo)
  • Plant available form MoO4-
  • Plant immobile, soil immobile
  • Functions
  • nitrate redox, protein synthesis
  • Excess
  • not plant toxic, high mammalian toxicity, usually
    a pollution problem
  • Deficiency
  • Interveinal chlorosis on older and midstem
    leaves, whiptailed (twisted) leaves
  • Notes
  • Primarily regulated with pH control

51
Chlorine (Cl)
  • Plant available form Cl-
  • Very Plant mobile, high soil mobility
  • Functions
  • water relations (stomate activity), cation
    movement
  • Excess
  • usually confounded with sodium (salt) toxicity,
    salt injury, leaf burn, increased succulence
  • Deficiency
  • Club roots, wilted bronzing leaves, chlorosis
    then death
  • Notes
  • leaches with irrigation, usually corrected with
    potassium fertilizer.

52
Sodium (Na)
  • Plant available form Na
  • Plant mobile (phloem), soil mobile
  • Functions
  • Osmotic regulation and Ionic balance
  • Excess
  • very toxic element, salt burn, poor water uptake,
    soil structure collapse, cell wall degradation
  • Deficiency unkwown
  • Notes
  • Beneficial, not required, usually fully available
    in the soil

53
Nickel (Ni)
  • Plant available form Ni2
  • Plant mobile (phloem), very limited soil mobility
  • Functions
  • forms urease, enhances Fe uptake, concentrated in
    reproductive organs (seed germination)
  • Excess
  • chlorosis and leaf margin necrosis
  • Deficiency unknown, iron chlorosis (?)
  • Notes
  • Beneficial, not required, often fully available
    in the soil

54
Cobalt (Co)
  • Plant available form Co2
  • Plant mobility not well understood, limited soil
    mobility
  • Functions
  • Nitrogen fixation in root nodules of legumes and
    non-legumes, deficiency limits seedling
    development (?)
  • Excess unknown
  • Deficiency unknown
  • Notes
  • limited amount in the soil, very reactive with a
    number of anions. Essential for bacteria
    (Rhizobium, etc.) growth

55
Silicon (Si)
  • Plant available form SiO3-
  • Plant immobile, soil mobile
  • Functions
  • Cell wall component, drought tolerance
  • Excess unknown
  • Deficiency unknown
  • Notes
  • Beneficial nutrient for some plants. Best
    application methods not understood.

56
Fertilizer Selection
  • Dont guess soil test
  • Match needs with available fertilizer
  • Fertilizer
  • Form
  • Inorganic
  • Organic
  • Type
  • Complete
  • Incomplete

57
Fertilizer Form
  • Organic
  • slow release
  • generally poorly balanced (3-2-2 for PL)
  • Micronutrients included
  • Improved soil
  • Inorganic
  • fast release
  • tailor application to field
  • Micronutrients have to be added
  • limited, if any, soil improvement

Decision - science, economics - fertilizer
availability - personal preference - everyone
has an opinion
58
Fertilizer Type
  • Incomplete
  • Unbalanced
  • over/under fertilizer rate
  • Economics (?)
  • Complete
  • balanced, tailored to specifications
  • blend unbalanced fertilizers to create balanced
    fertilizer

59
Fertilizer Sources
60
Blending Fertilizer
Soil Test Results Ryegrass for Rabbits 60-60-60
N-P2O5- K2O per acre 1000 sq. ft of
ryegrass 43560 sq. ft/acre
61
Other Fertilizers
  • Slow release
  • Advantages
  • fewer applications
  • Low burn potential
  • Release rate varied to clients need
  • comparatively slow release
  • Disadvantages
  • Cost
  • Limited Availability
  • Release rate not governed by plant
  • Manures Sludges
  • Advantages
  • Low burn potential
  • Relatively slow release
  • Micronutrient content
  • Condition soils
  • Disadvantages
  • Salting potential
  • Bulky
  • Odor
  • Weed seed
  • Heavy Metals
  • Availability/Variable cost

