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Teaching on the Web III: Assessment Techniques and Future Trends


Teaching on the Web III: Assessment Techniques and Future Trends Dr. Curtis J. Bonk Associate Professor, Indiana University President, CourseShare.com – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Teaching on the Web III: Assessment Techniques and Future Trends

Teaching on the Web III Assessment Techniques
and Future Trends
  • Dr. Curtis J. Bonk
  • Associate Professor, Indiana University
  • President, CourseShare.com
  • http//php.indiana.edu/cjbonk,
  • cjbonk_at_indiana.edu

Online StudentAssessment
Assessment Takes Center Stage in Online
Learning(Dan Carnevale, April 13, 2001,
Chronicle of Higher Education)
  • One difference between assessment in classrooms
    and in distance education is that
    distance-education programs are largely geared
    toward students who are already in the workforce,
    which often involves learning by doing.

Focus of Assessment?
  1. Basic Knowledge, Concepts, Ideas
  2. Higher-Order Thinking Skills, Problem Solving,
    Communication, Teamwork
  3. Both of Above!!!
  4. Other

Assessments Possible
  • Online Portfolios of Work
  • Discussion/Forum Participation
  • Online Mentoring
  • Weekly Reflections
  • Tasks Attempted or Completed, Usage, etc.

More Possible Assessments
  • Quizzes and Tests
  • Peer Feedback and Responsiveness
  • Cases and Problems
  • Group Work
  • Web Resource Explorations Evaluations

Learning Logs (Paul Hickman, Northeastern
  • Combines journal writing and portfolios.
  • Interactive (student-student, student-tchr)
  • Collaborative (share thoughts, consensus)
  • Electronic (word processed exchanged)
  • Essentially portfolios of student work.
  • Generate qs, summarize articles, reflect on what
    learned, test models, propose explanations for

Digital Portfolios
  • A purposeful collection of work, captured by
    electronic means, that serves as an exhibit of
    individual efforts, progress, and achievements in
    one or more areas. (i.e., demo how they know
    what came to know how knowledge increased and
  • Terry Wiedmar, 1998

E-Portfolios What might they include?
  • Multimedia presentations (video, animation,
    voice-over testimonials)
  • Examples of work
  • Personal statement
  • Self-reflections on that work
  • Connections between experiences
  • Standard biographical info
  • i.e., progress, achievements, efforts
  • Large, complex, time to grade

E-Portfolios Skills Learned(Sanders, 2000)
  • Planning, design, and reflection on work
  • Revision and evaluation of work
  • Communication of work
  • Consideration of audience
  • Track personal improvements and accomplishments

Electronic Gradebooks (Vockell Fiore, 1993)
  • Calculate scores, store info
  • Weight scores
  • Flag students with certain characteristics
  • Print reports by individual or group
  • Provide prompt feedback
  • But inflexible, impersonal, can be incorrect

Sample Portfolio Scoring Dimensions(10 pts
each)(see http//php.indiana.edu/cjbonk/p250syl
  1. Richness
  2. Coherence
  3. Elaboration
  4. Relevancy
  5. Timeliness
  6. Completeness
  7. Persuasiveness
  8. Originality
  1. Insightful
  2. Clear/Logical
  3. Original
  4. Learning
  5. Fdback/Responsive
  6. Format
  7. Thorough
  8. Reflective
  9. Overall Holistic

E-Peer Evaluation Form
  • Peer Evaluation. Name ____________________
  • Rate on Scale of 1 (low) to 5 (high)
  • ___ 1. Insight creative, offers
    analogies/examples, relationships drawn, useful
    ideas and connections, fosters growth.
  • ___ 2. Helpful/Positive prompt feedback,
    encouraging, informative, makes suggestions
    advice, finds, shares info.
  • ___ 3. Valuable Team Member dependable, links
    group members, there for group, leader,
    participator, pushes group.
  • ___ Total Recommended Contribution Pts (out of

Issues to Consider
  1. Bonus pts for participation?
  2. Peer evaluation of work?
  3. Assess improvement?
  4. Is it timed? Give unlimited time to complete?
  5. Allow retakes if lose connection? How many

Issues to Consider
  1. Cheating? Is it really that student?
  2. Authenticity?
  3. Negotiating tasks and criteria?
  4. How measure competency?
  5. How do you demonstrate learning online?

