Fallout Shelter Management Course for MMRS Medical Facilities - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Fallout Shelter Management Course for MMRS Medical Facilities PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 20a3a-NGZkY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Fallout Shelter Management Course for MMRS Medical Facilities

Description:

3. The Government has made all necessary preparations to protect me. ... Know the Duties of a Fallout Shelter Manager and how the Shelter would operate ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:253
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 181
Provided by: kirkpa
Learn more at: http://www.madisoncountyema.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Fallout Shelter Management Course for MMRS Medical Facilities


1
Fallout Shelter Management Course for MMRS
Medical Facilities
  • August 2006

2
Fallout Shelter Management CourseDisclaimer/Waive
r of Liability
  • The use of or adaptation of any materials or any
    presentation techniques by any entity and/or
    individual signifies that the user and/or adaptor
    understands the inherent risks involved and
    further assumes any and all liability that may
    result. The City of _________, _________, the
    _________ County Commission, and the _________
    Emergency Management Agency express that
    reasonable care and good faith were exercised in
    development of the materials and presentation
    techniques nevertheless, use of these materials
    or presentation techniques is at the sole risk
    and liability of the user. The City of
    _________, _________, the _________ County
    Commission, the _________ County Emergency
    Management Agency, and the federal government
    specifically disclaim any and all responsibility
    or liability for any damages to person or
    property resulting from the use of these
    materials or presentations. Materials and
    presentation techniques include any materials
    and/or presentations, outline instructions and
    actions which are generally accepted as typical
    for recovery from the detonation of a nuclear
    weapon or dispersal of radiological isotopes.
    However, the conditions created by such events
    cannot be foreseen, thus, any entity and/or
    individual implementing the instruction materials
    may suffer property damages as well as serious
    injury up to and including death.

3
Housekeeping
  • -Parking building access
  • -Classroom
  • -Refreshments
  • -Restrooms
  • -Schedule breaks and session lengths
  • -Smoking
  • -Outlines/course materials
  • -Student manuals
  • -Test
  • -Graduation certificate

4
Course Plan
  • Introduction 1.0 hour
  • Module 1, Public vs. Medical Fallout
    Shelters 3.0 hours
  • Module 2, Organizing for Survival 3.0 hours
  • Module 3, Managing Critical Resources 3.0
    hours
  • Module 4, Review and exercise 1.5 hours
  • Test Evaluation .5 hours
  • TOTAL 12.0 hours

5
CEUs for Nurses
  • The SPH Nursing Division has been approved by the
    _________ State Nurses Association (_SNA) and the
    _________ Board of Nursing (_BN) to provide
  • 7.2 CEUs for nurses for completion on August 30
  • 7.2 CEUs for nurses for completion on August
    31 (14.4 CEUs total)
  • Physicians, Administrators and others will
    receive a Certificate of Attendance

6
  • Pre-course Survey
  • Yes No
  • 1. I want to survive a nuclear attack. ____ ____
  • 2. Survival from a nuclear attack is
    possible. ____ ____
  • 3. The Government has made all necessary
    preparations to protect me . ____ ____
  • 4. Protection against nuclear weapon effects is
    possible. ____ ____
  • In a nuclear war, the earth will be
    destroyed. ____ ____
  • In a Fallout Shelter, purposeful leadership is as
    important as protection
  • from radiation or food and water. ____ ____
  • 7. Combining my skills and resources with those
    of others will enable us
  • to survive. ____ ____
  • 8. How long will lethal radiation last? 1
    week ____
  • 1 month ____
  • 1 year ____
  • forever ____
  • How long will it take to regain our present
    standard of living? 1 week ____
  • 1 month ____

7
Fallout Shelter Management in the 21st Century
This is not refighting the Cold War but
adapting to the threat of global terrorism and
the spread of nuclear weapons to nations who will
use them if they get them. The Department of
Homeland Security (DHS), under the Metropolitan
Medical Response System (MMRS) established a
three-phased program against attack with
Biological and Chemical agents and
Nuclear/Radiological attack. MMRS requires
_________ County to be capable to respond to an
attack, postulating a small-yield (10 KT) weapon,
and/or a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD
incorrectly called Dirty Bomb) that
produces - 7,500 immediate deaths -
25,000 contaminated victims (10,000 acute
15,000 moderate) - 100,000 displaced
persons Having and using Fallout Shelters would
minimize these casualties.
8
Course Objectives
  • Upon completion of the course, you will be able
    to
  • 1. Know what a Fallout Shelter is and how it
    protects people.
  • 2. List the three principles of radiation
    protection and how they are embodied in a Fallout
    Shelter.
  • Know the Duties of a Fallout Shelter Manager and
    how the Shelter would operate within the _______
    County Shelter System.
  • Know how to create a shelter staff and organize
    the shelter population.
  • Integrate Fallout Shelter staff operations with
    medical facility operations.
  • 6. Operate a Fallout Shelter during the three
    phases of shelter life.
  • 7. Know the importance of an orderly preparation
    for life in the post- attack recovery period.
  • 8. Describe the emergency, expedient plans for
    stocking, equipping and
  • upgrading the protection of Fallout Shelters.

9
Duties of the Fallout Shelter Manager
  • 1. Fill the shelter rapidly and orderly to
    capacity.
  • 2. Protect the shelter against weapons effects.
  • 3. Satisfy basic human needs Air Water
    Sanitation Hygiene Sleep Food Psychological
    and Medical support.
  • 4. Establish a Shelter Organization and Schedule
    to carry out all activities.
  • 5. Maintain order and uphold the highest social
    standard of society.
  • 6. Train the shelter population for post-attack
    living.
  • 7. Keep morale high.
  • 8. Prepare for in-shelter emergencies.
  • 9. Prepare for both temporary and permanent
    shelter exit.
  • 10. Work with hospital management to continue
    medical operations.

10
Nuclear Attack in the 21st Century
  • A nuclear attack may
  • be on all major urban, industrial, economic,
    transport, communications military targets.
  • be only on selected targets such as military
    bases with offensive weapons.
  • be a single up to a few dozen detonations on
    specific or random targets.
  • be on armed forces outside the United States,
    e.g. the far East the Mid East Europe
  • the Balkans naval forces at sea or air
    battles.
  • be an act by a non-state, i.e. a terrorist
    group such as Al Qadea.
  • be threatened to bring about a military or
    political result or to bend the will of the
    people.
  • involve a detonation (fission/fusion) or
    release via an RDD
  • involve nations or armed forces other than the
    United States.