62
Summary
  • Soils are dynamic
  • Soil Properties
  • Physical
  • Biological
  • Chemical
  • Soil change can be modified
  • OM content
  • Structure (traffic pans)
  • Fertilizer cost money, use appropriately
  • Youll learn something new every day

63
Soil Management
  • Physical
  • Water
  • Texture
  • Structure
  • Infiltration rate
  • Utility
  • Aesthetics
  • Crop selectivity
  • Chemical
  • Nitrogen
  • Soil pH
  • Phosphorus
  • Micronutrients
  • Potassium
  • Secondary

64
Soil Fertility Management
  • Soil Test
  • Proactive Mentality
  • Utilize available nutrients
  • Controlled nutrient mining
  • Nutrient Removal
  • Renter Mentality
  • Replacement of mined nutrients

65
Soil Testing
  • Identify Fields
  • Multiple samples
  • Individual fields
  • Stratification
  • 0-2
  • 2-6
  • Composite and Mail
  • Multiple Labs
  • TAMU
  • others

66
Nutrient removed (lbs/ac) by grazing and hay
production
67
Pasture Renovation
  • Reduced pasture production
  • Causes
  • Compaction
  • Machinery
  • Livestock
  • Drought Damage
  • Poor Fertility Management
  • pH, K, micronutrients
  • stratification

68
Symptoms for Renovation
  • Reduced forage production
  • Thin bermudagrass stands
  • Reduced rhizome number vigor
  • Weed invasion
  • broadleaf
  • grass
  • improper water movement
  • Poor drainage (slope)
  • Poor infiltration

69
Renovation Practices and Requirements
  • Minimum
  • Soil testing
  • Fertilization
  • Weed Control
  • Prescribed burning
  • Light mowing
  • Grazing management
  • Reduce stocking rate
  • Increase stubble ht.
  • Extensive
  • Intensive Weed Control
  • Intensive grazing management
  • Subsoiling/chiseling
  • Discing/plowing
  • Replanting
  • Heavy fertilization

70
Nutrient Stratification
  • Nutrient Movement
  • Root interception
  • Mass Flow
  • Diffusion
  • Stratification
  • P, Ca, Zn, Cu, etc.
  • mostly during cold (January) or dry (August)
    periods

71
Fertility Management
  • Nitrogen Bermudagrass
  • Grazing180 units/year include recycled
  • Hay most responsive with early harvests
  • Hybrid Bermuda 100 units/cutting, split
  • others 60 units/cutting
  • Phosphorus
  • 60 - 120 units per year
  • pH dependent
  • build up with manure

72
Fertility Management
  • Potassium Tricky
  • Grazing limited
  • Hay depletion
  • First indication Winter kill
  • Late application may be more important
  • examine roots in late summer
  • fertilize for Ryegrass Requirements

73
Fertility Management
  • Soil pH
  • limits nutrient availability
  • Cool season more intolerant
  • Ryegrass/small grains pHgt5.8
  • Soil pH alteration
  • Liming
  • Estimated Calcium Carbonate Equivalent
  • Multiple Sources
  • Ag limes
  • Flue dusts
  • Gypsum board (?)
  • Lowering pH
  • difficult
  • Sulfur fertilizers
  • Nitrogen fertilizers
  • long term

74
Fertility Management
  • Secondary Ca, Mg, S.
  • Ca, Mg adjust with lime
  • Sulfur becoming more important
  • Micronutrients Zn, Cu, others
  • pH regulates
  • pHlt5.5 Zn, Cu, others
  • pHgt7.5 Fe, others
  • manure build up of Cu

75
Forages for North and Northeast Texas
  • The short version

76
Diversity
  • Ecosystems/soil/initial agriculture
  • Piney Woods
  • Deep sands
  • Timber/Horticulture
  • Post oak Savannah
  • Loamy
  • Row crops/Dairy
  • Blackland Prairies
  • Clay
  • Cotton/Wheat
  • Cross Timbers
  • Loamy
  • Cattle/Wheat

77
Diversity Rainfall
  • Precipitation
  • 32-48
  • West Driest
  • NE wettest
  • Similar Pattern
  • Typically wet springs
  • Dry to very dry late July through August.
  • Rains in late September - November