Increasing Cheating Online(7-30/page,
http//www.syllabus.com/ January, 2002, Phillip
Long, Plagiarism IT-Enabled Tools for Deceit?)
  • http//www.academictermpapers.com/
  • http//www.termpapers-on-file.com/
  • http//www.nocheaters.com/
  • http//www.cheathouse.com/uk/index.html
  • http//www.realpapers.com/
  • http//www.pinkmonkey.com/
  • (youll never buy Cliffnotes again)

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Reducing Cheating Online
  • Ask yourself, why are they cheating?
  • Do they value the assignment?
  • Are tasks relevant and challenging?
  • What happens to the task after submittedreused,
    woven in, posted?
  • Due at end of term? Real audience?
  • Look at pedagogy b4 calling plagiarism police!

Reducing Cheating Online
  • Proctored exams
  • Vary items in exam
  • Make course too hard to cheat
  • Try Plagiarism.com (300)
  • Use mastery learning for some tasks
  • Random selection of items for item pool
  • Use test passwords, rely on IP screening
  • Assign collaborative tasks

Reducing Cheating Online(7-30/page,
http//www.syllabus.com/ January, 2002, Phillip
Long, Plagiarism IT-Enabled Tools for Deceit?)
  • http//www.plagiarism.org/ (resource)
  • http//www.turnitin.com/ (software, 100, free 30
    day demo/trial)
  • http//www.canexus.com/ (software essay
    verification engine, 19.95)
  • http//www.plagiserve.com/ (free database of
    70,000 student term papers cliff notes)
  • http//www.academicintegrity.org/ (assoc.)

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Turnitin Testimonials
  • "Many of my students believe that if they do not
    submit their essays, I will not discover their
    plagiarism. I will often type a paragraph or two
    of their work in myself if I suspect plagiarism.
    Every time, there was a "hit." Many students were
    successful plagiarists in high school. A service
    like this is needed to teach them that such
    practices are no longer acceptable and certainly
    not ethical!

But how to determine the pedagogical quality of
courses and course materials you develop?
Just a Lot of Bonk
  • Variety tasks, topics, participants,
    accomplishments, etc.
  • Interaction extends beyond class
  • Learners are also teachers
  • Multiple ways to succeed
  • Personalization and choice
  • Clarity and easy to navigate course

Wishers Wish List
  • Effect size of .5 or higher in comparison to
    traditional classroom instruction.

Quality on the Line Benchmarks for Success in
Internet-Based Distance Ed (Blackboard NEA,
  • Teaching/Learning Process
  • Student interaction with faculty is facilitated
    through a variety of ways.
  • Feedback to student assignments and questions is
    provided in a timely manner.
  • Each module requires students to engage
    themselves in analysis, synthesis, and evaluation
    as part of their course assignments.
  • Course materials promote collaboration among
  • http//www.ihep.com/Pubs/PDF/Quality.pdf

Quality on the Line Benchmarks for Success in
Internet-Based Distance Ed (Blackboard NEA,
  • Other Benchmark Categories
  • Institutional Support incentive, rewards, plans
  • Course Development processes, guidelines, teams,
    structures, standards, learning styles
  • Course Structure expectations, resources
  • Student Support training, assistance, info
  • Faculty Support mentoring, tech support
  • Evaluation and Assessment review process,
    multiple methods, specific standards

The Sharp Edge of the Cube Pedagogically Driven
Instructional Design for Online
EducationSyllabus Magazine, Dec, 2001, Nishikant
  • five functional learning stylesapprenticeship,
    incidental, inductive, deductive, discovery.
  • http//www.syllabus.com/syllabusmagazine/article.a

New Methodology for Evaluation The Pedagogical
Rating of Online CoursesSyllabus Magazine, Jan,
2002, Nishikant Sonwalkar
  • The Pedagogical Effectiveness Index
  • (1) Learning Styles (see previous page)
  • (2) Media Elements text, graphics, audio, video,
    animation, simulation
  • (3) Interaction Elements feedback, revision,
    e-mail, discussion, bulletin
  • http//www.syllabus.com/syllabusmagazine/article.
  • For more info, e-mail Nish_at_mit.edu