11
Protective Options
  • Evacuation
  • Feasible if completed before fallout/contamination
    arrives.
  • Area would have to be small and time adequate.
  • Detonation effects (blast/thermal/EMP) may impede
    evacuation.
  • Evacuees may be exposed and/or contaminated.
  • Shelter In Place
  • Critical facilities that can not evacuate, e.g.,
    hospitals, must continue to operate.
  • Necessary if fallout/contamination will arrive
    before evacuation complete
  • Fallout Shelters needed to protect against high
    level radiation/detonation.
  • Shelter-in-place (not necessarily Fallout
    Shelter) near RDD/very low level.
  • Shelter stay would range from a few days to 2
    weeks.
  • Authorities outside affected area can organize
    rescue/evacuation effort.
  • Shelterees may be exposed and/or contaminated.

12
Protective Options Critical Facilities
  • Evacuation
  • Feasible only if all staff and patients/clients
    can evacuate before fallout/contamination arrives
    and operations transferred to an alternate
    facility.
  • Shelter In Place
  • Necessary if operations can not be transferred or
    if staff clients can not evacuate.
  • Necessary if needed to support operations of
    other response agencies.
  • Must have Radiological Monitoring Exposure
    Control capabilities
  • Critical Facilities may be used to shelter
    families of the staff.
  • Critical Facilities will not be used to shelter
    the general public.

13
Fallout Shelter Management Course
  • Module 1
  • Public vs. Medical Fallout Shelters

14
Fallout Shelter Management Course
  • The Fallout Shelter is the core of the _________
    County Population Protection Program.
  • The mission of the Fallout Shelter Manager
    Protect the lives of as many people as possible
    and assist them to enter the post-attack world
    well enough in mind and body to begin
    reconstruction of society.
  • In MMRS Medical Facilities with Fallout Shelter
    space, enable medical operations during high
    level radiation conditions.
  • Within the Fallout Shelter, the Shelter Manager
    works as an extension of city or county
    government.

15
Fallout Shelter Profile
  • _________ Co. has more than 150 federally
    surveyed and approved Public Fallout Shelters.
    Total capacity is 000,000 persons.
  • MMRS medical facilities - _________have a
    combined capacity of 00,000 spaces reserved for
    medical operations and sheltering of staff,
    patients and their families, not for public
    sheltering.
  • _________ has reserved a few federally surveyed
    and approved Fallout Shelters
  • for use in Direction and Control, Medical and
    Recovery operations.
  • Some of these are privately owned.
  • Hundreds of privately owned Tornado/Fallout
    shelters exist.
  • A number of unsurveyed but potential shelters
    exist that could augment existing federally
    surveyed and approved Fallout Shelters.

16
Fallout Shelter Program Overview, Contd
  • Fallout Shelters protect against radiation
    based on the size, mass and location or site
    of the building and its surroundings.
  • Fallout Shelters are not intended to protect
    against other (blast, heat)
  • effects of a nuclear detonation, explosions or
    Chemical Biological Agents.
  • Such a capability may exist in a building due to
    its size, mass location.
  • Fallout Shelters are not intended for use after
    use of a RDD (but may be).
  • Contamination from a RDD can be expected to
    cover a few up to a few hundred acres with
    low-level radioactive material
  • A nuclear detonation may affect large areas
    (10-100 sq. miles) damaged by
  • direct effects and 100s to 1,000s of sq. miles
    with radioactive fallout.

17
Principles of Leadership
  • The Shelter Manager must
  • Assume command rapidly
  • Act with authority
  • Delegate authority
  • Organize people into task teams to meet needs
  • Refrain from personal over involvement with
    shelterees.
  • Establish priorities
  • Set a schedule
  • Be an example of model shelteree behavior
  • Recognize the changing needs of the shelterees
  • Keep people informed
  • Motivate people
  • In critical and medical facilities, integrate
    operations with COO.

18
The Three Phases of Shelter Stay
  • Entry The time from opening until a routine is
    established.
  • Routine A daily living pattern exists along with
    training preparation for post-shelter
    living medical operations resume.
  • Emergence The period from when preparations are
    complete and it is safe to exit to begin work
    of reconstruction until people can leave
    shelter permanently. Medical operations
  • expand.

19
Fallout Shelter Areas in MMRS Medical Facilities

20
Shelter Emergencies
  • The Shelter Manager may be faced with
    life-threatening emergencies and must plan to
    cope with them. Examples are
  • Structural damage to the shelter from a nearby
    detonation.
  • Fire in the shelter.
  • Dangerously high radiation levels.
  • Severely high temperatures and humidity.
  • Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide imbalance in the
    shelter.
  • Depletion of essential supplies.
  • Disease and injury among staff, patients
    families.
  • Unrest, anxiety, crime or defiance of order or
    authority.

21
The Shelter Mangers Responsibilities in
Radiological Protection
  • 1. Have the Radiological Monitor locate, by use
    of monitoring instruments, the best protected
    areas in the shelter.
  • 2. Keep the people in the shelter until outside
    radiation rates are low enough to leave safely.
  • 3. Keep the shelter, people and supplies from
    being contaminated.

22
Nuclear Vs. Conventional Weapons
  • Conventional explosives produce
  • - Heat
  • - Blast/Shock
  • and are measured in tons of explosive force.
  • Radiation Dispersion Device, RDD or Dirty Bomb
  • - May use conventional explosive to spread
    radioisotope
  • - Radioisotopes may be placed or spread without
    any explosion!
  • - No fission involved just exposure/contaminatio
    n.
  • Nuclear explosions produce
  • - Heat
  • - Blast/Shock
  • - Initial Nuclear Radiation
  • - Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) and
  • - Residual Nuclear Radiation or Fallout
  • and are measures in Kilotons (1,000s of tons)
    or
  • Megatons (1,000,000s of tons) of explosive force.

23
Weapon Effects
  • Nuclear Weapons produce effects in a time
    sequence. In order of occurrence and duration,
    they are
  • Initial Nuclear Radiation - less than 1 second
  • Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) - first few seconds
  • Heat - few to 90 seconds
  • Blast/Shock - up to 60 seconds
  • Residual Nuclear Radiation or FALLOUT -
    diminishes very rapidly at first, then
    slowly over . . . hours,
  • days,
  • weeks,
  • years . . .

24
  • Weapons Effects video

25
Weapon Effects, Contd
26
Where does the Energy Go?
27
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
28
Effects Across the Electromagnetic Spectrum
29
Understanding Radiation Radioactivity
  • Elements are substances that can not be broken
    down into simpler substances by chemical means.
  • There are 116 identified elements each has
    unique properties.
  • An atom is the simplest unit an element can be
    divided into and still keeps its unique
    properties.
  • Atoms which emit ionizing radiation are said to
    be radioactive.
  • Ionizing radiation produces charged particles,
    ions, in anything it strikes. It damages
    molecules in both living cells and inanimate
    mater.
  • Radiation refers to all sources of energy
    emissions, such as visible light, radio and sound
    waves as well as ionizing radiation.

