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Overview of Special Education


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Title: Overview of Special Education

Overview of Special Education
  • Texas Teachers
  • Summer 2008
  • Presented By
  • Steve Hamman


  • ARD

  • IEP
  • TEKS


Special Education Referral Process
  • Referral Process
  • Notice and Consent
  • IMPACT Team Process
  • Evaluation Process
  • Response To Intervention
  • Timelines

Referral Process
  • Referral can be by parent, teacher,doctor and
    other professionals
  • Includes review of existing data on the student
  • Must provide parents with Notice of Refusal if
    student doesnt qualify

Notice and Consent
  • Parents receives Notice in writing
  • The notice must include what the school has
    tried, a description of the tests, data use to
    make the referral
  • Parents must receive copy of the Notice of
    Procedural Safeguards
  • Notice must be provided in native language
  • Parent must give written consent for initial
    evaluation to occur
  • Parent can revoke the consent

IMPACT (Child Study) Team Process
  • Special Education Referral Process is much more
    clearly defined (AISD requires Associate Supt.
    Approval of all Sp.Ed students)
  • The Child Study team carefully considers the
    needs of each student that is referred and
    provides recommendations and develops a specific
    action plan for each student

Evaluation Process
  • Once Notice has been provided and written
    parental consent received the school may begin
  • The evaluation is called a Full and Individual
    Initial Evaluation
  • The child must be evaluated in all areas of
    suspected disability
  • The tests administered can not discriminate based
    on race, culture, language or mode of

Evaluation Process
  • The evaluation is the first step of determining
    the childs needs and guides the development of
    the Individual Educational Plan if the child
    qualifies for Sp.Ed.
  • A written report is compiled which highlights the
    students present level of performance and
    specific recommendations

RTI Response to Intervention
  • To ensure that under achievement in a child
    suspected of having a learning disability is not
    due to lack of appropriate instruction in reading
    or math. Data must demonstrate that the child has
    been provided appropriate instruction in regular
    education and has been provided instruction
    utilizing scientific, research based interventions

Historical Practice In Special Education
  • Struggling student was traditionally referred to
    special education testing if they did not respond
    to traditional, large group instruction in the
    general education setting
  • Most interventions were campus developed and not
    research based methods and were often very short

RTI Definition
  • The RTI process is a multi-step approach to
    providing services and interventions to students
    who struggle with learning
  • The progress students make at each stage is
    closely monitored
  • Results of the monitoring are used to make
    decisions for further research-based instruction
    or interventions

Benefits of RTI
  • Has potential to limit the amount of academic
    failure that any student experiences
  • Reduce inappropriate identification of learning
    disabled students related to culture or lack of
    educational opportunity
  • Provide earlier identification of children who
    have true disabilities

Essential Components of RTI
  • Progress monitoring in the general curriculum
  • Use of scientifically proven interventions
  • Progress monitoring of response to specific Tier
    2 interventions
  • Assure that the interventions are provided
    consistently and that they align with the
    students needs

Tiered Intervention Model
  • Tier 1 Classroom level interventions such as
    modifications, small group instruction
  • Tier 2 Academic Interventions that are very
    specific and prescriptive for the learner often
    provide outside of the classroom
  • Tier 3 Very intensive instruction that aligns
    with students needs

Tiered Teaching and Learning
  • Tier 2 Interventions are generally monitored
    between 8 and 12 weeks
  • Tier 3 Interventions are very individualized and
    intensive and students who do not respond are
    considered for special education services
  • The Discrepancy Model is no longer recommended as
    an accurate method of identifying students with
    Learning Disabilities

Timelines for the Child Centered SpEd Process
  • FIIE is to be completed within 60 days of written
    consent being received
  • The ARD committee must convene within 30 days of
    completion of the evaluation.