New Methodology for Evaluation The Pedagogical
Rating of Online CoursesSyllabus Magazine, Jan,
2002, Nishikant Sonwalkar
  • Summative evaluation instrument for rating online
  • (1) Content Factors quality, media, authentic
  • (2) Learning Factors interactivity, testing
    feedback, collaboration, ped styles
  • (3) Delivery Support Factors accessible,
    reporting, user management, content
  • (4) Usability Factors clarity, chunk size,
  • (5) Technological Factors bandwidth, database
    connectivity, server capacity,browser

What are your quality standards?
Online Testing Tools
Choice Select companies that specialize in
online assessment.
Or Use what the courseware package gives ya
Test Selection Criteria (Hezel, 1999)
  • Easy to Configure Items and Test
  • Handle Symbols
  • Scheduling of Feedback (immediate?)
  • Provides Clear Input of Exam Dates
  • Easy to Pick Items for Randomizing
  • Randomize Answers Within a Question
  • Weighting of Answer Options

More Test Selection Criteria
  • Recording of Multiple Submissions
  • Timed Tests
  • Comprehensive Statistics
  • Summarize in Portfolio and/or Gradebook
  • Confirmation of Test Submission

More Test Selection Criteria(Perry Colon, 2001)
  • Supports multiple items typesmultiple choice,
    true-false, essay, keyword
  • Can easily modify or delete items
  • Incorporate graphic or audio elements?
  • Control over number of times students can submit
    an activity or test
  • Provides feedback for each response

More Test Selection Criteria(Perry Colon, 2001)
  • Flexible scoringscore first, last, or average
  • Flexible reportingby individual or by item and
    cross tabulations.
  • Outputs data for further analysis
  • Provides item analysis statistics (e.g., Test
    Item Frequency Distributions).

Web Resource http//www.indiana.edu/best/
Online Survey Tools for Assessment
Sample Survey Tools
  • Zoomerang (http//www.zoomerang.com)
  • IOTA Solutions (http//www.iotasolutions.com)
  • QuestionMark (http//www.questionmark.com/home.htm
  • SurveyShare (http//SurveyShare.com from
  • Survey Solutions from Perseus (http//www.perseusd
  • Infopoll (http//www.infopoll.com)

Web-Based Survey Advantages
  • Faster collection of data
  • Standardized collection format
  • Computer graphics may reduce fatigue
  • Computer controlled branching and skip sections
  • Easy to answer clicking
  • Wider distribution of respondents

Web-Based Survey Problems Why Lower Response
  • Low response rate
  • Lack of time
  • Unclear instructions
  • Too lengthy
  • Too many steps
  • Cant find URL

Web-Based Survey Solutions Some Tips
  • Send second request
  • Make URL link prominent
  • Offer incentives near top of request
  • Shorten survey, make attractive, easy to read
  • Credible sponsorshipe.g., university
  • Disclose purpose, use, and privacy
  • E-mail cover letters
  • Prenotify of intent to survey

Tips on Authentification
  • Check e-mail access against list
  • Use password access
  • Provide keycode, PIN, or ID
  • (Futuristic Other Palm Print, fingerprint, voice
    recognition, iris scanning, facial scanning,
    handwriting recognition, picture ID)

Champagne Wisher (in press)
  • Simply put, an evaluation is concerned with
    judging the worth of a program and is essentially
    conducted to aid in the making of decisions by
    stakeholders. (e.g., does it work as
    effectively as the standard instructional

Evaluation Purposes
  • Cost Savings
  • Improved Efficiency/Effectiveness
  • Learner Performance/Competency Improvement/Progres
  • What did they learn?
  • Assessing learning impact
  • How well do learners use what they learned?
  • How much do learners use what they learn?

Kirkpatricks 4 Levels
  • Reaction
  • Learning
  • Behavior
  • Results

My Evaluation Plan
What to Evaluate?
  1. Studentattitudes, learning, jobs.
  2. Instructorpopularity, course enrollments.
  3. Traininginternal and external.
  4. Task--relevance, interactivity, collaborative.
  5. Tool--usable, learner-centered, friendly,
  6. Courseinteractivity, completion rates.
  7. Programgrowth, long-range plans.
  8. Universitycost-benefit, policies, vision.