30
Nuclear or Ionizing Radiation
31
Types of Radiation
  • Alpha Particles
  • - Largest, heaviest and most highly charged type
    of radiation
  • - Least penetrating stopped by 1 sheet of paper
    or single layer of clothing.
  • - Range 3-7 inches in air
  • - Normally, only an Internal Contamination Hazard
  • Beta Particles
  • - Smaller, lighter, faster less charge than
    Alpha (equivalent to an
  • electron)
  • - Moderate penetration about 0.05 in flesh,
    about 0.10 of Aluminum
  • - Range 10 feet in air
  • - Internal more than an External Contamination
    Hazard

32
Types of Radiation, Contd
  • Gamma rays
  • - Least charged
  • - Most penetrating stopped by dense, thick
    shielding (e.g., 8 of lead)
  • - Range 1 mile in air
  • - Both an Internal and External Contamination
    hazard
  • Neutrons
  • - Ejected from the nuclei of atoms
  • - Very penetrating
  • - Range 3000 in air
  • - ONLY radiation type that makes other matter
    radioactive!

33
Biological Injury Caused by Radiation
  • Gamma X Rays 1 unit of damage
  • Beta Particles 1x
  • Neutrons 2-10x
  • Alpha Particles 20x

34
Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation
  • Level of Biological Important Radiation Effects
  • Organization
  • Molecular Damage to enzymes, DNA, RNA, etc. and
    interference to biological pathways
  • Cellular Damage to cell membranes, nucleus,
    chromosomes, etc. Inhibition of cell
    division, cell death transformed to
    malignant state.
  • Tissues Damage and disruption to intestinal
    tract, bone marrow,
  • Organs capillaries, thyroid, central nervous
    system, etc.
  • Cancers induced.
  • Whole Body Radiation Lifeshortening death.
  • Populations Changes in the genetic
    characteristics of individuals.

35
Radiation Measurement Terms/Units
  • Four measurements used to describe radiation,
    radiation exposure and the damage it can do to
    living beings.
  • Activity (quantity)
  • Exposure Exposure Rate (energy)
  • Absorbed Dose Absorbed Dose Rate (absorbed
    energy)
  • Dose Equivalency Dose Equivalency Rate

36
Radiation Measurement Terms/Units
  • Activity (quantity)
  • Term Curie, Ci
  • Measures decay activity and is expressed as
    disintegrations
  • per second, DPS or counts per minute, CPM.
  • Alpha beta radiation rates are typically
    expressed in CPM
  • 1 Ci 3.7 billion DPS
  • System International (SI) Term Becquerel, Bq
  • 1 Bq 1 DPS (3.7 gBg 1 Ci)

37
Radiation Measurement Terms/Units
  • Exposure Exposure Rate (energy)
  • Term Roentgen, R, R/hr
  • Measures energy of gamma and X-radiation in air.
  • Does not apply to beta or alpha radiation
  • SI Term Coulomb/Kg, C/Kg/hr

38
Radiation Measurement Terms/Units
  • Absorbed Dose Absorbed Dose Rate (absorbed
    energy)
  • Term RAD, RAD/hr (Radiation Absorbed Dose)
  • Measures energy of any radiation in any mater.
  • SI Term Gray, Gy, Gy/hr 1 Gy 100 RAD

39
Radiation Measurement Terms/Units
  • Dose Equivalency Dose Equivalency Rate
  • Term REM, REM/hr (Roentgen Equivalent Man)
  • Measures energy of any radiation in people.
  • SI Term Sievert, Sv, Sv/hr 1 Sv 100 REM

40
Real Life Radiation Measurement
  • For our purposes, 1 R 1 RAD 1 REM
  • 1 R/hr 1 RAD/hr 1 REM/hr
  • Available radiation measuring instruments are
    calibrated in CPM and R/hr.
  • SI units not used.

41
Naturally Occurring, Long-lived Radionuclides in
the Human Body
  • Isotope Activity, pCi
  • (Pico curies)
  • 238U, Uranium 26
  • 226Ra, Radium 120
  • 228Ra, Radium 50
  • 210Pb, Lead 600
  • 210Po, Polonium 200
  • 40K, Potassium 130,000
  • 14C , Carbon 87,000
  • 3H, Tritium 27,700
  • 87Rb, Rubidium 29,000
  • 90Sr, Strontium 2,886
  • The total radioactivity in the
  • body is 277,582 pCi.
  • 10,270 DPS
  • 887,374,138 disintegrations per day
  • Each radioactive decay produces a radiation
    effect.
  • Sources Radiation Protection (pages 56, 370),
  • Shapiro, 1990, Harvard Press.

42
Natural Radioactivity in a Banana
  • Bananas are a good source of potassium, a very
    important nutrient.
  • Natural potassium contains 0.0117 potassium-40
    (40K) a radioactive isotope.
  • A medium size banana contains about 451 mg of
    potassium. The amount of 40K in it is 0.0528 mg.
  • This is equivalent to 14 DPS or 0.00037 uCi.
  • The dose equivalent from eating a banana is
    about 0.01 mREM, sometimes, this is called the
    banana equivalent dose.
  • Sources Food Values of Portion Commonly Used,
    16th edition, Bosen and Church. Chart of Nuclide,
    F. William Walker et al.

43
  • Medical effects of radiation video

44
Types of Nuclear Detonations
  • High Altitude Air Burst
    Surface Burst Subsurface Burst
  • Burst

45
Types of Nuclear Detonations
  • High Altitude Air Burst Surface
    Burst Subsurface Burst
  • (100,000) fireball does fireball
    touches fireball does not
  • not touch surface break surface of
  • Surface ground or water.
  • Not to scale
  • Heat minimal maximized moderate nil
  • Blast nil maximized moderate nil

46
EMP from a High Altitude Burst
47
EMP from High Altitude Bursts
48
The Reach of 500 KT, 1 MT 5 MT Weapons
  • Weapon Yield Ground Burst Air Burst
  • 500 KT 4 miles 7 miles
  • 1 MT 5 miles 8 miles
  • 5 MT 8 miles 13 miles
  • Doubling yield does not double the reach.
    Average size Russian weapon.

