TRANSFINE TRANSfer between Formal, Informal and Nonformal Education Country studies ESTONIA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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TRANSFINE TRANSfer between Formal, Informal and Nonformal Education Country studies ESTONIA

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... is not sufficient, work experience is required; new professions ... the volume of curriculum per 1 nominal study year is 40 CP. diploma studies - 120-160 CP ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: TRANSFINE TRANSfer between Formal, Informal and Nonformal Education Country studies ESTONIA


1
TRANSFINE TRANSfer between Formal, Informal
and Non-formal Education Country studiesESTONIA
2
Workgroup
  • Aune Valk University of Tartu
  • Aili Saluveer University of Tartu
  • Ülle Kesli University of Tartu
  • Kaja Karo University of Tartu
  • Anne Kivimäe Ministry of Education and Research
  • Terje Haidak Ministry of Education and Research
  • Eda Anton Tartu Centre of Vocational Training

3
Methods of research
  • written sets of questions
  • interviews
  • meetings of focus groups
  • group-work (in conference)
  • panel discussion (in conference)

4
Participants
  • Voluntary and Youth Sector - 9 sets of questions
    interviews
  • General Education 10 sets of questions 30
    representatives in focus group discussion
  • Vocational Education 16 sets of questions
  • Higher Education 16 sets of questions 25
    representatives in focus group discussion
  • Adult Education 10 sets of questions
    interviews
  • Employers and Social Partners 5 sets of
    questions 5 representatives in focus group
    discussion
  • Government representatives from Ministry of
    Education and Research and Ministry of Social
    Affairs

5
Background 1 (work)
  • changes in society
  • changes in education system and labour market
  • quickly changing labour market education is not
    sufficient, work experience is required
  • new professions
  • establishment of the requirements for
    professional qualification and assigning a
    profession

6
Background 2 (education)
  • higher education reforms promoted the discussion
    for Accreditation of Prior and Experiential
    Learning (APEL)
  • until 1992 5 year studies Diploma of
    Specialist studies for Candidate of Sciences
    the highest degree - Doctor of Sciences - after
    decades of research
  • since 1992 4 years for Bachelor 2 years for
    Master and 4 years for PhD
  • applying Bologna Declaration in 2002 32 system
    for Bachelors and Masters degree
  • increase in the number of adult students in
    formal education (2 times in 5 years 60 000)
  • vocational schools were reformed into applied
    higher educational institutions
  • diversification of educational institutions
  • more flexible curricula

7
APEL in Estonia

EMPLOYERS AND SOCIAL PARTNERS
ADULT AND CONTINUING EDUCATION
HIGHER EDUCATION
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
GENERAL EDUCATION
8
GENERAL EDUCATION
  • previous formal education
  • studies abroad
  • music, art groups, sport
  • elective subjects
  • recognised more in
  • specialised schools
  • evening schools (for adults)
  • strict regulations Basic School and Secondary
    School (Gymnasium) Act

9
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
  • formal education as a part of curriculum
  • recognition of preliminary vocational education
  • work experience as a part of practical training
  • secondary vocational education as a part of
    applied higher education
  • national regulations Vocational School Act,
    Applied Higher Educational Institutions Act, etc

10
HIGHER EDUCATION
  • formal education of the same level from other
    universities
  • continuing education as elective subjects
  • work experience as an additional requirement for
    admission and/or as a part of practical training
  • admission to Master or PhD studies (...degree or
    its equivalent)
  • some very flexible examples
  • national regulations University Act,
  • Standards of Higher Education

11
ADULT AND CONTINUING EDUCATION
  • more flexible curriculum, i.e. tailoring it to
    the needs of learners by changing or cancelling
    modules, etc
  • non-formal education is too close to formal
    education - similar criteria for assessment
  • no national regulations

12
EMPLOYERS AND SOCIAL PARTNERS
  • recruitment - formal studies and prior work
    experience, the qualities of personality
  • enhancing qualification - different aspects are
    assessed
  • ways of assessment are very diversified
  • mostly inner regulations
  • national regulations Professional Qualifications
    Act, Standards of Professional Qualifications etc
    (not obligatory)

13
What is taken into account?
  • general education studies abroad, music and art
    groups, sport and to certain extent elective
    subjects
  • vocational education formal education of the
    same level, preliminary vocational education and
    work experience
  • higher education admission, formal education of
    the same level, continuing education, work
    experience, secondary vocational education as a
    part of applied higher education
  • adult and continuing education tailoring
    curriculum to the needs of learners
  • employers formal studies, work experience,
    personal characteristics (recruitment),
    continuing education and personal development
    (accreditation)

14
What is taken as the basis for APEL?
  • documents of prior studies (certificates,
    diplomas, supplements)
  • control of knowledge and skills (examination,
    test, practical work)
  • portfolio
  • CV
  • recommendations
  • interviews

15
Tools
  • Estonian credit points system in higher
    education
  • 1 credit point (CP) is corresponding to 40 hours
    or 1 week of student work
  • the volume of curriculum per 1 nominal study year
    is 40 CP
  • diploma studies - 120-160 CP
  • bachelor studies - 120-160 CP
  • master studies - 40-80 CP (including the
    bachelor's studies it must not be less than 200
    CP)
  • PhD studies - 160 CP
  • From 1.09.2006 Estonian higher education
    programmes must be in conformity with the ECTS
    rules.

16
Problems 1
  • lack of awareness
  • people are not aware of their opportunities for
    APEL
  • they are not able to assess their experience/
    knowledge and offer it as their development/
    prior studies
  • traditions and attitude
  • suspicion and sometimes even opposition to
    alternative education of those who have acquired
    classical formal education

17
Problems 2
  • lack of regulations (or sometimes too strict
    rules)
  • decisions are subjective
  • question of responsibility
  • problems with legislation
  • national examinations since 1996
  • new University Act (50 of studies in the
    institution that issues a diploma, contradicting
    the Lisbon Convention)
  • strict requirements for the academic staff
  • curricula are subject-based not outcome oriented

18
Problems 3
  • money
  • application of APEL is time-consuming and there
    are no fixed financial sources
  • alternative education is dealt (not always
    consciously) with as a dangerous competitor to
    formal education
  • difference between diplomas, certificates with
    regard to their content, quality and level
  • diplomas from different times have different
    scope and content
  • in different institutions the subjects are taught
    at different levels and scopes
  • content and scope of prior (pre 1992) studies
    have not been pointed out

19
Problems
  • lack of awareness
  • tradition and attitude
  • lack of regulations (or sometimes too strict
    rules)
  • problems with legislation
  • money
  • difference between diplomas, certificates with
    regard to their content, quality and level

20
Attitude to the European system
  • necessary
  • no uniform system in Estonia
  • useful
  • guarantees integrated approach to accreditation
    of prior learning
  • increases the awareness of potential users about
    their opportunities
  • regulations and tools simplify decision-making
  • facilitates free movement of learners and labour
    force inside the country and between the states

21
European system should
  • be simple and understandable
  • be transparent
  • be available and open
  • be applicable to all study forms and levels
  • be mutually recognised
  • be based on guaranteeing the required quality
  • guarantee comparability of different
    certificates, diplomas, degrees and qualification
    requirements
  • provide necessary tools for application of APEL
    (especially for informal education)
  • be supported with guidance and counselling

22
System of APEL of the University of Tartu (draft)
  • I. Principles
  • II. APEL and Admission to the University
  • III. APEL as a Part of Fulfilment of the
    Requirements of Curriculum
  • IV. Procedure of APEL
  • V. Financing
  • VI. Quality control
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