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Islam is not a new religion, but the same truth that God revealed through all ... from his sons Muhammad from the eldest, Ishmael, and Moses and Jesus from Isaac. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Welcome to

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Welcome to Hajri Year 1427
Muslims follow a lunar calendar which started
with the hegira, a 300 mile trek in 622 CE when
Mohammed relocated from Mecca to Medina.
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the
What is Islam?
  • Islam is not a new religion, but the same truth
    that God revealed through all His prophets to
    every people. For a fifth of the world's
    population, Islam is both a religion and a
    complete way of life. Muslims follow a religion
    of peace, mercy, and forgiveness, and the
    majority have nothing to do with the extremely
    grave events which have come to be associated
    with their faith.

Who are the Muslims?
  • One billion people from a vast range of races,
    nationalities and cultures across the globe -
    from the southern Philippines to Nigeria - are
    united by their common Islamic faith. About 18
    live in the Arab world the world's largest
    Muslim community is in Indonesia substantial
    parts of Asia and most of Africa are Muslim,
    while significant minorities are to be found in
    the Soviet Union, China, North and South America,
    and Europe.

What do Muslims believe?
  • Muslims believe in One, Unique, Incomparable God
  • in the Angels created by Him
  • in the prophets through whom His revelations
  • brought to mankind
  • in the Day of Judgement and individual
    accountability for
  • actions
  • in God's complete authority over human destiny
    and in life
  • after death.
  • Muslims believe in a chain of prophets starting
    with Adam and including Noah, Abraham, Ishmael,
    Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Job, Moses, Aaron, David,
    Solomon, Elias, Jonah, John the Baptist, and
    Jesus, peace be upon them.
  • But God's final message to man, a reconfirmation
    of the eternal message and a summing-up of all
    that has gone before was revealed to the Prophet
    Muhammad through Gabriel.

How does someone become a Muslim?
  • Simply by saying the Shahadah There is no god
    apart from God, and Muhammad is His Messenger.'
  • By this declaration the believer announces his or
    her faith in all God, his messenger Muhammad, and
    the scriptures he brought.

What does 'Islam' mean?
  • The Arabic word 'Islam' (slm) simply means
    'submission' and derives from a word meaning
  • In a religious context it means complete
    submission to the will of God. 'Mohammedanism' is
    thus a misnomer because it suggests that Muslims
    worship Muhammad rather than God. 'Allah' is the
    Arabic name for God, which is used by Arab
    Muslims and Christians alike.
  • Slm (salom) means peace and submission for
    the Christians and Jews also, since Jeru-salem
    means city of peace. In Hebrew, the same word
    is spelled, shalom.

Why does Islam often seem strange?
  • Islam may seem exotic or even extreme in the
    modern world. Perhaps this is because religion
    does not dominate everyday life in the West
    today, whereas Muslims have religion always
    uppermost in their minds, and make no division
    between secular and sacred.
  • They believe that the Divine Law, the Shari'a,
    should be taken very seriously, which is why
    issues related to religion are still so important.

Do Islam and Christianity have different origins?
  • No. Together with Judaism, they go back to the
    prophet and patriarch Abraham, and their three
    prophets are directly descended from his sons
    Muhammad from the eldest, Ishmael, and Moses and
    Jesus from Isaac.
  • Abraham established the settlement which today is
    the city of Makkah (Mecca), and built the Ka'ba
    (Kaba/Kabaa) towards which all Muslims turn when
    they pray.

What is the Ka'ba?
  • The Ka'ba is the place of worship which God
    commanded Abraham and Ishmael to build over four
    thousand years ago.
  • The building was constructed of stone on what
    many believe was the original site of a sanctuary
    established by Adam.
  • God commanded Abraham to summon all mankind to
    visit this place, and when pilgrims go there
    today they say 'At Thy service, O Lord', in
    response to Abraham's summons.

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Who is Muhammad?
  • Muhammad, was born in Makkah in the year 570, at
    a time when Christianity was not yet fully
    established in Europe. Since his father died
    before his birth, and his mother shortly
    afterwards, he was raised by his uncle from the
    respected tribe of Quraysh. As he grew up, he
    became known for his truthfulness, generosity and
    sincerity, so that he was sought after for his
    ability to arbitrate in disputes. The historians
    describe him as calm and meditative.
  • As a youth, he was employed as a camel driver on
    the trade routes between Syria and Arabia.
    Mohammed later managed caravans on behalf of
    merchants. He met people of different religious
    beliefs on his travels, and was able to observe
    and learn about Judaism, Christianity and the
    indigenous Pagan religions.

How did Muhammad become a prophet and a messenger
of God?
  • At the age of 40, while engaged in a meditative
    retreat, Muhammad received his first revelation
    from God through the Angel Gabriel. This
    revelation, which continued for twenty-three
    years, is known as the Quran.

The Mountain of Light where Gabriel came
to Prophet Muhammad.
  • As soon as he began to recite the words he heard
    from Gabriel, and to preach the truth which God
    had revealed to him, he and his small group of
    followers suffered bitter persecution, which grew
    so fierce that in the year 622 God gave them the
    command to emigrate. This event, the Hijra,
    'migration', in which they left Makkah (Mecca)
    for the city of Madinah (Medina) some 260 miles
    to the north, marks the beginning of the Muslim
  • After several years, the Prophet and his
    followers were able to return to Makkah, where
    they forgave their enemies and established Islam
    definitively. Before the Prophet died at the age
    of 63, the greater part of Arabia was Muslim, and
    within a century of his death Islam had spread to
    Spain in the West and as far East as China.

The Prophet's Mosque in Madinah the dome
indicates the place where his house stood and
where he is buried.
  • Until the moment that Muhammad began spreading
    the message he heard from the angel Gabriel 13
    centuries ago, the Arabs were mostly polytheists,
    worshiping tribal deities. They had no sacred
    history linking them to one universal god, like
    other Middle Eastern peoples. They had no sacred
    text to live by, like the Bible no sacred
    language, as Hebrew is to Jews and Sanskrit is to
    Hindus. Above all, they had no prophet sent to
    them by God, as Jews and Christians could boast.