49
Weather Patterns
50
Fallout Pattern -Time/Wind effects
51
Fallout Decay
52
7/10 Rule for Fallout Decay
  • The 7/10 rule approximates decay for a single
    detonation during any period in its history.
  • For every 7-fold increase in Time, Fallout
    intensity decreases 10-fold.
  • Rate/Time Time Remaining
  • 2800 R/Hr at H1 (0 time starts at H1) 100
  • 280 R/Hr at H8 7 10
  • 28 R/Hr at H49 7x7 1
  • 2.8 R/Hr at H343 7x7x7 .10

53
Expected Effects of Short Term Gamma Radiation
Doses
  • Dose, in
  • Roentgens Effect
  • 0 - 50 No obvious effect lab exam
    necessary to determine.
  • 80 170 Vomiting nausea for about 1 day in
    25 of people no deaths expected.
  • 180 220 Vomiting nausea 50 of people
    sick no deaths expected.
  • 270 330 100 of people sick up to 20
    deaths. Survivors convalesce 3 months.
  • 400 500 50 deaths survivors convalescent
    about 6 months.
  • 550 750 Up to 100 deaths few survivors
    convalescent 6 mos.
  • Radiation Sickness is NOT contagious Victims
    are NOT radioactive!

54
Principles of Protection
  • Time Fallout radiation intensity decays rapidly
    90 in just the first 7 hours.
  • The less time you spend in a radiation field,
    the less dose received.
  • Distance The farther you are from a source, the
    less dose you receive.
  • Shielding Denser (heavier, massive) materials
    absorb more radiation.
  • Greater thickness of any given material
    absorbs more radiation.

55
Selecting Fallout Shelter Space
56
Fallout Shelter Space
57
Fallout Protection Factor, FPF
  • FPF Ratio between the radiation rate OUTSIDE to
    that INSIDE the
  • shelter. Outside 50 R/hr
  • Inside or 12.5 R/hr 4 FPF
  • A FPF of 100 means the inside rate is 1/100th
    the outside rate.
  • Example The nominal FPF of a shelter is 40.
    What are the inside
  • rates if the outside rates are
  • Time Rate Outside the Shelter
  • 1000 1 R/hr
  • 1100 100 R/hr
  • 1200 500 R/hr
  • 1300 440 R/hr
  • 1400 50 R/hr
  • 2400 40 R/hr

58
Fallout Protection Factor, FPF
  • FPF Ratio between the radiation rate OUTSIDE to
    that INSIDE the
  • shelter. Outside 50 R/hr
  • Inside or 12.5 R/hr 4 FPF
  • A FPF of 100 means the inside rate is 1/100th
    the outside rate.
  • Example The nominal FPF of a shelter is 40.
    What are the inside
  • rates if the outside rates are
  • Time Rate Outside Rate Inside the Shelter
  • 1000 1 R/hr 0.025 R/hr
  • 1100 100 R/hr 2.5
  • 1200 500 R/hr 12.5
  • 1300 440 R/hr 11
  • 1400 50 R/hr 1.25
  • 2400 40 R/hr 1

59
Protection Factors Mass of Materials
  • How Much Protection?
  • PF Lead Steel Concrete Earth Water Wood
  • 2 .3" .7" 2.0" 3.3" 5" 9"
  • 4 .5" 1.5" 5.0" 7.0" 10" 15"
  • 8 1.0" 2.0" 6.5" 10.0" 15" 27"
  • 16 1.2" 3.0" 9.0" 14.0" 20" 3 ft
  • 32 1.5" 4.0" 1 ft 15.0" 2 ft 4 ft
  • 64 2.0" 4.2" 13.2" 19.8" 2.5ft 4.5 ft
  • 128 2.1" 5.0" 15.0" 2 ft 3 ft 5 ft
  • 1000 3.0" 7.0" 22.0" 33.0" 4 ft -
  • 2000 3.3" 7.7" 2 ft 3 ft 4.5 ft -
  • Radiation is reduced on an increasing scale.
    For example, 1 ft of concrete reduces 800 R/hr
    32-fold to 50 R/hr 2 reduces it 2,000-fold to
    .4 R/hr. (Much better than if proportional
    reduction of 64-fold ensued.)

60
Possible FPFs in Example Buildings
61
Applying the 7/10 Rule
  • For every 7-fold increase in Time, Fallout
    intensity decreases 10-fold.
  • Examples It takes fallout 4 hours (H5) to
    reach you and maximum reading in the
  • shelter with a PF of 55 at H5 is 35 R/Hr.
  • What will the inside and outside rates be in 7
    hours
  • (Start Time of H5 x 1 Factor 7 5x7 or H35)?
  • In 10 days, 5 hours (Start Time of H5 x 2 Factor
    7s 5x7x7 or H245)?
  • If time of detonation is unknown, plot readings
    for several hours, then extrapolate forward.

62
Applying the 7/10 Rule
  • For every 7-fold increase in Time, Fallout
    intensity decreases 10-fold.
  • Examples It takes fallout 4 hours (H5) to
    reach you and maximum reading in the
  • shelter with a PF of 55 at H5 is 35 R/Hr.
  • What will the inside and outside rates be in 7
    hours?
  • In 10 days, 5 hours (H245 or 5x7x7)?
  • If time of detonation is unknown, plot readings
    for several hours, then extrapolate forward.

63
Answers Applying the 7/10 Rule
  • For every 7-fold increase in Time, Fallout
    intensity decreases 10-fold.
  • Examples It takes fallout 4 hours (H5) to
    reach you and maximum reading in the
  • shelter with a PF of 55 at H5 is 35 R/Hr.
  • What will the inside and outside rates be in 7
    hours?
  • Inside is 35 R/hr10 3.5 R/hr. Outside 35
    R/hr x 55 1925 R/hr
  • In 10 days, 5 hours (H245 or 5x7x7)?
  • Inside is 35 R/hr1010 0.35 R/hr. Outside
    0.35 R/hr x 55 19.25 R/hr
  • If time of detonation is unknown, plot readings
    for several hours, then extrapolate forward.