Measures of Student Success(Focus groups,
interviews, observations, surveys, exams, records)
  • Positive Feedback, Recommendations
  • Increased Comprehension, Achievement
  • High Retention in Program
  • Completion Rates or Course Attrition
  • Jobs Obtained, Internships
  • Enrollment Trends for Next Semester

1. Student Basic Quantitative
  • Grades, Achievement
  • Number of Posts
  • Participated
  • Computer Log Activitypeak usage, messages/day,
    time of task or in system
  • Attitude Surveys

1. Student High-End Success
  • Message complexity, depth, interactivity, qing
  • Collaboration skills
  • Problem finding/solving and critical thinking
  • Challenging and debating others
  • Case-based reasoning, critical thinking measures
  • Portfolios, performances, PBL activities

2. Instructor Success
  • High student evals more signing up
  • High student completion rates
  • Utilize Web to share teaching
  • Course recognized in tenure decisions
  • Varies online feedback and assistance techniques

Faculty Entrepreneurship
  • Douglas Rowlett has turned his English-department
    office into a virtual radio station that
    broadcasts continuously on the Internet, offering
    a mix of poetry readings, lectures, and popular
    music. He plans to deliver entire courses over
    the Internet radio station.
  • Jeffrey R. Young (Jan 8., 2001). Chronicle of
    Higher Ed.

Faculty Entrepreneurship?
  • Santa Clara University has fired an adjunct
    instructor who sold his students thousands of
    dollars worth of stock in an online-education
    venture that appears to never have gotten off the
  • Sarah Carr, The Chronicle of Higher Ed.

3. TrainingOutside Support
  • Training (FacultyTraining.net)
  • Courses Certificates (JIU, e-education)
  • Reports, Newsletters, Pubs
  • Aggregators of Info (CourseShare, Merlot)
  • Global Forums (FacultyOnline.com GEN)
  • Resources, Guides/Tips, Link Collections, Online
    Journals, Library Resources

Certified Online Instructor Program
  • Walden Institute12 Week Online Certification
    (Cost 995)
  • 2 tracks one for higher ed and one for online
    corporate trainer
  • Online tools and purpose
  • Instructional design theory techniques
  • Distance ed evaluation
  • Quality assurance
  • Collab learning communities

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3. TrainingInside Support
  • Instructional Consulting
  • Mentoring (strategic planning )
  • Small Pots of Funding
  • Facilities
  • Summer and Year Round Workshops
  • Office of Distributed Learning
  • Colloquiums, Tech Showcases, Guest Speakers
  • Newsletters, guides, active learning grants,
    annual reports, faculty development, brown bags

Technology and Professional Dev Ten Tips to Make
it Better (Rogers, 2000)
  • 1. Offer training
  • 2. Give technology to take home
  • 3. Provide on-site technical support
  • 4. Encourage collegial collaboration
  • 5. Send to prof development conference
  • 6. Stretch the day
  • 7. Encourage research
  • 8. Provide online resources
  • 9. Lunch bytes, faculty institutes
  • 10. Celebrate success

RIDIC5-ULO3US Model of Technology Use
  • 4. Tasks (RIDIC)
  • Relevance
  • Individualization
  • Depth of Discussion
  • Interactivity
  • Collaboration-Control-Choice-Constructivistic-Comm

RIDIC5-ULO3US Model of Technology Use
  • 5. Tech Tools (ULOUS)
  • Utility/Usable
  • Learner-Centeredness
  • Opportunities with Outsiders Online
  • Ultra Friendly
  • Supportive

6. Course Success
  • Few technological glitches/bugs
  • Adequate online support
  • Increasing enrollment trends
  • Course quality (interactivity rating)
  • Monies paid
  • Accepted by other programs

7. Online Program or Course Budget (i.e., how
pay, how large is course, tech fees charged, of
courses, tuition rate, etc.)
  • Indirect Costs learner disk space, phone,
    accreditation, integration with existing
    technology, library resources, on site
    orientation tech training, faculty training,
    office space
  • Direct Costs courseware, instructor, help desk,
    books, seat time, bandwidth and data
    communications, server, server back-up, course
    developers, postage

7. ProgramOnline Content Considerations
  • Self-Paced or Live mentors?
  • Interactive or content dumping?
  • Individual or Collaborative?
  • Lecture or problem-based learning?
  • Factual or performance assessment?