How did the spread of Islam affect the world?
  • Among the reasons for the rapid and peaceful
    spread of Islam was the simplicity of its
    doctrine - Islam calls for faith in only One God
    worthy of worship. It also repeatedly instructs
    man to use his powers of intelligence and

  • Within a few years, great civilizations and
    universities were flourishing, for according to
    the Prophet, 'seeking knowledge is an obligation
    for every Muslim man and woman.'
  • The synthesis of Eastern and Western ideas and of
    new thought with old, brought about great
    advances in medicine, mathematics, physics,
    astronomy, geography, architecture, art,
    literature, and history. Many crucial systems
    such as algebra, the Arabic numerals, and also
    the concept of the zero (vital to the advancement
    of mathematics), were transmitted to medieval
    Europe from Islam.
  • Sophisticated instruments which were to make
    possible the European voyages of discovery were
    developed, including the astrolabe, the quadrant
    and good navigational maps.

The Spread of Islam
By 750 C.E., Islam had spread from Madinah to all
of Arabia, then Mesopotamia, Egypt, most of the
coastal regions of North Africa, and into Iberia.
  • The major ruling groups of the Middle East at the
    time, the Christian Byzantines and the Persian
    Sasanids, had exhausted themselves after years of
    warfare, weakening their empires and enabling the
    Muslims to fill a power vacuum.
  • The ease with which Islam spread eastward and
    westward in the 200 years after the death of
    Muhammad is further explained by theological
    divisions and intra-religious persecution within
    the Christian world.
  • Many Christians in these lands, particularly
    those from persecuted sects, welcomed the arrival
    of the Muslims, and converted freely to Islam
    over the years.

The Crusades 1096 to 1289Beginning in 1096,
some Christian Europeans heeded the call of the
papacy to launch a series of holy wars aimed
at gaining control of Jerusalem from the Muslim
Arabs and Seljuk Turks.
  • In all, eight crusades were carried out.
    Jerusalem fell to the Christians in 1099, partly
    due to the disarray among Muslims. It took
    Muslims nearly half a century to respond
    effectively with their own call for defensive
    jihad, which required fighting against the
  • Under the leadership of Salah al-Din, the Muslims
    effectively ended the Christian hold on the Holy
    Land in 1187, shortly after which Jerusalem was
    restored to Muslim control.
  • It would be another 100 years, however, before
    the last Christian strongholds (Tripoli and Acre)
    fell to the Muslims.
  • In general, the Muslims considered the Crusades
    to be an invasion by European outsiders, and
    history indicates that the Europeans treated
    Muslims and Jews much more harshly in comparison
    to Muslim treatment of Christians.
  • The Christian sacking of Jerusalem and the
    massacre of its Muslim and Jewish residents
    during the first Crusade are often remembered as
    tragic historical examples of religious

The Ottoman Empire 1350 to 1918This greatest of
the Muslim states in terms of duration was
founded in the late 13th century by the Ottoman
  • It lasted until its dissolution after WW I in
    1918. Its early phase challenged the Byzantine
    Empire, Bulgaria, and Serbia.
  • In 1389, much of the Balkan Peninsula came under
    Ottoman rule. The Ottomans conquered
    Constantinople in 1453, bringing to an end the
    1100-year-rule of the Byzantine Empire/ Next the
    Ottomans gained control of Mamluk Egypt in 1517,
    followed by Algiers and most of present-day
    Hungary by 1529, all of Persia in 1638, and most
    of the region between the Black and Caspian Seas
    by the 1650s. These so-called Ottoman wars of
    conquest fixed in the imagination of the
    Europeans the image of the Muslim Turks as
    ferocious and religiously inspired warriors.

  • Beginning in the 1780s, the Ottoman Empire began
    to weaken, as European powers gained strength and
    began to vie with each other for access to
    resources and markets in the Middle East.
  • Most of the northern coast of the Black Sea had
    slipped away by 1812. The Ottoman Empire lost
    Greece, Egypt, and Serbia to European-inspired
    independence movements over the next 60 years.
  • By 1900, Turkey was known as the Sick Man of
    Europe, And by 1912, it had lost nearly all of
    its European territories.
  • Siding with Germany and the losing Central Powers
    in World War I doomed the Empire. With the
    signing of the armistice ending WWI, the Ottoman
    Empire was dismantled by the Allied Powers,
    paving the way for the creation of new individual
    states in the modern Middle East.

Sacred Texts
  • There are two texts the Qur'an are the words of
    God. This was originally in oral and written
    form they were later assembled together into a
    single book, the Qur'an. Its name is often
    spelled "Koran" in English. This is not
    recommended, as some Muslims find it offensive.
    The Hadith, which are collections of the sayings
    of Mohammed.

What is the Quran?
  • The Quran is a record of the exact words
    revealed by God through the Angel Gabriel to the
    Prophet Muhammad. It was memorized by Muhammad
    and then dictated to his Companions, and written
    down by scribes, who cross-checked it during his
    lifetime. Not one word of its 114 chapters,
    suras, has been changed over the centuries, so
    that the Quran is in every detail the unique and
    miraculous text which was revealed to Muhammad
    fourteen centuries ago.

  • Surah 1. The Opening
  • 1. In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most
  • 2. Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and
    Sustainer of the worlds
  • 3. Most Gracious, Most Merciful
  • 4. Master of the Day of Judgment.
  • 5. Thee do we worship, and Thine aid we seek.
  • 6. Show us the straight way,
  • 7. The way of those on whom Thou hast bestowed
    Thy Grace, those whose (portion) is not wrath,
    and who go not astray.

This opening chapter of The Quran, the Fatiah,
is central in Islamic prayer. It contains the
essence of The Quran and is recited during
every prayer.
Fatiha Audio
Boys studying the Quran
What is the Quran about?
  • The Quran, the last revealed Word of God, is the
    prime source of every Muslim's faith and
    practice. It deals with all the subjects which
    concern us as human beings wisdom, doctrine,
    worship, and law, but its basic theme is the
    relationship between God and His creatures. At
    the same time it provides guidelines for a just
    society, proper human conduct and an equitable
    economic system.
  • Are there any other sacred sources?
  • Yes, the sunna, the practice and example of the
    Prophet, is the second authority for Muslims. A
    hadith is a reliably transmitted report of what
    the Prophet said, did, or approved. Belief in the
    sunna is part of the Islamic faith.

