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Promoting a Healthy Campus Initiative: Incident Response Teams


Campuses should establish multi-disciplinary assessment and intervention teams ... SOCC: Distress and Disruptive Behavior Assessment and Response ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Promoting a Healthy Campus Initiative: Incident Response Teams

Promoting a Healthy Campus Initiative Incident
Response Teams
  • Jackie Balzer
  • Portland State University
  • Laura Blake Jones
  • University of Oregon

Governors Task Force on Campus Safety
Recommendations and Summary
  • Campuses should establish multi-disciplinary
    assessment and intervention teams to identify
    students or staff who appear to pose a risk of
    harm to themselves or others.
  • The entire campus community should receive
    training on how to identify persons who may need
    help and how to make appropriate referrals.
  • Regardless of size, campus student services staff
    should communicate with their constituencies
    clearly, consistently and regularly on risk
    assessment policies and practices.

Governors Task Force on Campus Safety Call to
  • A national study of campuses in 2002 summarized
    student safety risks as follows
  • 36,000 to 48,000 sexual assaults against women
  • 2,953 aggravated assaults on campus
  • 1,400 alcohol-related deaths
  • 1,098 cases of campus arson
  • 1,088 suicides on campus
  • 23 campus homicides

Governors Task Force on Campus SafetyCall to
  • Suicide is the second leading cause of death
    among college youth.
  • Students age 25 and over and males have higher
    suicide rates.
  • A study in 2004 found that 11 percent of college
    women and 9 percent of college men had seriously
    considered suicide and that 1.3 percent had made
    at least one attempt.
  • This study found that only one in five of the
    students who attempted suicide was on medication
    or in therapy.

PSU Model
SIT Coordinating Leadership Team for Student
Issues and Response Teams (Pres, SHAC, AA, GC,
UO Model
Lessons Learned along the way.
  • As a campus we will be judged on three things
  • What we did before the incident. Our job is to
    think about the unthinkable. Incidents are
    complex and require trained and empowered work
    teams to guide a response.
  • What we did during the incident. Our job is to
    prepare accordingly so that our multidisciplinary
    work teams coordinate the best response.
  • What we did after the incident. Our job is to
    restore a positive learning environment and
    uphold our educational mission.

Coordinated Response Teams Essential Components
  • Coordinated Leadership Development
  • -Facilitator training and support
  • -Accountability for leadership of teams
  • Coordinated Team Development
  • -Professional development
  • -Membership and team building
  • -Orientation, mentoring and assessment
  • Effective Operational Procedures
  • Accessibility and use of technology
  • Coordinated Admin. Support and Outreach
  • Scheduling, minutes, web, outreach

Coordinated Response Teams Essential Components
  • Determine Team needs
  • Who needs to be on the team?
  • What does the group require as a whole to do the
    work well?
  • Individual needs
  • What are the roles and expectations of team
  • What does each individual require to give his or
    her best performance to the team?
  • Determine Task needs
  • What exactly is the job to be done?

Coordinated Response Teams Essential Components
Individual Competencies
  • Empowered campus/unit representation
  • Knowledge of university policies, student issues,
  • Commitment to health, safety and student success
  • Strong communication skills and open to dialogue
  • Media experience
  • Calm presence
  • Understanding of expert and consultation roles
  • Availability and responsibility mindset
  • Team player mindset

Coordinated Response Teams Essential Components
Team Competencies
  • Empowered and responsible leadership skills
  • Willingness to be accountable and action oriented
  • Collective wisdom mentality
  • Problem solving ability
  • Commitment to safety and student success
  • Forward thinking and scanning
  • Big picture thinking
  • Trustworthy and open communication
  • Culturally competent
  • Availability and accessibility

Coordinated Response Teams Essential
  • University/School policies and team protocols
  • University/School offices and services
  • Shared decision making skills and philosophy
  • Speaking to the Media
  • General campus facts and figures
  • International facts and figures
  • Trauma, grief and loss theory
  • Incident simulations
  • Legal issues
  • Social networking and web
  • Cultural competency
  • Self care

Coordinated Response Teams Common Challenges
  • Three main reasons why Teams stumble
  • Team roles are not clearly defined. Tasks fall
    through the cracks or are haphazard
  • There is a lack of coordination. The goals are
    poorly defined (control situation vs PR)
  • There are communication problems. Internal and
    external communications are not planned,
    organized and complete.