64
Accumulated Exposures
  • The following readings are taken
    outside Time R/hr Accum. 0400
    1
  • 0415 25
  • 0430 100
  • 0445 300
  • 0500 400
  • 0600 168
  • 0700 106
  • 0800 80
  • 0900 68
  • 1000 58
  • 1100 46
  • 1200 40

65
Questions Accumulated Exposures
  • The following readings are taken
    outside Time R/hr Accum. 0400
    1
  • 0415 25
  • 0430 100
  • 0445 300
  • 0500 400
  • 0600 168
  • 0700 106
  • 0800 80
  • What dose will a person who is outside 0900
    68
  • the shelter until 0500 accumulate? 1000 58
  • 1100 46
  • 1200 40

66
Questions Accumulated Exposures
  • The following readings are taken
    outside Time R/hr Accum. 0400
    1
  • 0415 25
  • 0430 100
  • 0445 300
  • 0500 400
  • 0600 168
  • 0700 106
  • 0800 80
  • What dose will a person who is outside 0900
    68
  • the shelter until 0500 accumulate? 1000 58
  • If PF is 40? 1100 46
  • 1200 40

67
Questions Accumulated Exposures
  • The following readings are taken
    outside Time R/hr Accum. 0400
    1
  • 0415 25
  • 0430 100
  • 0445 300
  • 0500 400
  • 0600 168
  • 0700 106
  • 0800 80
  • 0900 68
  • 1000 58
  • What dose would a person accumulate 1100 46
  • in the shelter until noon if the FPF is 10?
    1200 40

68
Answers Accumulated Exposures
  • The following readings are taken
    outside Time R/hr Accum. 0400
    1 -
  • 0415 25 6.5 R
  • 0430 100 22
  • 0445 300 72
  • 0500 400 160
  • 0600 168 444
  • 0700 106 581
  • 0800 80 674
  • What dose will a person who is outside 0900
    68 748
  • the shelter until 0500 accumulate? 1000
    58 811
  • If PF is 40? 1100 46 863
  • What dose would a person accumulate 1200
    40 906
  • in the shelter until noon if the FPF is 10?

69
Federal Fallout Shelter Standards
  • To meet federal standards, a public Fallout
    Shelter must have
  • 10 sq. ft./person with a 3 cfm/person ventilation
    rate, or
  • 500 cu. ft./ person if unventilated.
  • A Fallout Protection Factor, FPF, of 10 or more
    and
  • A capacity of 50 persons or more.
  • Other, best available (but still federally
    approved) shelters must offer
  • The same area/volume FPF characteristics,
  • A capacity of less than 50 persons.

70
_________ County Fallout Shelter Summary
  • _________ County, has 150 public Fallout
    Shelters
  • with a total nominal capacity of 000,000 persons
    available for the public.
  • Shelters are divided geographically into 9 groups
    for administration and
  • mutual support.
  • MMRS medical facilities have XX,000 additional
    places
  • MMRS medical facilities are reserved for staff,
    patients and their families and
  • will not be used as public shelters.

71
Fallout Shelters in MMRS Facilities
72
The Radiological Monitors Job
  • The Radiological Monitor, RM, surveys the shelter
    and reports his
  • findings to the Shelter Manager, SM, to
  • Locate the best protected areas of the shelter
    (highest FPF)
  • Record the total accumulated dose of the shelter
    population.
  • Advise the SM how to rotate shelterees between
    different areas to equalize exposure to radiation
    and accumulated doses.
  • Set time limits for those working outside the
    shelter (Exposure Control.)

73
Radiation Levels and Shelter Exit
74
Decontamination, Entering and Leaving the Shelter
  • After fallout arrives, decontaminate people and
    supplies by
  • Brushing
  • Shaking
  • Washing
  • Sweeping particles from shelter entrances
  • Filtering water
  • Coordinate trips outside the shelter with EMA or
    your RM.
  • Set Exposure Limits Plan the destination, the
    route, time allowed outside and who can go.

75
Activation of Fallout Shelters
  • Fallout Shelters may be activated
  • As a result of escalating international tensions
    (Increased Readiness)
  • Upon the Attack Warning from the federal
    government
  • Upon a detonation with no warning
  • Public instructed to bring water, food, medicine,
    bedding, etc. with them.
  • If time allows, the shelters would be staffed and
    efforts made to stock them with water, first aid
    kits, sanitation/hygiene supplies and food.
  • The public enters public shelters only upon the
    Attack Warning MMRS Facilities secured, operated
    as a shelter.

76
Command Support of Fallout Shelters
SCH Shelter Complex Headquarters Number of
shelters grouped in each SCH
77
Upgrading Fallout Protection
Increase shielding by First Plan improvise
vents, ventilation at least 2 entrances.
Second Add wooden supports on each
story. Third Add a maximum of 12 dirt on
upper floors/roof. Forth Cover windows
openings with plywood sheets. Last Pile dirt
to ceiling height along outside walls windows.
78
Upgrading Fallout Protection
Increase shielding by First Plan improvise
vents, ventilation at least 2 entrances.
Second Add wooden supports on each
story. Third Add a maximum of 12 dirt on
upper floors/roof. Forth Cover windows
openings with plywood sheets. Last Pile dirt
to ceiling height along outside walls
windows. A shelter to be upgraded is a single
story high and 200 x 200 in size. It has a
6 wide double door in front and a 3 wide
single door in back. It is decided to pile dirt
12 high on the roof 6 high 6 wide at base
sloping evenly up to the 6 mark - around the
exterior except at the doors. How much dirt is
needed?
79
Upgrading Fallout Protection
  • How much dirt is needed? Is it practical?
  • A shelter to be upgraded is a single story high
    and 200 x 200 in size. It has a 6 wide double
    door in front and a 3 wide single door in back.
  • Dirt is to be piled 12 high on the roof 6
    high 6 wide at base sloping evenly up to the 6
    mark around the exterior except at the doors.
  • Roof calculate volume as 200 x 200 x 1
    4,000 cu ft of dirt
  • Sides calculate volume using area of triangle x
    liner feet
  • 6 x 6 x .5 18 cu ft per linear foot
  • 200 200 200 200 9 791 linear
    feet.
  • 18 x 791 14,238 cu ft
  • Total volume needed 18, 238 cu ft or 676 cu
    yds (56 dump trucks _at_ 12 cu yd)
  • Other materials needed plywood to cover 22
    windows 225 support posts.

80
Fallout Shelter Readiness
  • Operational Readiness means your shelter is ready
    for use. To do this
  • 1. Determine what shielding capabilities the
    structure has. Upgrade the shielding if
    practical.
  • 2. Integrate Medical Operations Shelter
    Operations with Chief Ops Officer.
  • 3. Select, train and assign Shelter Managers and
    Radiological Monitors.
  • 4. As available, stock shelters with water,
    sanitation/hygiene first aid supplies food
    plus radiological monitoring instruments provided
    by EMA.
  • 5. SM fills all shelter staff positions and begin
    Shelter Team training/functions.
  • 6. Coordinate Shelter Readiness activities with
    EMA.

81
  • Improvising Radiation Protection video

82
Attack Warning Signals - Methods
  • EAS, Emergency Alert System
  • TV
  • Radio
  • NOAA Weather Radio
  • Outdoor Warning Sirens
  • Cable Satellite TV/Radio
  • Internet, Blackberry, etc.
  • Pager, PDA, etc., etc

83
Attack Warning Signals
  • Outdoor Warning Sirens
  • Attack Warning Signal - a 3 to 5 minute wavering
    siren means that an actual attack or missile
    launch against the US has been detected take
    protective action immediately. This signal will
    be used for no other purpose and will have no
    other meaning.
  • Alert Signal - is a 3 to 5 minute steady siren
    means turn on your radio or television and
    listen for emergency information and
    instructions. This signal is typically used to
    during Tornado Warnings or other peacetime
    emergencies such as a Hazardous Material release.