How do Muslims Worship?
  • In Islam, the term ibadah (service, worship)
    does not merely signify the ritualistic
    activities such as Salah (ritual Prayer),
    fasting, Zakah (obligatory alms) or Hajj
    (pilgrimage to Makkah). It includes all the
    activities of a believer that are in accordance
    with the laws of Allah (God). When a Muslim
    performs all the activities of his life for the
    pleasure of Allah, then all his deeds become
    ibadah or worship. Naturally this includes his
    ritualistic worship, such as prayer, as well.
  • Islam requires a person to submit himself
    whole-heartedly and fully to Allah. Thus,
    surrendering all the areas of ones activity to
    Allah, leaving nothing to the whims and fancies
    of anyone else, is in fact the true meaning of

  • The Quran shows that there are only two ways
    laid out before Man one is the way of Allah and
    the other is the way of the Devil. A person
    cannot stand with one foot in Allahs way and the
    other in the Devils way.
  • Islam does not value rituals for the sake of
  • A Muslim is one who has willfully submitted his
    whole self to Allah, and his duty then is just to
    obey Him. A Muslim cannot split his life into
    compartments and say, This is the area of my
    religion where I will obey Allah and these are
    the areas where I will follow others. For
    service and worship are one in Islam. By
    following or obeying others than Allah, one is,
    in effect, worshiping them, which is a
    contradiction of the first item of Muslim belief
    there is none worthy of worship but Allah.

  • The officials of the Mosque are, the "iman"
    (leader), the "preacher", and the "muezzin" (who
    calls to prayer from the minaret). No priests.
  • Over time, many rooms were added to the mosque,
    rooms used by people of different social classes,
    people performing their professions in the
    mosque, travelers, sick, and old. Devout and
    ascetics lived often in the mosque, and even in
    the minaret.
  • In most mosques, men and women worship separately.

  • All mosques have an interior wall with a empty
    arch that faces Mecca. This directs the
    worshipper as he bows to pray.
  • The interpreters of the Scriptures are the
    "mullahs" or "ulemas," who serve as religious
    teachers and judges in the courts.
  • Prayer is a cardinal tenet in Islamic
    religiosity, the second foremost duty after
    profession of faith, the shahadah.

  • Prayer is a distinctive component of a Muslims
    personality and routine his day begins and ends
    with a prayer. According to a famous hadith (the
    tradition of the Prophet), a Muslim who
    deliberately fails to observe his/her prayers
    ceases to be one in practice.10 Prayer is a
    testament of genuine obedience to God.
  • The five obligatory prayers are the early morning
    prayer (salat al-fajr), the noon prayer (salat
    al-zuhr), the mid-afternoon prayer (salat
    al-asr), the sunset prayer (salat al-maghrib)
    and the evening prayer (salat al-isha). On
    Fridays, the noon congregational prayer (salat
    al-Juma) substitutes for the regular noon
  • As prayer penetrates the entire fiber of the
    worshippers being the whole world becomes like a
    mosque (masjid) to him ever conscious of the
    pervasive presence of God around him. His action
    becomes the replica of the godliness that
    constitutes his inner self. This is because he
    prostrates himself before God, not as a matter of
    routine, but in sincere spirit of obeisance.

  • Performance of prayerThe arrival of a prayer
    time is announced by the call to prayer
    (adhan). In Muslim societies the adhan can be
    heard from the top of minarets, on loudspeakers,
    radio and television. The caller, muadhin, in a
    melodious voice, intones the greatness of God and
    invites the faithful to prayer in the following
    phrases (repeated at least twice) 
  • God is most great. I bear witness that there is
    no god but the One God. I bear witness that
    Muhammad is the messenger of God. Hasten to
    prayer! Hasten to success! God is most great.
    There is no god but the true One God.
  • The phrase prayer is better than sleep is
    added immediately after hasten to success when
    the call is proclaimed for the early morning
    prayer to remind Muslims of the bliss that prayer
    affords them in the hereafter.

  • Before the worshipper approaches this sacred
    duty, he is first and foremost enjoined to enter
    in a state of sacral purityby performing
    ablution or ritual washing (wudu). Prayer is
    worthless without ablution.
  • Ablution consists of washing with pure water
    ones hands, mouth, nostrils, face, and the arms
    to the elbows, wiping the head and the ears, and
    washing the feet to the ankle. Ablution also
    symbolizes a sense of hygiene as well as
    purification for the soul.
  • Like all other Islamic ritual observances,
    ablution must be preceded by niyyah, a solemn
    declaration of intention for which the act is
    for, i.e. worship. By this act the worshipper
    consciously summons the resolve to enter into a
    meeting with his Lord.
  • When the ablution is complete, then the
    worshipper is ready to commence the prayer. He
    makes sure his garment and prayer ground are free
    of any pollution. A prayer rug or any material
    chosen for that matter usually delineates the
    prayer ground.

What are the 'Five Pillars' of Islam ?
  • They are the framework of the Muslim life faith,
    prayer, concern for the needy, self-purification,
    and the pilgrimage to Makkah (Mecca) for those
    who are able.

  • A Muslim's duties as described in the FIVE
    PILLARS of Islam are
  • 1) to recite at least once during their lifetime
    the shahadah (the creed "There is no God but God
    and Mohammed is his Prophet"). Most Muslims
    repeat it at least daily.
  • 2) to perform the salat (prayer) 5 times a day.
    This is recited while orienting one's body
    towards Mecca. It is done in the morning, at
    noon, midafternoon, after sunset and just before
  • 3) to donate regularly to charity through zakat,
    a 2.5 charity tax, and through additional
    donations to the needy as the individual believer
    feels moved.
  • 4) to fast during the month of Ramadan. This is
    believed to be the month that Mohammed received
    the Qur'an from God.
  • 5) if economically and physically, to make at
    least one hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca

Five Pillars of Faith movie
  • There is no god worthy of worship except God and
    Muhammad is His messenger. This declaration of
    faith is called the Shahada, a simple formula
    which all the faithful pronounce. In Arabic, the
    first part is la ilaha illa Llah - 'there is no
    god except God' ilaha (god) can refer to
    anything which we may be tempted to put in place
    of God - wealth, power, and the like. Then comes
    illa Llah 'except God', the source of all
    Creation. The second part of the Shahada is
    Muhammadun rasulu'Llah 'Muhammad is the
    messenger of God.' A message of guidance has come
    through a man like ourselves.