Special Education Eligibility
  • Physical Sensory Disabilities
  • Learning Disabilities
  • Mental Retardation
  • Autism
  • Emotional Disturbance

Physical/Sensory Disabilities
  • Orthopedic Impairment
  • Determined by a physician
  • Body functions are so impaired the child cant be
    adequately served in general education w/out
    special service (educational need)
  • Most common etiology or cause is cerebral palsy
  • Gross and Fine Motor deficits and may feel
    isolated and inadequate

Physical/Sensory Disabilities
  • Other Health Impaired
  • Determined by physician
  • Chronic or acute health problems which adversely
    affect educational performance (educational need)
  • Common health related conditions heart, asthma,
    diabetes, epilepsy/seizure disorder, leukemia
  • Since 1991 ADD and ADHD are now included this
    represents the largest group under this
    disability category

Physical/Sensory Disabilities
  • Speech Impaired
  • Determined by Speech Therapist
  • Speech is so impaired cant be educated in
    regular classes w/out special services
    (educational need)
  • 3 Major communication disorders
    motor),voice impairment(vocal cords)
  • Structural malformation- cerebral palsy and cleft

Physical/Sensory Disabilities
  • Speech Impaired
  • Speech Impairment is often the gateway into
  • Unable to comprehend meaningful ideas- receptive
  • Unable to use spoken words or augmentative
    communication to express meaningful ideas
    expressive deficit

Physical/Sensory Disabilities
  • Teacher strategies related to these type of
  • Accept child as is
  • Look at child (eye contact)
  • Encourage but dont ever force them into a
  • Build self confidence by emphasizing students
  • Encourage participation in groups

Physical/Sensory Disabilities
  • Auditorially Impaired
  • Determined by an Otologist or physician
  • Serious hearing loss even after corrective
    treatment or use of amplification(educational
  • Certified audiologist required to evaluate
  • Poor articulation and frequent academic delays

Physical /Sensory Disabilities
  • Visually Impaired
  • Determined by licensed ophthalmologist or
  • Adversely affects educational performance even
    after correction
  • Awkwardness in movement and fine and gross motor
  • Academic delays

Physical/Sensory Disabilities
  • Deaf-Blind
  • Combination of severe hearing and visual losses
    after best correction
  • Must meet both AI and VI criteria
  • Services for AI, VI and Deaf Blind must be
    available from ages 0 - 21

Physical/Sensory Disabilities
  • Multiply Impaired
  • Does not include deaf-blind
  • Any 2 or more impairments are present
  • Combination of disabilities causes severe
    educational deficits
  • Results in multi-sensory or motor deficits
  • Condition expected to continue indefinitely

Learning Disabilities
  • Student has average or above average IQ ( not MR)
  • Achievement assessment indicated severe
    discrepancy(more than one standard deviation)
    below intellectual ability in one of eight areas
  • 1. Oral expression
  • 2. Listening comprehension
  • 3. Written expression
  • 4. Basic reading skills (decoding)

Learning Disabilities
  • 5. Reading Fluency Skills
  • 6. Reading Comprehension
  • 7. Math calculations (operations)
  • 8. Math problem solving
  • Student has had appropriate learning experiences
    in reading and math and other problems such as
    culture, economic status, native language and
    attendance do not appear to be cause of academic

Learning Disabilities
  • IDEA 2004 requires a multidisciplinary team
    assessment and specifies that the LEA may not
    require use of a discrepancy between intellectual
    ability and achievement, but must permit the use
    of a process based on the childs response to
    scientific, research-based interventions
  • Review examples of students Joe and Mary (old
  • New model incorporates a pattern of strengths and
    weaknesses and may include discrepancy model

Learning Disabilities
  • General Characteristics
  • Disorders of attention
  • Lack of organization
  • Conceptual disorders unable to organize
  • Poor motor abilities
  • Perceptual and Information processing deficits
  • Reading difficulties decoding
  • Reading comprehension

Learning Disabilities
  • Written Expression handwriting challenges
  • Math difficulties problems with operations
    related to memorization and word problems related
    to reading challenges
  • Learning Disabilities are often what we call the
    invisible disability students often over
    compensate to cover up disability