78
Similarities
  • Temperature
  • Generally Mild
  • Soil Moisture Holding Capacity
  • Remarkably similar
  • Typical Forage Base
  • Bermudagrass/Ryegrass

79
Primary Forage System
  • Bermudagrass
  • Perennial Warm Season
  • Types Common (seeded), Hybrid (sprigged)
  • Ryegrass
  • Annual Cool Season
  • High quality and production
  • Multiple varieties

80
Bermudagrass/ryegrass
  • Advantages
  • Abuse tolerant
  • Best match of quality/quantity to date
  • Disadvantages
  • Nitrogen Hawg
  • 240 lbs.. N/ac/yr.
  • Abuse tolerance leads to mismanagement
  • Weed Invasions
  • Reduced forage production

81
Species Selection
  • Determine
  • Your production needs?
  • Quantity
  • Quality
  • When
  • What do you want? (qualitative)
  • What can you afford? (economic)
  • Plant what fits your site
  • Rule of thumb
  • Select species that are found no more than 50
    miles west and 100 miles north, south and east
    (lots of exceptions)

82
Soils
  • First determinant of species or variety selection
  • Roots grow shoots!
  • Physical
  • Texture
  • Clay, loam, silt, sand
  • Water movement storage
  • Rooting Barriers
  • Chemical
  • Soil Test
  • pH
  • P K
  • Nitrate (?)

83
Species Selection
  • Annual vs. Perennial
  • Cool vs. Warm season
  • Bunch vs Sod (grasses)
  • Growth habit
  • Tall - short
  • prostrate

84
Establishment Considerations
  • Soil Fertility
  • CHOPKNS CaFe Mg B Mn CuZn MoCl
  • Level varies with soil type
  • Incorporation into the soil is best and done
    during seed bed preparation
  • Inoculation
  • Symbiotic relationship between Rhizobium bacteria
    and legumes which provides plant with nitrogen

85
Soil Fertility and Fertilization
  • Rules of thumb
  • Soil Test, Dont Guess
  • Grasses need nitrogen soon after germination and
    thereafter
  • Avoid nitrogen with legumes
  • Legumes respond to phosphorus
  • Species response variation huge
  • Both need K and other nutrients

86
Legume Inoculation
  • Proper Rhizobium
  • species specific
  • Fresh Rhizobium
  • heat and light sensitive, dont save
  • some may exist in the soil
  • Mix within 24 hours of planting
  • Use a sticker
  • mix according to directions.. and let dry

87
Recommended Species
  • Grasses
  • Legumes

88
Warm season grasses High - Moderate Defoliation
tolerance
  • Bermudagrass
  • Hybrid
  • Coastal, T-44, T-85, Jiggs, many others
  • Common
  • Giant, Cheyenne, others
  • Paspalums
  • Bahiagrass
  • Pensacola, Tifton-9
  • Dallasgrass common
  • Johnsongrass, Kleingrass
  • health other issues
  • lower defoliation tolerance

89
Bunch Type Grasses Limited defoliation tolerance
  • Slick seed
  • dormancy period
  • Switchgrass (Alamo/Caddo)
  • Eastern Gamagrass (Pete)
  • Fluffy seed
  • hard to plant
  • Indiangrass
  • Bluestems
  • Little Big
  • Old World
  • WW-Bdahl
  • other bunchgrasses being developed

90
Warm Season Cropland High risk (rainfall) yield
  • Grasses
  • Good to high quality
  • Nitrogen required
  • poor to excellent yield
  • Millet Acid Sands
  • Alkaloid, Nitrate
  • Sorghums Alkaline Clays
  • Nitrate, Prussic Acid
  • Legumes
  • High quality, no N
  • Soybeans Loam-clay, multiple maturity groups
  • Cowpeas Sands

91
Cool Season Grasses
  • Annuals
  • Ryegrass backbone,
  • spring growth
  • Small Grains winter yield
  • Rye cold tolerance, high yield
  • Wheat low yield, cheap seed
  • Oats cold tol. High palatability
  • Triticale low palatability, yield
  • Perennial
  • Tall Fescue
  • endophyte
  • GA-5
  • Jose Wheatgrass
  • Cold disease tolerance ?