  • 2) PRAYER
  • Salat is the name for the obligatory prayers
    which are performed five times a day, and are a
    direct link between the worshipper and God. There
    is no hierarchical authority in Islam, and no
    priests, so the prayers are led by a learned
    person who knows the Quran, chosen by the
    congregation. These five prayers contain verses
    from the Quran, and are said in Arabic, the
    language of the Revelation, but personal
    supplication can be offered in one's own

  • Prayers are said at dawn, noon,
    mid-afternoon, sunset and nightfall, and thus
    determine the rhythm of the entire day. Although
    it is preferable to worship together in a mosque,
    a Muslim may pray almost anywhere, such as in
    fields, offices, factories and universities.
    Visitors to the Muslim world are struck by the
    centrality of prayers in daily life.

  • A translation of the Call to Prayer is
  • God is most great. God is most great. God is
    most great. God is most great. I testify that
    there is no god except God. I testify that there
    is no god except God. I testify that Muhammad is
    the messenger of God. I testify that Muhammad is
    the messenger of God. Come to prayer! Come to
    prayer! Come to success (in this life and the
    Hereafter)! Come to success! God is most great.
    God is most great. There is no god except God.

  • 3) THE 'ZAKAT'
  • One of the most important principles of
    Islam is that all things belong to God, and that
    wealth is therefore held by human beings in
    trust. The word zakat means both 'purification'
    and 'growth'. Our possessions are purified by
    setting aside a proportion for those in need,
    and, like the pruning of plants, this cutting
    back balances and encourages new growth.
  • Each Muslim calculates his or her own
    zakat individually. For most purposes this
    involves the payment each year of two and a half
    percent of one's capital.

  • 4) THE FAST
  • Every year in the month of Ramadan, all Muslims
    fast from first light until sundown, abstaining
    from food, drink, and sexual relations. Those who
    are sick, elderly, or on a journey, and women who
    are pregnant or nursing are permitted to break
    the fast and make up an equal number of days
    later in the year. If they are physically unable
    to do this, they must feed a needy person for
    every day missed. Children begin to fast (and to
    observe the prayer) from puberty, although many
    start earlier.
  • Although the fast is most beneficial to the
    health, it is regarded principally as a method of
    self purification. By cutting oneself off from
    worldly comforts, even for a short time, a
    fasting person gains true sympathy with those who
    go hungry as well as growth in one's spiritual

  • 5) PILGRIMAGE (Hajj)
  • The annual pilgrimage to Makkah (Mecca) - the
    Hajj - is an obligation only for those who are
    physically and financially able to perform it.
    Nevertheless, about two million people go to
    Makkah each year from every corner of the globe
    providing a unique opportunity for those of
    different nations to meet one another. Although
    Makkah is always filled with visitors, the annual
    Hajj begins in the twelfth month of the Islamic
    year (which is lunar, not solar, so that Hajj and
    Ramadan fall sometimes in summer, sometimes in
    winter). Pilgrims wear special clothes simple
    garments which strip away distinctions of class
    and culture, so that all stand equal before God.

? Hajj certificate Pilgrim ? in hajj clothes
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Road sign in Mecca
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The Kaba
Pilgrims praying at the mosque in Mecca
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A new covering for the Kaba is made every year,
and it takes about a full year to
hand-stitch the covering much of which is sewn
with gold thread
  • The rites of the Hajj, which are of Abrahamic
    origin, include circling the Ka'ba seven times,
    and going seven times between the mountains of
    Safa and Marwa as did Hagar during her search for
    water. Then the pilgrims stand together on the
    wide plain of Arafa and join in prayers for God's
    forgiveness, in what is often thought of as a
    preview of the Last Judgment.
  • In previous centuries the Hajj was an arduous
    undertaking. Today, however, Saudi Arabia
    provides millions of people with water, modern
    transport, and the most up-to-date health
  • The close of the Hajj is marked by a festival,
    the Eid al-Adha, which is celebrated with prayers
    and the exchange of gifts in Muslim communities
    everywhere. This, and the Eid al-Fitr, a
    feast-day commemorating the end of Ramadan, are
    the main festivals of the Muslim calendar.

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-------------------- The Great Mosque
Hajj Movie
Stampede Kills 345 At Hajj Ritual MINA, Saudi
Arabia, Jan. 12, 2006
  • At least 345 Muslim pilgrims were trampled to
    death and almost 300 injured Thursday as they
    tripped over luggage in a scramble to hurl
    pebbles at symbols of Satan during the annual
    pilgrimage, Saudi officials said.
  • It was the latest in a succession of stampede
    tragedies to hit the hajj pilgrimage despite
    efforts of the Saudi authorities to avoid a
    repeat of disasters like the one that killed
    1,426 people in 1990.

Does Islam tolerate other beliefs?
  • The Quran says God forbids you not, with regards
    to those who fight you not for your faith nor
    drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly
    and justly with them for God loveth those who
    are just. (Quran, 608)
  • Of course, saying that God does not forbid you
    from dealing kindly and justly is NOT the same as
    saying that God commands you to deal kindly and
    justly. We will return to this idea is a few

  • It is one function of Islamic law to protect the
    privileged status of minorities, and this is why
    non-Muslim places of worship have flourished all
    over the Islamic world. History provides many
    examples of Muslim tolerance towards other
    faiths when the caliph Omar entered Jerusalem in
    the year 634, Islam granted freedom of worship to
    all religious communities in the city.
  • Islamic law also permits non-Muslim minorities to
    set up their own courts, which implement family
    laws drawn up by the minorities themselves.
  • When the caliph Omar took Jerusalem from the
    Byzantines, he insisted on entering the city with
    only a small number of his companions.
    Proclaiming to the inhabitants that their lives
    and property were safe, and that their places of
    worship would never be taken from them, he asked
    the Christian patriarch Sophronius to accompany
    him on a visit to all the holy places.

  • The Patriarch invited him to pray in the Church
    of the Holy Sepulchre, but he preferred to pray
    outside its gates, saying that if he accepted,
    later generations of Muslims might use his action
    as an excuse to turn it into a mosque. Above is
    the mosque built on the spot where Omar did pray.
  • According to Islam, man is not born in 'original
    sin'. He is God's viceregent on earth. Every
    child is born with the fitra, an innate
    disposition towards virtue, knowledge, and
    beauty. Islam considers itself to be the
    'primordial religion', din al-hanif, it seeks to
    return man to his original, true nature in which
    he is in harmony with creation, inspired to do
    good, and confirming the Oneness of God.