Mental Retardation
  • Determined by a licensed psychologist or
  • Two or more standard deviations below mean on
    scales of verbal performance or nonverbal ability
    (Below 70 IQ)
  • Assessment must specify the degree of retardation
  • Assessment must consider adaptive behavior and
    deficits in this area should exist concurrently
    with other deficits

Mental Retardation
  • The main etiology or causes include trauma,
    anoxia, chromosomal anomalies, premature birth
  • Levels of Mental Retardation include Mild,
    Moderate, Severe and Profound

Mild Mental Retardation
  • IQ range 55-69
  • Behaviors near norm
  • Educable can be self sufficient
  • Can hold jobs
  • Physical appearance normal
  • Difficulty handling leisure time and or change

Moderate Mental Retardation
  • IQ range 40 54
  • Serious developmental delays
  • Able to learn self help skills
  • Can hold jobs but will need job coaching and
  • Functional academic skills
  • Motor and coordination problems
  • Requires support for social skill development and
    leisure skills

Severe Mental Retardation
  • IQ range 25 39
  • Very serious developmental delays
  • Serious language delays or non-verbal
  • May have multiple disabilities
  • Little or no social interaction
  • Repetition helps build self help skills
  • Long term care is indicated

Profound Mental Retardation
  • IQ range 0 24
  • Extremely serious delays in all areas of
  • Very few if any self help skills
  • Very little or no language
  • No social interaction
  • May self mutilate
  • Lifetime care needed
  • Quality of Life is the biggest program area for
    both the severe and profound population

  • Onset before 30 months of age
  • Pervasive lack of responsiveness to other people
  • Often have significant deficits in language
  • Disturbances of responses to sensory stimuli or
    bizarre responses to environment
  • Determined by a multidisciplinary team

  • Often have delayed onset of speech of elective
  • The use of visuals including objects, pictures
    and picture symbols are an essential strategy for
    supporting this disability
  • The visuals are often used to create a schedule
    of routines and activities
  • Must be explicit and intentional in the teaching
    of social skills
  • Autism supplement is required in state of Texas
    as part of the IEP It addresses 11 areas of
    consideration for this disability

  • This disability is often referred to as a social
    communication disability
  • There are many sensory issues with this
    disability and this must be addressed with an
    appropriate sensory diet embedded in the
    educational program in the most natural way
  • The range of sensory deficits goes across all
    sensory areas and is either hypoactive or
    hyperactive in response

Emotional Disturbance
  • One or more of the following characteristics over
    a long period of time and to a marked degree
    which adversely affects educational performance
  • Inability to learn not due to intellectual
  • Inability to maintain satisfactory relationships
    with peers or adults
  • Inappropriate feelings/behaviors in normal

Emotional Disturbance
  • Pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression
  • Tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears
  • Must be determined by psychiatrist or licensed
  • Report must reflect functional implications and
    behavior management recommendations
  • Includes schizophrenia

Emotional Disturbance
  • Main causal factors include chemical imbalance,
    trauma, and genetic predisposition
  • Often have few if any friends
  • Often very rigid in responses
  • Little trust and operate with an external locus
    of control (always blaming others)
  • The Anxiety/Withdrawal component is often

Traumatic Brain Injury
  • TBI is defined as an acquired injury to the brain
    caused by an external force, resulting in total
    or partial functional disability or psychosocial
    impairment, or both that adversely affects a
    childs educational performance.
  • The two age groups at highest risk for TBI are
    0-4 year olds and 15-19 year olds. TBI is the
    leading cause of death and disability in children
    and young adults.