Coordinated Response Teams Common Challenges
  • Intense media attention
  • Amount of contact with family and relatives
  • Higher than normal expectations
  • Physical and time pressures created by nature of
    the incident
  • Uncertain or prolonged duration of the situation
  • Conflict or disagreement on the TEAM
  • Access to Team members

Additional Materials
Coordinated Response Teams Guiding Management
Adapted FEMA, 2004
  • Formation of Teams
  • Team leadership and membership
  • Team development and learning
  • Campus scan/possible incident audit
  • Team stakeholder and policy analysis
  • Team protocol development and planning
  • Practice

  • Identification of possible incidents
  • Environmental
  • Facility
  • Human
  • Warning systems/Mitigation of incident
  • Training for faculty and staff
  • Campus resource development
  • Policy development

  • Identification of possible incidents Facility
  • Fire
  • Explosion
  • Chemical
  • Evacuation
  • Loss of utilities
  • Major computing/IT loss
  • Offensive graffiti
  • Facility take over

  • Identification of possible incidents Human
  • Death (student/faculty)
  • Student injury
  • Suicide
  • Emotional/psychological crisis
  • Missing person
  • Alcohol overdose
  • Infectious disease
  • Demonstration/riot
  • IT/social networking
  • Incident aboard

  • Identification of possible incidents Human
  • Physical Assault/Hostage
  • Sexual Assault/Violence
  • Stalking
  • Kidnapping
  • Terrorist threat
  • Vandalism
  • Hate crime/Bias

Threat Assessment - US FBI
  • Low no detail to threat, realism low, general
    comments only
  • Medium some concrete details to plan, general
    time and place, threat could be carried out
  • High imminent threats, direct and specific,
    means to carry out are gathered, victim under

Protective Factors - US FBI
  • Demonstrated resiliency
  • Social competency
  • Peer relationships and support
  • Family involvement and support
  • Mentor relationships

  • Operations
  • Convening Team
  • Meeting procedures
  • Decision making process
  • Expectations
  • Action steps
  • Incident Communications
  • Internal
  • External

  • Meetings
  • Gather critical information
  • Convene the Team
  • Analyzing information
  • Developing management plan
  • Making decisions
  • Communication plan
  • Monitoring outcomes plan
  • Follow up plan

  • Protocols/Incident Communications
  • Students (current, prospective and former), (on
    and off campus)
  • Parents/family
  • Staff/Faculty
  • Visitors
  • Community stakeholders
  • Government stakeholders
  • Media (TV, Radio, Web)
  • General Public

  • One of the best ways to respond is to provide
    psychological first aid. This includes the
    provision of
  • Comfort
  • Information
  • Support
  • Resources (can include safety, shelter, medical
    and financial assistance)

  • People should be encouraged to use natural
    supports and to talk with those they are
    comfortable withat their own pace. They should
    follow their natural inclination with regard to
    how much and to whom they talk.
  • A helpful response will be to listen actively
    and supportively but not probe for
    details/emotional responses, and validate and
    normalize natural recovery.

  • Traumatic experiences may stir up memories or
    exacerbate symptoms related to previous traumatic
    events, as in opening old wounds. These
    symptoms should be normalized and are likely to
    abate with time. It may be helpful to ask people
    what strategies they have used in the past and
    encourage this.

  • Balancing stressors and resources
  • Restoring full operations
  • Educational activities/materials
  • Communicating to community
  • Healing/Honoring activities

  • Debrief
  • Incident review
  • Protocol review
  • Documentation
  • Maintaining statistics
  • Stakeholder follow-up
  • Assessment of Team functioning
  • -Individual
  • Collective

Resources (need to add text)
  • Books
  • Websites
  • Reports
  • Organizations

Current References
  • Benton, S.A. and Benton S.L. Eds., College
    Student Mental Health Effective Services and
    Strategies Across Campus. National Association of
    Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA), 2006.
  • Cintron, R, Weathers, E. and Garlough, K. Eds.,
    College Student Death Guidance for a Caring
    Campus. ACPA. University Press of America, Inc.
    Lanham, MD., 2007
  • Junco, R. and Mastrodicasa, J. Connecting to the
    Net.Generation, National Association of Student
    Personnel Administrators (NASPA), 2007.
  • Kadison, R., M.D., Digeronimo, T.F. College of
    the Overwhelmed The Campus Mental Health Crisis
    and What to do About It. Jossey-Bass, San
    Francisco. 2004.
  • Pavela, G., Questions and Answers on College
    Student Suicide A Law and Policy Perspective.
    College Administration Publications, Inc.,
    Asheville, NC. 2006
  • Zdziarski, E., Dunkel, N.W., Rollo, J.M., Campus
    Crisis Management A Comprehensive Guide to
    Planning, Prevention, Response, and Recovery.
    John Wiley Sons, Inc. San Francisco.
    Jossey-Bass. 2007.

Older References
  • Amada, G., Coping with the Disruptive College
    Student A Practical Model. College
    Administration Publications, Inc., Asheville, NC.
  • Gilliland, B.E. and James, R.K., Crisis
    Intervention Strategies. Wadsworth, Inc.,
    Belmont, CA. 1988.
  • Siegel, D., Campuses Respond to Violent Tragedy.
    American Council on Education and The Oryx Press,
    Phoenix, AZ. 1994
  • Smith, M.C. and Fossey, R., Crime on Campus
    Legal Issues and Campus Administration. American
    Council on Higher Education and The Oryx Press,
    Phoenix, AZ. 1995
  • Whitaker, L.C., Pollard, J.W., Eds., Campus
    Violence Kinds, Causes, and Cures. The Haworth
    Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY. 1993.
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