84
Emergency Operations Center
  • The EOC serves as the seat of government during
    an emergency.
  • An EOC must have
  • Protection from fallout radiation (FPF of 100
    recommended new EOC is 60)
  • Warning systems to notify the public. The EOC
    can activate the EAS and has outdoor warning
    siren coverage of 80 county population.
  • Communications with local and state government
    agencies and with Fallout Shelters through the
    Shelter Complex Headquarters. (phones, radios
    runners)
  • Trained staff from local government agencies
    RACES
  • Equipment supplies (if time allows, shelters
    stocked during Increased Readiness otherwise
    everyone brings their own supplies!)

85
Fallout Shelter Management Course
  • Module 2
  • Organizing for Survival

86
Shelter Organization
  • The Shelter Manager is responsible for organizing
    shelterees into
  • specialized teams capable of group survival.
  • These teams are
  • Leadership Teams
  • Management (Task) Teams
  • Groups of people (your families plus patients
    their families)
  • 2.2A and 2.2A1

87
Organization at Entry and After . . .
  • At entry, the shelter organization need not be in
    its final, permanent
  • form since it exists only to meet the
    requirements of the shelter
  • Entry period. These requirements are
  • Security Traffic teams to screen people coming
    into the shelter (fill innermost areas first,
    working back to entrance) and take head count.
  • Traffic Assistants to aid the Leader direct
    traffic.
  • Security, Medical, Communications, Safety and
    Sanitation Teams.
  • Other required team(s), depending on
    circumstances.
  • 2.2B1

88
Fallout Shelter Managers Kit
  • A written plan on how to organize your shelter.

89
Shelter Groups
  • The needs of everyone are met by organizing and
    exerting leadership through four groups
  • Core Management Staff
  • Task Teams
  • Community Groups
  • Advisory Committee
  • 2.2Cx

90
Tailoring Meeting Your Needs
  • The Form your shelter organization will take
    depends on
  • The size of the shelter
  • The shape of the shelter and contiguous shelter
    areas (e.g. separated building wings or floors,
    etc.)
  • Capability of the shelter as limited by its
    structure (e.g., an unventilated basement) and
    its supplies (e.g., ample vs. scarce water)
  • Availability of trained people for team
    positions
  • The shelterees themselves how well they know
    each other, community spirit, etc. . .
  • For Critical Facilities your mission.
  • 2.2D2

91
Shelter Organization Chart (ICS compliant)
92
Relationships Between Shelter Groups
  • Community Groups
  • The Community Group head is responsible to see
    that shelterees participate in shelter
    activities.
  • In Critical Facilities, these can be workers
    arranged in their work units.
  • 2.E 3-5

93
Task Teams
  • Task Teams plan and implement activities such as
    training, feeding, medical care, etc.
  • The Task Team Chief is responsible to assign,
    train, schedule supervise members of his team.
    He is responsible for members while they are on
    duty with the team.
  • Considerations for team assignments
  • Assign off-duty staff
  • Reunite family or friends
  • Rotate assignments or unpleasant tasks
  • Give variety to the routine
  • Gain better cooperation
  • Give it a rest!
  • In Critical Facilities to accomplish the
    mission.

94
Sample Daily Schedules
95
Registration
  • Registration is the best means for obtaining
    information to
  • Identify define skills talents among the
    shelterees (in addition to job skills.)
  • Provide data for assigning people to Task Teams
    Community Groups.
  • Aid in reuniting families, return of personal
    property taking the shelter census.
  • The Administrative Team keeps shelter records.
    At entry, get only the essential information
    wait for a more appropriate time to complete
    Registration Forms.
  • In Critical Facilities, spouses, children,
    relatives friends of employees must be
    expected, accommodated and organized! Put them
    to use!
  • 2F

96
_________ Department of Human ResourcesForm
EWS-1
97
Shelter Staff Identification
  • The Shelter Manager and his staff should be
    identified by some distinctive method. People
    will instinctively look to you for help
    direction.
  • Such distinctive methods include labeled
    headgear, vests or armbands. Labels are included
    in the Shelter Kit.
  • Individual Shelterees should be identified by a
    name tag or improvised label. This helps break
    the ice and makes it easier for people to work
    together.
  • In Critical Facilities, the Shelter Manager may
    be the Director or the function may be delegated.
  • 2FB

98
Organizing Shelter Resources
  • 1. Centralized supply management.
  • 2. Decentralized Supply Management
  • - Functional
  • - Area
  • 3. Combined Supply Management
  • 2G

99
Managing Shelter Supplies
  • Sources of Supplies
  • Supplies normally kept in the building
  • Supplies belonging to and brought in by
    shelterees
  • Supplies stocked during Increased Readiness
  • Improvised supplies
  • External sources, when safe
  • 2.H23

100
Managing Shelter Supplies, Contd
  • Inventorying Supplies
  • The Shelter Manager should inventory all supplies
    and materials as soon as possible after entry.
  • Prepare to ration supplies for a 14 day stay
  • Develop multiple uses for supplies materials
  • 2.H23

101
Managing Shelter Supplies, Contd
  • Distributing Shelter Supplies
  • 1. Fixed Point method
  • 2. Moving Point Method
  • 3. Combined method
  • 2.H23

102
Shelter Records - 1
  • A Shelter Log is kept by the Administrative Team
    to record
  • 1. Changes in vital statistics census births
    deaths
  • 2. Medical events treatments
  • 3. Serious violations of Shelter Rules
  • 4. Major management decisions
  • 5. Daily summary of shelter status problems
  • 2.I4-6

103
Shelter Records - 2
  • A Communications Log is Kept by the
    Communications Team
  • 1. All messages are entered in the log.
  • 2. Keep separate logs for Incoming and Outgoing
    messages.

104
Shelter Records - 3
  • Medical records are kept by the Medical Team
  • 1. Record the names of those with medical
    problems, their symptoms, medication treatment.
  • 2. Deaths and circumstances are recorded

105
Shelter Records - 4
  • A Supply Status Summary is kept by the Supply
    Team
  • 1. Record the Inventory of all Shelter Supplies
  • 2. Provide a running account (e.g. at end of each
    day) of all supplies.