Black Muslim Movement (BMM)
  • Muslims cannot totally deny that there has been
    some intolerance of other faiths and of other
  • The BMM is largely a black urban movement in the
    US. One driving force was a rejection of
    Christianity as the religion of the historically
    oppressing white race. It was started by Wallace
    Fard who built the first temple in Detroit.
    Elijah Muhammad (born Elijah Poole) established a
    second temple in Chicago and later supervised the
    creation of temples in most large cities with
    significant black populations.

Elijah Muhammad
  • They taught that blacks were racially superior to
    whites and that a racial war is inevitable. The
    charismatic Malcolm X was perhaps their most
    famous spokesperson he played an important role
    in reversing the BMM's anti-white beliefs. In its
    earlier years, the movement deviated
    significantly from traditional Islamic beliefs

(particularly over matters of racial tolerance
and the status of the BMM leaders as prophets).
This deviation is being reversed.
Common Islamic Beliefs
  • strict monotheism. God is the creator, is just,
    omnipotent and merciful
  • respect for earlier prophets and belief in their
    teachings Abraham, Moses and Jesus
  • that Mohammed is the last of the prophets
  • belief in the existence of Satan who drives
    people to sin
  • that Muslims who sincerely repent and submit to
    God return to a state of sinlessness
  • belief in Hell where unbelievers and sinners
    spend eternity
  • belief in Paradise, a place of physical and
    spiritual pleasure where the sinless go after
  • abstinence from alcohol and gambling
  • rejection of racism
  • avoid the use of alcohol, other drugs, eating of
    pork, etc.
  • avoid gambling
  • that Jesus is a prophet. They regard the
    Christian concept of the deity of Jesus to be
  • that Jesus was not executed on the cross

Divisions Within Islam
  • Because of Islam's great growth geographically in
    the first two centuries of its inception, there
    needed to be a larger set of Islamic laws capable
    of handling the different needs of Muslims
    throughout the Empire.  The Qur'an and the Hadith
    were not detailed enough to provide all the
    answers.  Therefore, in the 8th century A.D.,
    there arose a school of legal experts who
    interpreted and applied Islamic principles to
    different situations throughout the Empire. 
    However, different scholars disagreed with these
    experts in various areas.  This led to a variety
    of legal schools of thought within Islam. 
  • These different schools became different sects
    within Islam.  The largest of the sects is the
    Sunni which comprises about 90 of all Muslims. 
    The next two largest are the Shi'i and Sufi. 
    After these, there are numerous splinter groups
    which are often named after the individual
    scholars who began them  Hanifa, Maliki,
    Shafi'i, Zaydi, the Nusayri, Ismaili, Murji'ah,

  • 1) Followers of the Hanafi, Shafi, Hanibal, and
    Malik legal schools are called Sunni Muslims and
    constitute a 90 majority of the believers. They
    are considered to be main stream traditionalists.
    Because they are comfortable pursuing their faith
    within secular societies, they have been able to
    adapt to a variety of national cultures, while
    following their three sources of law the Qur'an,
    Hadith, and consensus of Muslims.
  • The Sunni emphasize the power and sovereignty of
    Allah and his right to do whatever he wants with
    his creation.  Strict determinism is taught.  Its
    rulership is through the Caliphate, the office of
    Muslim ruler who is considered the successor to
    Muhammad.  This successor is not through
    hereditary lineage.

  • 2) Followers of the Jafri school are called
    Shi'ite Muslims (or Shia) and constitute a small
    minority of Islam. They split from the Sunnis
    over a dispute about the successor to Mohammed.
    This split occured after the assassination of the
    fourth caliph in 661.  Shi'ites believe that the
    successor to Muhammad should have been Ali, his
    son in law, and that subsequent successors should
    have been through his lineage through his wife
  • Shi'ism is broken into three main sects the
    Twelve-Imam, the Zaydis, and the Ismailis. Each
    group, of course, has differences of doctrine.
  • Shi'ite theology includes a doctrine known as the
    five supports these are Divine Unity (tawhid),
    prophecy (nubuwwah), resurrection of the soul and
    body at the Judgment (ma'ad), the Imamate
    (imamah), and justice ('adl).  The first three
    are found in Sunni Islam, albeit with some
    differences of emphasis the Imamate, however ,
    is the essence of Shi'ism, and the last, justice,
    is an inheritance from the Mu'tazilites, or
    rationalists, whose system is in many ways
    perpetuated in Shi'ite theology.

  • The Imamate, fom the word "Imam", in the Shi'ite
    traditions is the political and religious leader
    of the Shi'ite sect. This person possess great
    power and influence. According to Shi'ite
    doctrine, the Imam must be a biological successor
    of Ali.  The Imam is also sinless and infallible
    on all matters of Islamic doctrine and will
    intercede for Muslims in the afterlife.  The
    Shi'i and the Sunni differ in some
    interpretations of the Qur'an and Hadith and even
    have a different canon of Hadith and the Sunni.
  • 3) The Sufi are a mystical tradition where the
    followers seek inner mystical knowledge of God.
    This sect "officially" developed around the 10th
    century and has since fragmented into different
    orders  Ahmadiyya, Qadariyya, Tijaniyya,
    etc.  Of course, the Sufi believe their roots can
    be traced back to the inception of Islam in the
    early 7th century.  

  • The Sufi mystic must follow a path of deprivation
    and meditation.  There are various forms of
    abstinence and poverty.  Worldly things are
    renounced and a complete trust in God's will is
    taught.  The goal is to attain to a higher
    knowledge and experience of Allah.  The mystical
    focus meant that the Qur'an could be interpreted
    in different ways and so Sufism taught that the
    Qur'an had mystical meanings hidden within its
    pages.  Out of this mysticism a type of pantheism
    developed among some Sufi believers.  Pantheism
    is the teaching that God and the universe are
    one.  Of course, the orthodox Muslims, called the
    Sunni, reject this idea since they claim that
    Allah is the creator of the universe and distinct
    from it.
  • In part, Sufism arose as a reaction to the
    growing Islamic materialism that had developed in
    the Empire at that time.  Islam had achieved
    great power and geographical scope and with it,
    the material gain was great.   

  • The Sufi "Whirling Derisshes"
  •     The greatest of the Sufi poets is "Meluana
    Celadin Rumi" (1207-73), from Turkey, whose work,
    "Masvani," is considered second only to the
    Koran, and it was Rumi who advocated and
    influenced the development of the "whirling
    dervishes," twirl dancing around the master, as a
    means of achieving oneness with God... it
    requires 1,001 hours to master the dance, once
    secret, now performed openly.
  •     They used to retreat to the desert where they
    live as wandering ascetics, abstaining from all
    worldly pleasures and dressing in woolen robes,
    "sufis"... and there are several "orders," like
    the Christian monastic orders.