Special Education Services and LRE
  • Determination of Services
  • Accommodations and Modifications
  • ESY
  • Related Services
  • Medical Procedures / AT
  • Instructional Arrangements

Determination of Services
  • ARD committee considers the needs of the student
    and determines the types of programs and services
    that align with the assessed needs
  • ARD considerations include statement of aids and
    services based on scientific based research, a
    statement of the school support and personnel to
    be provided, a statement of the related services
    and a statement of the interventions,
    modifications and accommodations

Determination of Services
  • Modification a change in WHAT the student is
    expected to learn
  • Accommodation - a change in HOW the teaching or
    testing are provided to the student
  • Additional considerations must be considered for
    students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the
    State of Texas

ESY Extended School Year Services
  • Must be considered for all students receiving
    special education
  • ARD committee must review and consider data on
    critical objectives that a student has exhibited
    severe or substantial regression that cannot be
    recouped within a reasonable time period
  • A reasonable recoupment period is generally a
    reporting period of 6 9 weeks

Related Services
  • Definition Developmental, corrective and
    supportive services including transportation,
    needed so student can benefit educationally on
    their IEP

Types of Related Services
  • Adaptive Equipment/Assistive Technology
  • Speech Therapy
  • Special Transportation
  • School Health and Medical Services
  • Occupational and Physical Therapy
  • Adaptive PE
  • Art and Music Therapy
  • Audiological Services/ Visual Therapy
  • Counseling Services

Obtaining Related Services
  • Decided and Reviewed by the ARD committee
  • Provided by qualified personnel
  • Medical procedures are required for students to
    have equal access (Review types of medical
  • Assistive Technology must be considered for every
    student in SpEd
  • Assistive Technology covers a full continuum from
    low to high tech

Obtaining Related Services
  • A statement of the related services must include
    the dates of service and the frequency, duration
    and location of the services
  • IDEA 97 and 2004 support the development of a
    collaborative IEP for related services

LRE Least Restrictive Environment
  • The law requires that every student in SpEd
    receive a free and appropriate education which
    includes full access to the general curriculum,
    all facilities and extracurricular activities and
    the opportunity to be educated with non-disabled
    peers to the extent possible

Instructional Arrangements
  • Continuum of Least to Most Restrictive
  • Regular Class with consult/co-teach/inclusion
  • Regular Class with Modifications/Accommodations
  • Regular Class and Resource class combination
  • Self contained class with inclusion
  • Self contained class on special campus

Instructional Arrangements
  • Homebound Instruction
  • Hospital or special setting classroom at a
  • Residential Centers or community centers
  • The law requires that all students in SpEd be
    educated as close to home as possible and that
    access to general curriculum and non-disabled
    peers must always be considered

Special Education Law
  • PL 94-142
  • IDEA Six Principals of the Law
  • Major Changes of IDEA 2004
  • History and Significant Individuals
  • Major Legislation
  • Parent and Student Rights

94-142 and IDEA
  • 94-142 Education for All Handicapped Students
    Act was passed by Congress in 1975
  • 1990 the law was reauthorized and became IDEA
    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
  • IDEA was reauthorized again in 1997 and 2004

6 Principals of SpEd Law
  • Free Appropriate Public Education
  • Appropriate Evaluation in all areas of suspected
  • Individualized Education Program is required for
    all students receiving Special Education
  • Least Restrictive Environment
  • Parent/Student as decision makers
  • Procedural Safeguards

Major Changes in IDEA 2004
  • Protection of Gen Ed student who is referred to
  • Services of transfer students
  • Resolution Meeting Required when due process is
  • ARD members dismissed early
  • IEP amendments outside of ARD
  • Response to Intervention model is determined as
    best practice for identifying students with
    Learning Disabilities

Major Changes of IDEA 2004
  • Change in liability of district related to parent
  • Increased focus on general curriculum and
    alignment with No Child Left Behind legislation

History of Special Education
  • Individuals with disabilities were ignored,
    rejected and often punished
  • Institutionalized
  • Parents played key role in development of
  • Federal grants were put in place prior to law
  • Much of the work in early Special Education was
    based on learning theorists such as Piaget,
    Pavlov and Skinner and Bandura
  • Increased focus on LRE
  • Services must be based on research based practice
  • Changes in Special Education Discipline and
    Manifestation Determination process