106
Shelter Records - 5
  • A Radiation Monitoring Log is kept by the
    Radiological Monitor
  • 1. Enter shelter survey dose rates, best
    protected area and FPF data.
  • 2. Enter readings, by area on radiation levels
    accumulated exposures.
  • 3. Record the daily and accumulated dose for each
    shelteree.

107
Shelter Records - 5A
  • Survey Shelter Meter Reading Chart
  • (add chart)
  • Video - Using Radiological Instruments in a
    Fallout Shelter

108
Management of Private Property
  • Bulky items should be excluded to save space
    store in non-shelter areas.
  • Pets should be excluded from the occupied shelter
    area for sanitation safety reasons BUT may be
    put in surplus shelter areas or non-shelter
    areas. Alternate leave pets in cars
  • Care feeding by owners should be allowed
    encouraged.
  • Encourage the donation of personal items if they
    help achieve the goal of group survival.
  • Drugs, alcohol and weapons can be viewed
    positively as survival supplies rather than as
    dangerous or personal possessions.

109
Private Property, Contd
  • Personal items that may be useful include
  • Beverages Notebooks Shovels Clothing
  • Gloves Cell phones, Blackberries Axes Medicine
  • Pens pencils Knives Games Rope, wire, string
  • Utensils Radios, DVDs, iPods Hammers Books
  • Cleaners Flashlights Tools Toys
  • Batteries Laptops, PDAs Diapers Soap
  • Towels Nails, nuts bolts Bedding Food
  • Whats in your car?
  • 2.J

110
Social Control in a ShelterHint This Is the
Most Important Concept in This Course!
  • Every society has rules.
  • Social Control is the way the group makes,
    communicates enforces these rules.
  • The Shelter Manager must develop a plan for
    shelter living containing a Schedule and set of
    Rules encompassing all shelter activities.
  • This plan must be presented to and accepted by
    the shelterees!
  • The Advisory Committee is the key to success.
    The Advisory Committee, made up of mature,
    grounded individuals selected from the Community
    Groups, can be a focus of feedback from the
    Community Groups - and a source of information to
    the groups. The Advisory Committee can exert
    calm, purpose, leadership, persuasion, morale
    building moral authority, etc. to support the
    Manger.

111
The Importance of Social Control
  • The Shelter Plan evokes confidence a sense of
    security among shelterees by assuring them the
    highest standards of society will govern their
    stay.
  • It also makes the future somewhat predictable by
    showing what they must do to increase their
    chances of survival.
  • 2.K.

112
Establishing Shelter Rules
  • Every aspect of shelter living should be
    governed by rules, including
  • 1. Entering and leaving the shelter.
  • 2. The use of all equipment and tools.
  • 3. All daily activities meals recreation
    sanitation, sleeping . . .
  • 4. Potential troublesome behavior fighting,
    quarreling, gambling gang activity alcohol or
    drug use smoking, sexual behavior, etc.
  • 2.L.1

113
Developing Shelter Rules
  • 1. Develop rules early, in advance of a problem.
  • Proactive is much better than reactive.
  • 2. Some rules may be elective, others prescribed.
  • 3. Determine if a rule fulfills its intended
    purpose.
  • 4. Coordinate rules so they don't conflict.
  • 5. Make only necessary rules. If it aint broke
    . . .
  • 2.L.2

114
Maintaining Order in the Shelter
  • Identify and respond to potential problems before
    a rule is broken.
  • Evaluate the seriousness of a rule violation.
  • Corrective action should be in proportion to the
    offense.
  • Reproof
    Physical Restraint
    . Counsel Arrest
  • Make clear you are concerned with group survival,
    not punishing
  • one individual.
  • Violent responses or expulsion from the Shelter
    are not recommended.
  • If restraint is warranted, wrap person in sheets
    bind with belts, rope, etc. and set a 24/7
    watch on him/them in a isolated, secure area.
  • 2.M

115
The Shelter Schedule
  • The schedule should be developed by your core
    management staff as soon as possible after Entry.
  • Guidelines
  • 1. Limit activities to an hour or less because of
    reduced attention span fatigue.
  • 2. Spread activities throughout the day for
    variety.
  • 3. Schedule training when shelterees are most
    alert.
  • 4. Allow daytime nap rest periods.
  • 5. Provide several snack breaks.
  • 2.N.1-2

116
Shelter Schedule - 1 Shift
117
Shelter Schedule - 2 Shifts
118
Fallout Shelter Management Course
  • Module 3
  • Managing Critical Resources

119
Atmosphere and Temperature
  • Three goals of the Shelter Manager
  • 1. Maintain the temperature of the shelter within
    survival limits.
  • 2. Control critical components in the atmosphere.
  • 3. Control potentially lethal or noxious
    substances.
  • 3.A2-3

120
Atmosphere and Temperature - 2
  • Air exchange is by means of
  • 1. Natural ventilation
  • 2. Forced ventilation

121
Effective Temperature, ET
  • ET is a measure of temperature, humidity and air
    movement combined.
  • People are much more comfortable at high
    temperature with low humidity and air movement
    than in high humidity or still air.
  • ET may greatly lower the shelter capacity - far,
    far below nominal capacity!

122
Managing Effective Temperature in a Shelter
  • One average size male produces 70,000
    calories/hour or 288 BTU/hr at rest. One hundred
    average-size males can produce 28,800 BTU/hr.
  • The output of the average home heating system is
    30-40,000 BTU/hr.
  • In a shelter, people are allotted space at the
    rate of 10 sq. ft/person 100 people in 1,000 sq.
    ft. Imagine the constant heat output of the
    average house in 1/2 its volume!
  • -Where does the excess heat go?
  • -How does it affect people?
  • -How do you manage it?
  • Heat build up will be tremendous in areas with
    restricted airflow!
  • Comfort? Fatigue? Irritability? Health?
    Heat stroke death possible.

123
Zones of Equal Ventilation Rates in CFM per
Person for 90 Reliability of Not Exceeding 82o ET
124
Capacity Vs. Temperature Ventilation
  • Federal Fallout Shelter Standards for ventilation
    3 cfm/person ventilation rate, or 500 cu. ft./
    person if unventilated.
  • Higher than optimum Effective Temperature can
    lower shelter capacity to the number of
    shelterees that do not produce excess
    temperatures.
  • Lower than optimum ventilation can lower shelter
    capacity to the number of shelterees that dont
    exceed O2 or CO2 imbalance.
  • If you must reduce the number of people in your
    shelter, where will you send them?

125
Effective Temperature Ranges
  • The range of comfort for Effective Temperature
  • 50E ET Lower tolerance level if food
    clothing available
  • 67-72E ET Normally the most comfortable range
  • 78-85E ET Tolerable, even for long periods
  • 85-90E ET Heat stress progressively worsens
  • 95E ET Circulatory system collapse, death.