  • 4) An interesting minor division is the Ahmadis
    Followers of the Ahmadiyya Movement believe that
    God sent Ahmad as a Messiah, "a messenger of His
    in this age who has claimed to have come in the
    spirit and power of Jesus Christ. He has come to
    call all people around one Faith, i.e. Islam..."
    The movement's founder was Hazrat Mirza Ghulam
    Ahmad (1835-1908). He was born in Qadian, India.
    He felt that he had a mandate from God to correct
    a serious error within Christianity. Most
    Christians believe that Jesus is a member of the
    Godhead. "...because Jesus, whom God sent as a
    Messiah to the Israelites was taken for a God,
    Divine jealousy ordained that another man Ahmad
    should be sent as Messiah so that the world may
    know that the first Messiah was nothing more than
    a weak mortal."

Islamic Sects
Sunni Hanafi Barelvi Deobandi Hanbali
Wahhabi Maliki Shafii Shiia Twelver -
Ithna-Ashari Sevener Ismaili (Hashashin)
Alawi Bohra Druze Khoja Fiver -
Zaydi Kharijite / Ibadite Ahmadi Qadiani
Lahorite Sufi
Islamic Law
  • Within the Islamic vision of this world, there
    are rules that govern the lives of the Moslems
    themselves, and these rules are very strict. In
    fundamentals, there are no differences between
    schools of law.
  • However, there are four streams of factions
    within Islam with differences between them
    concerning the minutiae of the laws. All over the
    Islamic world, countries have favored one or
    another of these schools of laws.
  • The strictest school of law is called Hanbali,
    mainly coming out of Saudi Arabia.
  • There are no games there, no playing around with
    the meanings of words.

  • There are various perspectives in Islam with
    different interpretations over the centuries.
    There were good people that were very enlightened
    in Islam that tried to understand things
    differently. They even brought traditions from
    the mouth of the prophet that women and children
    should not be killed in war. These more liberal
    streams do exist, but there is one thing that is
    very important for us to remember.
  • The Hanbali school of law is extremely strict,
    and today this is the school that is behind most
    of the terrorist powers. Even if we talk about
    the existence of other schools of Islamic law,
    when we're talking about fighting against the
    Jews, or fighting against the Christian world led
    by America, it is the Hanbali school of law that
    is being followed.

2. Islamic Law - Shariah
  • The Arabic word shariah refers to the laws and
    way of life prescribed by Allah (SWT) for his
    servants. The shariah deals with the ideology
    and faith behavior and manners and practical
    daily matters. "To each among you, we have
    prescribed a law and a clear way. (Qur 'an 548)
    Shariah includes the Qur'an and the sunnah of
    the Prophet (saas). The Qur'an is the direct word
    of Allah (SWT), and is the first most important
    source of guidance and rulings. The Sunnah of the
    Prophet (saas) is the second source of guidance
    and rulings. The sunnah is an inspiration from
    Allah (SWT), but relayed to us through the words
    and actions of the Prophet (saas), and his
    concurrence with others' actions. The sunnah
    confirmed the rulings of the Qur'an detailed
    some of the concepts, laws and practical matters
    which are briefly stated in the Qur'an (e.g.
    definition of Islam, Iman, and Ihsan, details of
    salah, types of usury) and gave some rulings
    regarding matters not explicitly stated in the
    Qur'an (e.g. wearing silk clothes for men).

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3. Islamic Law - Fiqh
  • The Arabic word fiqh means knowledge,
    understanding and comprehension. It refers to the
    legal rulings of the Muslim scholars, based on
    their knowledge of the shariah and as such is
    the third source of rulings. The science of fiqh
    started in the second century after Hijrah, when
    the Islamic state expanded and faced several
    issues which were not explicitly covered in the
    Qur'an and Sunnah of the Prophet (saas). Rulings
    based on the unanimity of Muslim scholars and
    direct analogy are binding. The four Sunni
    schools of thought, Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i and
    Hanbali, are identical in approximately 75 of
    their legal conclusions. Variances in the
    remaining questions are traceable to
    methodological differences in understanding or
    authentication of the primary textual evidence.
    Differing viewpoints sometimes exist even within
    a single school of thought.

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Mohammed Held That All the Biblical Prophets Were
  • Mohammed did accept the existence of all the
    Biblical prophets before him. However, he also
    said that all these prophets were Muslims.
    Abraham was a Muslim. In fact, Adam himself was
    the first Muslim. Isaac and Jacob and David and
    Solomon and Moses and Jesus were all Muslims, and
    all of them had writings similar to the Koran.
    Therefore, world history is Islamic history
    because all the heroes of history were Muslims.
  • Furthermore, Muslims accept the fact that each of
    these prophets brought with him some kind of a
    revelation. Moses, brought the Taurat, which is
    the Torah, and Jesus brought the Ingeel, which is
    the Evangelion or Gospel namely the New
  • Thus, there is a kinship between Muslims and Jews
    and Christians, since they are all followers of
    the Book.

What do Muslims think about Jesus?
  • Muslims respect and revere Jesus, and await his
    Second Coming. They consider him one of the
    greatest of God's messengers to mankind. A Muslim
    never refers to him simply as 'Jesus', but always
    adds the phrase 'upon him be peace'. The Quran
    confirms his virgin birth (a chapter of the Quran
    is entitled 'Mary'), and Mary is considered the
    purest woman in all creation. The Quran describes
    the Annunciation as follows

  • 'Behold!' the Angel said, 'God has chosen you,
    and purified you, and chosen you above the women
    of all nations. O Mary, God gives you good news
    of a word from Him, whose name shall be the
    Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, honored in this world
    and the Hereafter, and one of those brought near
    to God. He shall speak to the people from his
    cradle and in maturity, and shall be of the
  • She said 'O my Lord! How shall I have a son when
    no man has touched me?' He said 'Even so God
    creates what He will. When He decrees a thing, He
    says to it, "Be!" and it is.' (Quran, 342-7)
  • Jesus was born miraculously through the same
    power which had brought Adam into being without a
  • Truly, the likeness of Jesus with God is as the
    likeness of Adam. He created him of dust, and
    then said to him, 'Be!' and he was. (Quran,