8. Institutional Success
  • E-Enrollments from
  • new students, alumni, existing students
  • Additional grants
  • Press, publication, partners, attention
  • Cost-Benefit model
  • Faculty attitudes
  • Acceptable policies

8. Increase Accessibility
  • Make Web material ADA compliant (Bobby)
  • Embed interactivity in lessons
  • Determine student learning preferences
  • Conduct usability testing
  • Consider slowest speed systems
  • Orientations, training, support materials
  • e.g., CD-ROM

The Hats of the Online Instructor
  • Refers to online teaching and facilitation role.
    Moderating used to mean to preside over a meeting
    or a discussion, but in the electronic world, it
    means more than that. It is all roles
    combinedto hold meetings, to encourage, to
    provide information, to question, to summarize,
    etc. (Collins Berge, 1997 Gilly Salmon, 2000)
    see http//www.emoderators.com/moderators.shtml.

Online Concierge
  • To provide support and information on request
    (perhaps a map of the area) (Gilly Salmon, 2000).

Personal Learning Trainer
  • Learners need a personal trainer to lead them
    through materials and networks, identify relevant
    materials and advisors and ways to move forward
    (Mason, 1998 Salmon, 2000).

  • While one hopes you will not call yourself this
    nor find the need to make laws and enforce them,
    you will need some Code of Practice or set
    procedures, and protocols for e-moderators (Gilly
    Salmon, 2000).

Online Conductor
  • The pulling together of a variety of resources as
    people as in an orchestra to produce beautiful
    integrated sound or perhaps electrical current
    conductors if your conferences are effective and
    flow along, there will be energy, excitement, and
    power (Gilly Salmon, 2000).

Online Negotiator
  • Where knowledge construction online is desired,
    the key role for the e-moderator is one of
    negotiating the meaning of activities and
    information throughout online discussion and
    construction (Gilly Salmon, 2000).

Other Hats
  • Weaverlinking comments/threads
  • Tutorindividualized attention
  • Participantjoint learner
  • Provocateurstir the pot ( calm flames)
  • Observerwatch ideas and events unfold
  • Mentorpersonally apprentice students
  • Community Organizerkeep system going

Still More Hats
  • Assistant
  • Devils advocate
  • Editor
  • Expert
  • Filter
  • Firefighter
  • Facilitator
  • Gardener
  • Helper
  • Lecturer
  • Marketer
  • Mediator
  • Priest
  • Promoter

Surebut Cat Herder???
Activity Pick a Online Instruction Metaphor from
40 Options
  • Reality
  • ___________
  • ___________
  • ___________
  • ___________
  • ___________
  • Ideal World
  • ___________
  • ___________
  • ___________
  • ___________
  • ___________