126
Temperature Control
  • Control high temperatures by
  • Avoiding heat producing activities
  • Utilize the initial coolness of the shelter
  • Ventilation
  • Control low temperature with
  • Warm food beverages
  • Body coverings
  • Physical activity
  • Bundling

127
Ventilation Techniques
128
Kearny Fan
129
Oxygen/Carbon Dioxide Imbalance
  • Content Symptoms Inhale Exhale
  • O2 21 is normal. 21 15.3
  • 14 is threshold Nails lips blue
  • of danger. Vision Impaired
  • Reflexes slow
  • Giddy
  • Unconsciousness
  • 8 is fatal. Death
  • CO2 .03 is normal. .03 3.5
  • 2-4 Deep breathing
  • Nausea
  • 10 Uncoordination
  • Unconsciousness
  • 15-30 Diminished respiration
  • Blood pressure falls
  • Coma, Death
  • N2 78.4 - 78.4 75

130
Noxious Substances
  • Gas Source Symptoms
  • Carbon Monoxide Engine exhaust Flushed, ruddy
    skin
  • Tobacco smoke Poor balance
  • Open flames Faint
  • Unconsciousness
  • Death
  • Methane , CH4 Decomposing Combines with 02
    to
  • (Explosive!) human waste deplete 02 supply.
  • Other gasses, Cleaning agents Dangerous in a
    closed,
  • fumes, vapors Solvents poorly ventilated
    shelter
  • Degreasers
  • Batteries
  • Fire Extinguishers, etc.
  • 3.B1-2

131
Water
  • Three goals of the shelter manager
  • 1. Control the use distribution of water.
  • 2. Secure make drinkable alternate water
    sources
  • 3. Control water consumption.
  • 1 Quart of water/day/person is the recommended
    ration.
  • This is below what people normally need but is
    acceptable as an austere ration when
  • Temperature and humidity are close to optimum,
  • Physical activity is restricted,
  • Salty or protein rich foods are eliminated, and
  • Disease/injury that increase the need for water
    are absent.
  • 3.B 1-2

132
Water-2
  • Water is essential for life. When deprived of
    water, the physical damage to the body becomes
    irreversible after 4 or 5 days without, water
    will not help a person recover.
  • Symptoms of water deprivation are
  • 1. Impaired mental function,
  • 2. Confusion, and
  • 3. Hallucination
  • 3.B 1-2A

133
Water - an Essential Need
  • Trips outside the shelter to get water before
    radiation levels are safe must be considered.
  • Control of shelterees may be difficult if the
    water ration is very low or if they feel
    distribution is unfair or unwise.
  • Sources of Water
  • 1. Containers issued during Increased Readiness.
  • 2. Water system of the shelter building.
  • 3. Juice in canned foods.
  • 4. Water mains, fire hydrants, wells, streams,
    ponds, etc.
  • The water may have to be purified, filtered or
    decontaminated for biological organisms
    hazardous chemicals. Fallout is nearly insoluble
    in water is easily filtered out with, e.g., a
    towel.

134
Water Rationing
  • "An Equal Amount For All is generally the best
    rule.
  • Exceptions
  • 1. Team members involved in strenuous physical
    activity.
  • 2. Diabetics, burn victims, the injured, etc.
  • 3. Infants, nursing mothers, etc.
  • 3.B 8-9

135
Water Rationing - 2
  • Serve at regular intervals, up to 6 times a day.
  • If practical, keep a "water log" for each
    individual to allow more flexibility in
    rationing.
  • Issue each individual a drinking cup mark it
    keep it in a safe place to use for the entire
    shelter stay.
  • Restrict the use of water for other purposes such
    as hygiene, sanitation, fire fighting or
    decontamination.

136
Safety
  • Three goals of the shelter manager
  • 1. Be able to meet such environmental emergencies
    as
  • - Fire, toxic fumes, smoke, oxygen depletion
  • - Structural damage
  • - Panic among the shelterees
  • 2. Organize a safety program.
  • 3. Prepare shelterees to respond to emergencies.
  • 3.C. 1-3

137
Safety - Entry Phase
  • At entry, inspect the building - both shelter
    non-shelter parts - to eliminate fire hazards to
    gather fire extinguishers, tools and others
    materials and to gain a knowledge of the building
    layout.
  • 3.C. 1-3A

138
Safety - Routine Phase Preparing Shelterees
  • Emphasize the importance of fire prevention. If
    necessary, restrict smoking and use of flammable
    materials.
  • Organize able bodied shelterees to upgrade the
    shelter.
  • Set up a 24-hour fire watch. Inspect the shelter
    for
  • Exposed wiring
  • Dangerous Machinery
  • Oxygen containers, first aid kits, foodstuffs
    other usable items, etc.
  • Flammable, volatile substances and other hazards,
    etc.
  • Fire exits
  • Drill shelterees in evacuation procedures
  • 3.C. 1-3B

139
Fire Extinguishers
  • Preferred types
  • - Dry chemical
  • - Sand
  • - Water
  • Oxygen Î Fuel
  • Heat
  • Types to avoid
  • - Carbon dioxide
  • - Halon systems (Oxygen displacing)
  • - Carbon tetrachloride (Halon 104 now illegal )
  • - Bromotriflouroumethane (Halon 1301)
  • - Soda Acid (now illegal but may be in older
    buildings)

140
Food
  • Three goals of the shelter manager
  • 1. Control and distribute food.
  • 2. Keep food edible.
  • 3. Meet the special needs of infants, the
    elderly, the sick and the injured.

141
Sources of Food
  • Food may be stocked during Increased Readiness
    from commercial suppliers.
  • Food may be brought by people entering the
    shelter.
  • Some food may already be in the shelter building.
  • Rationing may be required a shelter census, an
    inventory and the estimated length of shelter
    stay are necessary.
  • Hold some food in reserve for the unexpected
    spoilage, overcrowding or a longer than expected
    stay.

142
Food Rationing
  • An equal portion for all is again generally
    best. The same exceptions in water rationing may
    apply.
  • Meals should be served on a regular schedule, 5
    or 6 times a day in conjunction with the water
    serving.
  • Be flexible if possible, keep a food account for
    each individual.

143
Food Preparation Problems
  • Extra water needed for preparation cleanup.
  • Procedures needed for cleanup, garbage disposal
    spoilage prevention.
  • Some foods may need to be heated.
  • Individual utensils will be required.
  • Feeding may have to be done in shifts.

144
Sleep
  • Three goals of the Shelter Manager
  • 1. Designate a sleep area, group position the
    people.
  • 2. Provide bedding and other equipment.
  • 3. Control n
About PowerShow.com