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Moderation of schoolbased teacher judgments of student achievement: experience and practice in Queen


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Title: Moderation of schoolbased teacher judgments of student achievement: experience and practice in Queen

  • Moderation of school-based teacher judgments of
    student achievement experience and practice in
  • Graham Maxwell
  • Queensland Studies Authority

Australia overview
  • Strong curriculum base affecting assessment
  • Incorporation of school-based assessment in all
  • Preference for standards-based assessment
  • Respect for teacher judgment
  • Vocational education within schooling

Australia overview (cont)
  • Multiple pathways to future study and careers
    (without explicit tracking)
  • School-based assessment in the compulsory years
  • Outcomes-based frameworks
  • Issues concerning national benchmarks
  • Equity issues

Australia update
  • Curriculum consistency?
  • Essential learnings?
  • Reporting consistency?
  • Literacy and numeracy testing (aspects of?)
  • Lit. Num. benchmarks and reporting?
  • Other testing (Sci, ICT, Civ Cit) (sample)
  • Generic and employability skills?

Queensland structures
  • Traditional pattern
  • pre-school, primary (1-7), secondary (8-12)
  • Current syllabus structures
  • Years 1-10 KLA syllabuses
  • Years 11-12 Senior certificate
  • New pattern
  • early (P-4), middle (5-9), senior (10-12)

Queensland Studies Authority
  • Amalgamation in 2002 of previous
  • Queensland School Curriculum Council (Yrs 1-10)
  • Board of Senior Secondary School Studies (Yrs
  • Tertiary Entrance Procedures Authority
  • Main functions
  • Syllabuses (P-12)
  • Assessment
  • Moderation
  • Certification (Senior Certificate)

Queensland assessment
  • Formal statewide requirements
  • Year 2 Diagnostic Net
  • Years 3, 5 7 literacy and numeracy tests
  • Year 9 literacy and numeracy tests?
  • Senior Certificate (end of Year 12)

Years 1-10 KLA syllabuses
  • Specified core learning outcomes
  • strand, sub-strand, cross-curriculum
  • Developmental levels (62)
  • Assessing and reporting a school responsibility
  • Current statewide consultation on assessing and
  • Distinction between recording and reporting

Current Senior Certificate
  • End-of-schooling record of achievement
  • Reports
  • Levels of Achievement in approved subjects
  • Accredited VET certificates and competencies
  • Awarded if
  • student completes Year 12
  • student has one recordable result

Senior Certificate subjects
  • A subjects (count towards university selection
    index) moderated
  • AR subjects (count towards alternative ranking
    index) unmoderated

Proposed Senior Certificate
  • Will require minimum amount and quality of
  • Will broaden recognised types of learning
  • Other recognised awards and certificates
  • Work-based, community-based and self-directed
  • All students will have record of learning
  • (from Year 10)

Fundamental principles for Senior Certification
  • Partnership between QSA and schools
  • Syllabuses as
  • Curriculum frameworks
  • Exit performance standards (five levels of
  • School implementation plans (work programs)
  • Teaching and assessment program
  • Assessment continuous and formative
  • Match to syllabus learning expectations
  • Building a portfolio of student work
  • Assessment as judgment against standards

Reporting final level reached
  • Final report is judgment of where the student
    got to in their learning journey, not where they
    started or where they were on the average across
    the whole course
  • Earlier assessments may be superseded by later
    assessments covering the same underlying
    dimensions of learning (selective updating)
  • Final result is not mathematical aggregation
  • Final result is an interpretation of the body of
    evidence (portfolio)

Stages of external moderation for A subjects
  • Approval (of work programs)
  • Monitoring (end of Year 11)
  • Verification (end of Year 12 - Term 3)
  • Confirmation (end of Year 12)
  • Random Sampling (post hoc)

Moderation for A subjects
  • School-based assessment
  • Varied assessment techniques
  • Building a portfolio of student work
  • Teacher judgments against standards
  • Internal (within-school) moderation
  • Moderation by expert teacher panels
  • Feedback advice to schools
  • Negotiation of final results

What do panels do?
  • District panel reviews school submissions
  • School submits sample of portfolios
  • School submits other material
  • Consider whether they agree with school
  • Focus on confirming or challenging
  • Not a blind or independent judgment
  • Emphasis on looking for evidence
  • Aim is to reconcile any differences of opinion
  • State panel reviews samples from districts
  • State panel arbitrates difficult cases
  • QSA Officers provide support and advice

Some features in 1972
  • University orientation (with one university)
  • 30 retention of age group
  • Strong subject-matter demands
  • Norm-referencing and over-testing
  • Universal use of marks and cut-offs
  • Emphasised end-of-semester examinations
  • Reported result for each semester
  • Consensus moderation meetings

Some features in 2004
  • Broader orientation (not just university)
  • 7580 retention of age group
  • Focus on subject-related processes
  • Standards-referencing and balance
  • On-balance defensible judgments
  • Whole of subject completion
  • Report exit level of achievement
  • Focus on where the student gets to
  • Expert panel moderation

Other updates
  • Credentialling of panellists
  • On-line submissions of work programs
  • Special consideration principles
  • Late submission and non-submission
  • Revisiting (assessments/semesters)

Staffing review panels
  • Advertise vacant positions
  • Selection and appointment by QSA Office
  • Balance of representation sought
  • Rollover every six years (life of syllabus)
  • Chairs can have two terms
  • One-third of members changed each time
  • Training and credentialling
  • Training tied to cycle of syllabus implementation

  • School principal, heads-of-department, teachers
    (within-school moderation)
  • Review panels chairs (state and district)
    (guardians of standards over time know teachers
    and schools)
  • Standards and Assessment Officers (support
    syllabus development, provide assessment
    workshops, advise and assist schools, accredit
    panel members, support panel chairs, check
    certification data)

Some key characteristics
  • Partnership
  • Trust (in teachers)
  • Involvement (of teachers)
  • Parent and public acceptance
  • Transparency
  • Adaptation (to local contexts)
  • Accountability
  • Improvement

Some lessons of continuous assessment
  • Synthesises formative and summative (continual
    feedback on progress against outcome targets)
  • Builds and updates an evidential record of
    progress (dispersed rather than peak pressure no
    surprises at end)
  • Fits new understandings of learning (context,
    engagement, authenticity)
  • Extends range of assessable learning (broadening
    the curriculum)
  • Develops student self-assessment and knowledge

Some lessons of moderation
  • Responsibility encourages professionalism
  • Empowers teachers (and students)
  • Can produce acceptable comparability
  • Creates powerful professional development
  • Beginning with lower stakes assessment
  • Building public perceptions and confidence
  • Perseverance having a long term view