Major Legislation
  • Section 504 Prohibits any qualified person with
    a disability from being excluded from
    participation in any program which receives
    federal funds Emphasis is on accommodations
  • Americans with Disabilities Act Broad
    legislation protecting the rights of all persons
    with disabilities emphasis is on access

Major Legislation
  • FERPA Family Education Rights and Privacy Act
    right to inspect records and to request copies of
  • NCLB No Child Left Behind requires special
    education teachers to meet highly qualified
    standards, requires participation of all students
    with disabilities in state assessment (only 3 of
    students can take off level or modified
    assessment) in order for campuses and district to
    make Adequate Yearly Progress-AYP

Parent Rights
  • Must receive written notice before assessment
  • Must given written consent before assessment
  • Must be given description of all procedures
  • May request due process if they disagree with
  • May request Independent Educational Evaluation if
    they disagree with district report

Parent Rights
  • Must receive copy of Notice of Procedural
    Safeguards annually and upon initial referral or
    when an evaluation is requested or when a due
    process is filed (www.tea.state.tx.us/special.ed/)
  • This document is designed to help parents
    understand their rights and the rights of their
    child under the law

Student Rights
  • Right to be assessed in all areas of suspected
  • Assessed with instruments that are related to the
    suspected disability and are not culturally or
    racially biased
  • Assessed by qualified personnel

ARD Admission, Review and Dismissal
  • Required Members
  • ARD Agenda
  • Role of Chairperson
  • Determination of Eligibility
  • Present Levels of Performance
  • Other ARD considerations

ARD Required Members
  • Parent or Surrogate Parent
  • Student (When deemed appropriate and always by
    age 16
  • Administrator or Designee
  • General Ed Teacher
  • Special Ed Teacher
  • Assessment Staff (when discussing assessments)
  • LPAC
  • CATE
  • AI and VI teachers

ARD Agenda
  • Introductions
  • Review Information and Determine Eligibility
  • Transition Planning (by age 16)
  • Review and Develop IEP
  • Special Education Services
  • LRE
  • Additional Supplements
  • Closing Activities

ARD Role of Chairperson
  • Room arrangement and IEP materials ready (tape
    player and tapes)
  • Have meeting agenda prepared
  • Begin on time
  • Do introductions and state purpose of ARD
  • Ensure that required members are present
  • Check for understanding throughout meeting to
    ensure consensus
  • End on time and provide copies

ARD Determination of Eligibility
  • Two major considerations are always the assurance
    that the student meets the disability eligibility
    criteria and that the student has an identified
    educational need that can only be provided
    through special education
  • ARD committee must review information from a
    variety of sources
  • A student may not be eligible if determined that
    they have had a lack of instruction in reading
    and math or determination is based on LEP

ARD Present Levels of Academic Achievement and
Functional Performance
  • Consider strengths of student
  • Consider concerns of parents
  • Consider all current assessments
  • Consider performance on state assessments
  • Consider communication needs
  • Consider behavior needs
  • Consider assistive technology needs
  • Consider AI and VI needs if appropriate

Other ARD Considerations
  • LRE Assurances
  • Reaching Consensus
  • ARD Disagreement and 10 day recess
  • Decisions and issues which are outside of the
    scope or authority of the ARD

IEP Individual Education Plan
  • Components of the IEP
  • IEP Planning
  • IEP Development
  • Types of Meetings
  • IEP Characteristics
  • Goals and Objectives
  • State Assessments
  • Transition/Graduation Sequence

Components of the IEP
  • Present Levels of Academic Achievement and
    Functional Performance
  • Measurable annual goals and objectives
  • Special education and related services and
  • Consideration and discussion of the Least
    Restrictive Environment most appropriate for the