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Online Mentoring and Assistance Online
Twelve forms of electronic learning mentoring and
assistance(Bonk Kim, 1998 Tharp, 1993 Bonk
et al., 2001)
Social (and cognitive) Acknowledgement"Hello...,
" "I agree with everything said so far...," "Wow,
what a case," "This case certainly has provoked a
lot of discussion...," "Glad you could join
2. Questioning What is the name of this
concept...?," "Another reason for this might
be...?," "An example of this is...," "In contrast
to this might be...,, "Who can tell me....?,
"What is the real problem here...?," "How is this
related to...?,, "Can you justify this?"
3. Direct Instruction "I think in class we
mentioned that...," Chapter X talks about...,"
"Remember back to the first week of the semester
when we went over X which indicated that..."
4. Modeling/Examples "I think I solved this sort
of problem once when I...," "Remember that video
we saw on X wherein Y decided to...,"
"Doesn't X give insight into this problem in
case Z when he/she said..."
5. Feedback/Praise "Wow, I'm impressed...,"
"That shows real insight into...," "Are you sure
you have considered...," "Thanks for responding
to X...," "I have yet to see you or anyone
6. Cognitive Task Structuring"You know, the
task asks you to do...," "Ok, as was required,
you should now summarize the peer responses that
you have received...," "How might the textbook
authors have solved this case."
7. Cognitive Elaborations/Explanations "Provide
more information here that explains your
rationale," "Please clarify what you mean by...,"
"I'm just not sure what you mean by...," "Please
evaluate this solution a little more carefully."
8. Push to Explore "You might want to write to
Dr. XYZ for...," "You might want to do an ERIC
search on this topic...," "Perhaps there is a URL
on the Web that addresses this topic..."
9. Fostering Reflection/Self Awareness "Restate
again what xyz did here," "How have you seen this
before?," "When you did your internship, what was
the first thing you did?,"
10. Encouraging Articulation/Dialogue Prompting
"Does anyone have a counterpoint or alternative
to this situation?," "Can someone give me three
good reasons why...," "It still seems like
something is missing here, I just can't put my
finger on it."
11. General Advice/Scaffolding or
Suggestions"If I were in her shoes, I
would...," "Perhaps I would think twice about
putting these people into...," "I know that I
would first...," "How totally ridiculous this all
is certainly the person should be able to
provide some..."
12. Management (via private e-mail or
discussion)"Don't just criticize....please be
sincere when you respond to your peers," "If you
had put your case in on time, you would have
gotten more feedback." "If you do this again, we
will have to take away your privileges."
What About Student Roles???
Participant Categories
  • Web Resource Finder
  • Starter-Wrapper
  • Researcher
  • Online Journal Editor
  • Expert Resource Gatherer
  • Technology Reviewer
  • Mentor/Expert
  • Instructor
  • Seeker/Questioner

Role 1 Starter/MediatorReporter/Commentator
  • Summarizes the key terms, ideas, and issues in
    the chapters, supplemental instructor notes,
    journal articles, and other assigned readings and
    asks thought provoking questions typically before
    ones peers read or discuss the concepts and
    ideas. In effect, the starter is a reporter or
    commentator or teacher of what to expect in the
    upcoming readings or activities. Once the
    start is posted, this student acts as a
    mediator or facilitator of discussion for the

Role 2 Wrapper/SummarizerSynthesizer/Connector
or Reviewer
  • Connects ideas, synthesizes discussion,
    interrelates comments, and links both explicit
    and implicit ideas posed in online discussion or
    other activities. Here, the student looks for
    patterns and themes in online coursework while
    weaving information together. The wrapping or
    summarizing is done at least at the end of the
    week or unit, but preferably two or more times
    depending on the length of the activity.

Role 3 Conqueror or Debater/Arguer/Bloodletter
  • Takes ideas into action, debates with others,
    persists in arguments and never surrenders or
    compromises nomatter what the casualties are when
    addressing any problem or issue.

Role 4 Devil's Advocate or Critic/Censor/Confeder
  • Takes opposite points of view for the sake of an
    argument and is an antagonist when addressing any
    problem posed. This might be a weekly role that
    is secretly assigned.

Role 5 Idea Squelcher/Biased/Preconceiver
  • Squelches good and bad ideas of others and
    submits your own prejudiced or biased ideas
    during online discussions and other situations.
    Forces others to think. Is that person you
    really hate to work with.

Role 6 Optimist/Open-minded/Idealist
  • In this role, the student notes what appears to
    be feasible, profitable, ideal, and "sunny" ideas
    when addressing this problem. Always sees the
    bright or positive side of the situation.

Role 7 Emotional/Sensitive/Intuitive
  • Comments with the fire and warmth of emotions,
    feelings, hunches, and intuitions when
    interacting with others, posting comments, or
    addressing problems.

Role 8 Idea Generator Creative Energy/Inventor
  • Brings endless energy to online conversations
    and generates lots of fresh ideas and new
    perspectives to the conference when addressing
    issues and problems.

Role 9 Questioner/Ponderer/Protester
  • Role is to question, ponder, and protest the
    ideas of others and the problem presented itself.
    Might assume a radical or ultra-liberal tone.