  • During his prophetic mission Jesus performed many
    miracles. The Quran tells us that he said
  • I have come to you with a sign from your Lord I
    make for you out of clay, as it were, the figure
    of a bird, and breathe into it and it becomes a
    bird by God's leave. And I heal the blind, and
    the lepers and I raise the dead by God's leave.
    (Quran, 349)
  • Neither Muhammad nor Jesus came to change the
    basic doctrine of the belief in One God, brought
    by earlier prophets, but to confirm and renew it.
    In the Quran Jesus is reported as saying that he
  • To attest the law which was before me. And to
    make lawful to you part of what was forbidden
    you I have come to you with a sign from your
    Lord, so fear God and obey Me. (Quran, 35O)

  • The Prophet Muhammad said
  • Whoever believes there is no god but God, alone
    without partner, that Muhammad is His messenger,
    that Jesus is the servant and messenger of God,
    His word breathed into Mary and a spirit
    emanating from Him, and that Paradise and Hell
    are true, shall be received by God into Heaven.
    (Hadith from Bukhari)

The Perfect Servant
Muslims, Jews, Christians
  • Like Judaism and Christianity, every Muslim has
    to acknowledge the fact that there is only one
  • But it's not enough to say that there is only one
    God. A Muslim has to acknowledge the fact that
    there is one God and Mohammed is his prophet.
    These are the fundamentals of the religion that
    without them, one cannot be a Muslim.
  • But beyond that, Islam is a civilization. It is a
    religion that gave first and foremost a wide and
    unique legal system that engulfs the individual,
    society and nations with rules of behavior. If
    you are Muslim, you have to behave according to
    the rules of Islam which are set down in the
    Koran and which are very different than the
    teachings of the Bible.
  • But there are more differences..

  • The Bible is the creation of the spirit of a
    nation over a very, very long period, if we talk
    from the point of view of the scholar, and let me
    remain scholarly. But there is one thing that is
    important in the Bible. It leads to salvation. It
    leads to salvation in two ways.
  • In Judaism, it leads to national salvation not
    just a nation that wants to have a state, but a
    nation that wants to serve God. That's the idea
    behind the Hebrew text of the Bible.
  • The New Testament that took the Hebrew Bible
    moves us toward personal salvation. So we have
    got these two kinds of salvation, which, from
    time to time, meet each other.

  • But the key word is salvation. Personal salvation
    means that each individual is looked after by
    God, Himself, who leads a person through His word
    to salvation. This is the idea in the Bible,
    whether we are talking about the Old or the New
    Testament. All of the laws in the Bible, even to
    the minutest ones, are, in fact directed toward
    this fact of salvation.
  • Secondly, there is another point in the Bible,
    which is highly important. This is the idea that
    man was created in the image of God. Therefore,
    you don't just walk around and obliterate the
    image of God. Many people, of course, used
    Biblical rules and turned them upside down.
    History has seen a lot of massacres in the name
    of God and in the name of Jesus. But as
    religions, both Judaism and Christianity in their
    fundamentals speak about honouring the image of
    God and the hope of salvation. These are the two
    basic fundamentals.

  • Now let's move to the essence of Islam. Islam was
    born with the idea that it should rule the world.
    There is a difference between these three
    religions. Judaism speaks about national
    salvation namely that at the end of the story,
    when the world becomes a better place, Israel
    will be in its own land, ruled by its own king
    and serving God. Christianity speaks about the
    idea that every single person in the world can be
    saved from his sins, while Islam speaks about
    ruling the world.
  • The Quran says that "Allah sent Mohammed with
    the true religion so that it should rule over all
    the religions." The idea, then, is not that the
    whole world would become a Moslem world at this
    time, but that the whole world would be subdued
    under the rule of Islam.
  • When the Islamic empire was established in 634
    AD, within seven years 640 AD the core of the
    empire was created. The rules that were taken
    from the Koran and from the tradition that was
    ascribed to the prophet Mohammed, were translated
    into a real legal system. Jews and Christians
    could live under Islam provided they paid poll
    tax and accepted Islamic superiority.

What about Muslim women?
  • Islam sees a woman, whether single or married, as
    an individual in her own right, with the right to
    own and dispose of her property and earnings. A
    marriage dowry is given by the groom to the bride
    for her own personal use, and she keeps her own
    family name rather than taking her husband's.
  • Both men and women are expected to dress in a way
    which is modest and dignified the traditions of
    female dress found in some Muslim countries are
    often the expression of local customs.
  • The Messenger of God said
  • 'The most perfect in faith amongst
    believers is he who is best in
  • manner and kindest to his wife.'

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Can a Muslim have more than one wife?
  • The religion of Islam was revealed for all
    societies and all times and so accommodates
    widely differing social requirements.
    Circumstances may warrant the taking of another
    wife but the right is granted, according to the
    Quran, only on condition that the husband is
    scrupulously fair. And Muhammed himself believed
    that it would be difficult for most men
    (including himself) to be fair to more than four
    wives thus four wives is the acceptable limit
    (assuming he can provide for them and treat them
    all fairly).

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Hijab - veiling
  • The practice of hijab among Muslim women is one
    based on religious doctrine, although the Qur'an
    does not mandate it. Instead, it comes from the
    Hadith of Sahih Bukhari. The Hadith, the
    "tradition of Mohammed," reveals the teachings of
    the Prophet to believers.
  • According to the Hadith,
  • "My Lord agreed with me ('Umar) in three
    things... (2) And as regards the veiling of
    women, I said 'O Allah's Apostle!  I wish you
    ordered your wives to cover themselves from the
    men because good and bad ones talk to them.' So
    the verse of the veiling of the women was
    revealled" (Bukhari, v1, bk 8, sunnah 395).

  • Surah XXXIII, Verse 59 of the Qur'an is most
    often cited in support of veiling. It states
  • "O Prophet! Tell thy wives and thy daughters and
    the women of the believers to draw their cloaks
    close around them. that will be better, so that
    they may be recognized and not annoyed. Allah is
    ever forgiving, merciful....(other versions
    translate the original Arabic as "veils" ).
  • Among Muslim women, the debate about hijab takes
    many forms. Many believe that the veil is a way
    to secure personal liberty in a world that
    objectifies women. Several women have argued that
    hijab allows them freedom of movement and control
    of their bodies. Understood in such terms, hijab
    protects women from the male gaze and allows them
    to become autonomous subjects. Others have argued
    that the veil only provides the illusion of
    protection and serves to absolve men of the
    responsibility for controlling their behavior.
  • Both positions assert that Islam is not
    responsible for sexism. In fact, the Qur'an
    supports the notion of gender equality.