92
Clovers acidic soils
93
Clovers alkaline soils
94
Summary
  • Base Program
  • Bermuda/ryegrass
  • Legumes
  • Quality
  • Nitrogen
  • Management
  • Other options
  • site dependent
  • limited information
  • Producer Options
  • know what you got
  • know what you want
  • know what you need
  • know when you need it
  • know what you can afford
  • Make your plans

95
Crop Establishment
  • Agronomic aspects

96
Agronomic Questions Starting the Journey
  • Soils
  • What do you have?
  • How do you correct it?
  • Species selection
  • What do you want?
  • What kind of seed?
  • Establishment
  • How do you get it?
  • Weed control -
  • How do you get rid of the problem plants?

97
Germination Requirements
  • All are plant specific
  • Stratification
  • period of temperature change.
  • Temperature
  • Moisture
  • seed swell
  • Sunlight
  • IR band

98
Soils
  • First decision
  • species/variety selection
  • Soil Factors
  • Physical
  • Texture
  • Rooting barriers
  • Chemical
  • Soil Test
  • pH
  • P K
  • Nitrate (?)

99
Soil Test Recommendations
100
Translation
  • Bermudagrass (154550)
  • Mildly acid
  • no lime needed
  • Med - High P, Ca Mg
  • low in Nitrogen (expected) Potassium
  • Recommendation
  • 100-0-45
  • 300 lbs AN and 75 lbs 0-0-60/ac
  • One hay cutting and grazing
  • Fertility wise site is well managed and normal
  • Garden (08227)
  • Moderately alkaline
  • excessively alkaline for east Texas
  • if a pine tree grows here it should not be
    alkaline
  • High pH, P, Ca and Mg indicates excess
    application of commercial fertilizer and lime,
    maybe manure.
  • Indicates a micro-nutrient test is needed
  • Low nitrogen
  • side dress with the equivalent of 30 lbs N/ac.
  • Low potassium

101
Establishment
  • Species selection
  • What to plant
  • Seeding Date, Rate and Depth
  • Seedbed Preparation
  • Planting Method
  • Conventional
  • No-till
  • Companion crops
  • Fertilization
  • Weed Control
  • Reduce Competition

102
Species Selection getting a smoother ride
  • Plant what fits your soil
  • Determine the desired results
  • Native species
  • no more than
  • 50 miles west
  • 100 miles north, south and east (lots of
    exceptions)
  • Naturalized species
  • local information
  • SWAG it.
  • What do you want? (qualitative)
  • What can you afford (economic)

103
Species Selection
  • Broadleaf/grass/grasslike
  • what do you want it to do.
  • Annual vs. Perennial
  • how long do you want it
  • Cool vs. Warm season
  • when do you want it?
  • Legume vs. Nonlegume
  • Nitrogen production
  • Native vs Naturalized

104
Planting Date
  • Cool season grasses and most forbs are planted in
    the fall (Sept. - Nov.) some opportunity exists
    for early spring (Feb 15 to March 15) plantings
  • Warm season grasses and some forbs are planted in
    the spring (late March to late May). Plantings
    after June 1 are risky without irrigation.

105
Seed Quality
  • Quality cost
  • Certified seed meet state standards
  • Germination
  • Weed seed
  • Newest technology
  • Reduced failure rate
  • Decreased disease
  • Increased Production
  • Local Seeds Plants
  • Adapted to ecosystem
  • Local business

106
Seeding Rate
  • Species dependent
  • Perennial 20 - 80 K/ac (1/2 to 4 plants/ft2)
  • Annual 100-300K/ac.
  • Seeding Rate
  • Increase seeding rate with increased hazards
  • Decrease species seeding rate with mixture (total
    seeding rate increases)
  • Seed quality dependent base seeding rate on pure
    live seed calculations
  • PLS(germ hard seed)purity

107
Early Ryegrass Yield as Affected by Seeding Rate
and Method
108
Seeding depth Where to park the seed
  • Best if planted to moisture
  • (field cap.)
  • Considerable species variation
  • The bigger the deeper
  • (4 to 8) seed diameter
  • 1/4 to 1/2 , Not more than 3/4
  • many small seeded plants (lt 1/8 ) can be surface
    planted, if soil moisture is or will be adequate.