Role 10 Coach Facilitator/Inspirer/Trainer
  • Offers hints, clues, supports, and highly
    motivational speeches to get everyone fired-up or
    at least one lost individual back on track when
    addressing a problem or situation.

Role 11 Controller/Executive Director/CEO/Leader
  • In this role, the student oversees the process,
    reports overall findings and opinions, and
    attempts to control the flow of information,
    findings, suggestions, and general problem

Role 12 Slacker/Slough/Slug/Surfer Dude
  • In this role, the student does little or nothing
    to help him/herself or his/her peers learn.
    Here, one can only sit back quietly and listen,
    make others do all the work for you, and
    generally have a laid back attitude (i.e., go to
    the beach).

Activity Pick a Role Or Role Taking TaskName a
role missing from this sheet and discuss how you
might use it(see Bonks 28 roles)
So What Happens to Instructors and Students in
the Future???
  • We are evolving out of the era of the Lone
    Rangersfaculty members can choose to be involved
    in the design, development, content expertise,
    delivery, or distribution of course (Richard T.
  • Sarah Carr, (Dec 15, 2000, A47), A Day in the
    Life of a New Type of Professor, The Chronicle of
    Higher Education

Faculty Member in 2020
  • Track 1 Technical Specialist
  • Track 2 Personal Guide
  • Track 3 Online Facilitator
  • Track 4 Course Developer
  • Track 5 Course or Program Manager
  • Track 6 Work for Hire Online Lecturer
  • Track 7 High School Teacher
  • Track 8 Unemployed

Track 1 Technical Specialist
  • Help critique technical aspects of media and
    materials built into online courses. Here one
    would be part of a course development team or
    instructional design unit. Freelance learning
    object evaluator. Here one would likely operate
    alone or as part of a consulting company.

Track 2 Personal Guide
  • Provide program or course guidance to students on
    demand or preplanned. Becomes more of a
    generalist across university offerings. For
    example, one might help students see how
    different learning objects or modules fit
    together into a degree.

Track 3 Online Facilitator
  • Offers timely and informed support to students
    struggling to complete an online course or
    inserting questions and nudging development of
    students who are successfully completing
    different modules. This is the most similar to
    college teaching positions today.

Track 4 Course Developer
  • Help develop specific courses or topic areas for
    one or more universities. In many institutions,
    this will move beyond a course royalty system to
    a paid position.

Track 5 Course or Program Manager
  • Supervisor or manager of an entire new program or
    courses, most often leading to certificates or
    masters degrees. Similar in stature to a
    development head or chairperson.

Track 6 Work for Hire Online Lecturer
  • Is a freelance instructor for one course or a
    range of course. May work on just one campus or
    on a range of campuses around the world. While
    this will be highly popular and rejuvenate
    careers, institutional policies are yet to be
    sorted out.

Track 7 High School Teacher
  • As universities begin to offer secondary degrees,
    some college faculty with online teaching
    experience and teaching degrees will find
    positions in those classes. Some may view such
    positions as being demoted to the minor leagues.

Track 8 Unemployed
  • If one does not find a niche in one or more of
    the above tracks or roles, he or she will likely
    be unemployed or highly unsuccessful.

Student Differences in 2020
  • Live Longer
  • More Educated
  • Multiple Degrees
  • Accustomed to Multiple Learning Formats
  • Design own programs and courses
  • Specialists AND Generalists
  • Courses/Degrees for unknown occupations
  • Expect to Take Courses Where Live
  • Cyber-students (various digital aids attached to

Possible Scenarios in Year 2020
  • Virtual Us and Traditional Us Coexist
  • Traditional Univs buy stake in Virtual Us
  • Traditional Univs form Consortia
  • Some Trad Us Move Ahead, Some Dont
  • Other Technology arise well beyond Web
  • Large Virtual Us Buy Competing Traditional Us
    and shut them down

What Uses for Old Institutions of Higher
  • Museums
  • Historical Monuments
  • Bomb Shelters
  • Resorts and Apartment Complexes
  • Nostalgic Retirement Homes
  • Green Space
  • Prisons

Some Final Advice
Or Maybe Some Questions???
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