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Just in case youre wondering
  • There are similar, yet less obvious requirements
    for a Muslim male's attire.
  • 1) A Muslim man must always be covered from the
    navel to the knees.
  • 2) A Muslim man should similarly not wear tight,
    sheer, revealing, or eye-catching clothing.
  • 3) In addition, a Muslim man is prohibited from
    wearing silk clothing (except for medical
    reasons) or gold jewelry. A Muslim woman,
    however, may wear silk or gold.

Is Islamic marriage like Christian marriage?
  • A Muslim marriage is not a 'sacrament', but a
    simple, legal agreement in which either partner
    is free to include conditions. Marriage customs
    thus vary widely from country to country. As a
    result, divorce is not common, although it is not
    forbidden as a last resort. According to Islam,
    no Muslim girl can be forced to marry against her
    will her parents will simply suggest young men
    they think may be suitable.

How do Muslims treat the elderly?
  • In the Islamic world there are no old people's
    homes. The strain of caring for one's parents in
    this most difficult time of their lives is
    considered an honor and blessing, and an
    opportunity for great spiritual growth. God asks
    that we not only pray for our parents, but act
    with limitless compassion, remembering that when
    we were helpless children they preferred us to
    themselves. Mothers are particularly honored the
    Prophet taught that 'Paradise lies at the feet of
    mothers'. When they reach old age, Muslim parents
    are treated mercifully, with the same kindness
    and selflessness.
  • In Islam, serving one's parents is a duty second
    only to prayer, and it is their right to expect
    it. It is considered despicable to express any
    irritation when, through no fault of their own,
    the old become difficult.
  • The Quran says Your Lord has commanded that you
    worship none but Him, and be kind to parents. If
    either or both of them reach old age with you, do
    not say 'uff to them or chide them, but speak to
    them in terms of honor and kindness. Treat them
    with humility, and say, 'My Lord! Have mercy on
    them, for they did care for me when I was
    little'. (1723-4)

How do Muslims view death?
  • Like Jews and Christians, Muslims believe that
    the present life is only a trial preparation for
    the next realm of existence. Basic articles of
    faith include the Day of Judgment, resurrection,
    Heaven and Hell. When a Muslim dies, he or she is
    washed, usually by a family member, wrapped in a
    clean white cloth, and buried with a simple
    prayer preferably the same day. Muslims consider
    this one of the final services they can do for
    their relatives, and an opportunity to remember
    their own brief existence here on earth. The
    Prophet taught that three things can continue to
    help a person even after death charity which he
    had given, knowledge which he had taught and
    prayers on their behalf by a righteous child.

What about food?
  • Although much simpler than the dietary law
    followed by Jews and the early Christians, the
    code which Muslims observe forbids the
    consumption of pig meat or any kind of
    intoxicating drink. The Prophet taught that 'your
    body has rights over you', and the consumption of
    wholesome food and the leading of a healthy
    lifestyle are seen as religious obligations.
  • The Prophet said 'Ask God for certainty of
    faith and well-being for after certainty, no
    one is given any gift better than health!'

Zillij Islamic Art
  • Muslim mosques are rich with geometric
    ornamentation called Zillij. These patterns
    reflect basic Islamic beliefs as well as
    mathematical truths. Muslims see these patterns
    as being "discovered rather than created."
  • When you study the patterns of the tiles in wall
    and floor mosaics, what do you notice about these
    arrangements? The designs are endlessly repeating
    in elaborate complexity. Looking at the whole,
    you see no center but rather an even, total, and
    unending aesthetic.
  • Islamic designs convey spirituality without
    religious iconography (drawings and statues).
    Although they are intense and brilliant in color
    and design, they are impersonal and anonymous.
    Nowhere do you see the artists hand, only the
    pure form and color. These profound concepts
    reflect the Muslim understanding of God. Muslims
    believe it is a sin to reproduce the likeness of
    God or his image in man,

Islamic artwork is not made using random,
free-choice designs, but is drawn within the
constraints of symmetry and the laws of
proportion. The basic component is a simple
shape, repeated in patterns following bilateral
or radial symmetry.
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How does Islam guarantee human rights?
  • Freedom of conscience is laid down by the Quran
    itself 'There is no compulsion in religion'.
  • The life and property of all citizens in an
    Islamic state are considered sacred whether a
    person is Muslim or not.
  • Racism is incomprehensible to Muslims, for the
    Quran speaks of human equality in the following
  • O mankind! We created you from a single soul,
    male and female, and made you into nations and
    tribes, so that you may come to know one another.
    Truly, the most honored of you in God's sight is
    the greatest of you in piety. God is All-Knowing,
    All Aware (4913)

  • University
  • Mosque of Al
  • Azhar - a center
  • of learning
  • since 969 AD.
  • Left Mosque in
  • Iran.
  • Right Mosque
  • in Mali.

What does Islam say about war?(Version 1)
  • Like Christianity, Islam permits fighting in
    self-defense, in defense of religion, or on the
    part of those who have been expelled forcibly
    from their homes. It lays down strict rules of
    combat which include prohibitions against harming
    civilians and against destroying crops, trees and
    livestock. As Muslims see it, injustice would be
    triumphant in the world if good men were not
    prepared to risk their lives in a righteous
    cause. The Quran says
  • Fight in the cause of God against those who fight
    you, but do not transgress limits. God does not
    love transgressors. (2190)
  • If they seek peace, then seek you peace. And
    trust in God for He is the One that heareth and
    knoweth all things. (861)

  • War, therefore, is the last resort, and is
    subject to the rigorous conditions laid down by
    the sacred law. The term jihad literally means
    'struggle', and Muslims believe that there are
    two kinds of jihad. The other 'jihad' is the
    inner struggle which everyone wages against
    egotistic desires, for the sake of attaining
    inner peace.

Personal Jihad
  • This is the most important form. This type of
    jihad, called the Jihadun-Nafs, is the intimate
    struggle to purify one's soul of evil influences
    -- both subtle and overt. It is the struggle to
    cleanse one's spirit of sin. Both the Qur'an and
    the Hadith use the word "jihad" to refer to
    personal struggles
  • Putting "Allah ahead of our loved ones, our
    wealth, our worldly ambitions and our own lives."
  • Resisting pressure of parents, peers and societ
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