109
Planting Method Getting home
  • Seedbed preparation
  • Prepared Seedbed
  • Sod or minimum tillage
  • Companion crop
  • defoliation
  • desiccation
  • Seeding method
  • drill
  • broadcast
  • transplant

110
Seedbed Preparation
  • Minimum Tillage
  • Advantages
  • Reduced erosion potential
  • Reduced energy costs
  • Annual weed control
  • canopy closure
  • OM and Moisture Retention
  • Disadvantages
  • Nutrient Stratification
  • Planning required
  • Seed costs (?)
  • Additional Equipment requirement
  • Drills
  • Sprayer
  • Clean Tillage
  • Advantages
  • Perennial weed control
  • root destruction
  • Eliminate rooting barriers
  • Mix Nutrients, OM, etc.
  • Enhances Seed/soil contact
  • Disadvantages
  • Exposure to erosion
  • High energy costs
  • OM Reduction
  • Moisture loss

111
Conventional Tillage
  • Clean, firm seedbed
  • Tillage
  • till to 6 to 12
  • 2-6 passes
  • breakdown
  • pans
  • clods
  • incorporate
  • Organic matter
  • Nutrients
  • Lime
  • Cultipack
  • 1/4-1/2 footprints

112
Minimum Tillage
  • Establish cover crop
  • Planning
  • previous growing season
  • planting period
  • crop uses
  • grain
  • grazing
  • Management
  • soil moisture recharge
  • control specific weeds
  • crop yields (?)
  • Canopy control
  • Harvest
  • leave gt4 stubble
  • Roundup
  • open canopy

113
Seeding Method
  • Drill
  • best seed/soil contact
  • lowest seeding rate
  • medium speed
  • equipment needed
  • Broadcast
  • small seed required
  • increased seeding rate
  • fast, limited equipment
  • Transplant
  • greatest success rate
  • greatest expense
  • Money, labor, time

114
Effect of planting and and light disking on
forage production by April 1 of ryegrass
overseeded on bermudagrass, Winnsboro, LA
Values are in lbs per acre
115
Chemical Desiccation of Dallisgrass Sod
116
Enhancing Success
  • Use Common Sense
  • Increase seed soil contact
  • Disk, Drill and Pack
  • Broadcast
  • Scratch
  • disk, harrow, etc.
  • Drag
  • pipe, chain, tire, cedar bush
  • Seeding Rate
  • Transplants
  • Use for maximum success
  • Limited seed
  • Need for speed (?)

117
Points to Ponder
  • Seed limitations
  • Germination
  • Fertility
  • remember the basics
  • Erosion control
  • Sediment is the first form of pollution

118
Seed Germination
  • Seeds require infrared light to germinate
  • Litter and canopy blocks infrared light
  • Open up the sod
  • Established plants compete for light, water and
    other nutrients
  • Plant when mature plants are dormant
  • Suppress dominate growth

119
Fertilization
  • Nonlegumes need nitrogen
  • Legumes dont need nitrogen
  • Use Rhizobium inoculant
  • avoid heat damage
  • proper legume/Rhizobium combination
  • use a surfactant
  • Legumes need phosphorus
  • Avoid nitrogen with legumes
  • Species variation huge
  • Both need K other nutrients
  • Soil test

120
Erosion Control
  • Erosion is a storm event not a season event
  • Prevention
  • the steeper the slope closer to water, the more
    important the effort
  • gt60 ground cover
  • Use companion crop
  • green sprangletop with bunchgrass
  • Wheat or oats with white clover or alfalfa

121
Summary
  • When it comes to forage selection and
    establishment, the only thing set in stone is
    your Epitaph.
  • Stay Flexible!!!
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