IEP Planning
  • Assessment is the prerequisite to quality
    planning and includes both formal and informal
  • Purpose of assessment is to develop IEP goals and
    objectives which align with student needs
  • Consider what environment will be the least
    restrictive for the student to make progress
  • Assessment and progress monitoring are a
    continuous process

IEP Development
  • The ARD committee must consider the method of
    evaluation which will be used to measure progress
    and how data will be collected and reported
  • State assessment must be carefully considered
    LDAA no longer exist

Types of ARD Meetings
  • Admission Determine if eligibility and
    educational need are present and develop IEP and
    identify services and placement
  • Review Annual meeting required for every SpEd
    student- review eligibility and IEP and develop
    IEP and services if still eligible
  • Dismissal Review of data determines that
    student is no longer eligible for SpEd due to
    lack of educational need or doesnt meet criteria
    for disability

IEP Characteristics
  • Description of services and location of services
  • Identifies performance criterion
  • Sets timeline for evaluation
  • Identifies modifications and accommodations for
    the student
  • Identifies persons responsible for implementing
    the IEP and related services

Goals and Objectives
  • Annual measurable goals are statements developed
    from current levels of performance that state
    what a student should accomplish in a year
  • Objectives or benchmarks are statements that
    relate to the goal and define where a student
    will be at a certain period of time
  • Goals and objectives are required for all areas
    in which the disability adversely affects

Goals and Objectives
  • IEP goals and objectives must correlate with
    current levels of performance and must align with
    student needs and assessment decisions
  • New goals and objectives must be developed

State Assessments
  • According to NCLB by 2014 the proficiency
    standard for all state assessments must be 100
  • All students must be held to the same high
    standards of academic achievement
  • There is a 3 cap that states are allowed which
    refers to the of SpEd students who are test
    takers and who may take a modified assessment

State Assessments
  • 2 cap refers to students that are performing
    very significantly below grade level and in Texas
    will probably take the TAKS-M which is a modified
    achievement standard
  • 1 cap refers to students with significant
    cognitive delays who will take the TAKS-Alt
  • The TAKS-A is a regular achievement standard but
    just has more allowable accommodations than TAKS

Transition/Graduation Sequence
  • Transition services that prepare students for
    post-graduation must be in place by the 16th
    birthday for all SpEd students
  • Transition planning focuses on 4 major areas
    Education, Employment, Independent Living and
    Community and Recreation skills
  • Course of study should align with transition
    goals and ARD pre-planning is required
  • Consider community agencies

  • Definitions of Modifications and Accommodations
  • Levels of Performance
  • Strategies for Selecting Modifications and
  • Gallery Walk Activity
  • Modifications for Tests
  • Modification Documentation

  • MODIFICATION A change in what the student is
    expected to learn and or demonstrate. It is WHAT
    the student is expected to learn
  • ACCOMMODATION A change made to teaching or
    testing procedures in order to increase the
    students access to information and to create an
    equal opportunity to demonstrate knowledge and
    skills. It is HOW instruction is delivered and or
    learning is assessed.

Levels of Performance
  • Before we provide accommodations or modifications
    we must have a true picture of the students
    level of performance
  • Our modifications and accommodations should be
    very prescriptive

Gallery Walk Activity
  • Review of Process for Selecting
    Modifications/Accommodations handout
  • Number off 1-12
  • Read the Level of Performance at each station
  • As a group select a couple of appropriate
  • Rotate from station to station every 2 minutes
  • Reflections on the activity

Modifications for Tests
  • Explain directions orally
  • Underline directions
  • Provide examples of how student is to respond
  • Give untimed tests
  • Grade on amount completed
  • Give an outline for essay questions
  • Read tests
  • Give a practice test
  • Adjust readability to students needs

Modification Documentation
  • As a case manager teacher you are responsible for
    sharing the required modifications/accommodations
    with all staff who are expected to implement the
  • You should assist the general ed teachers and
    paraprofessional staff in developing data
    collection tools that are easy to use and provide
    needed information to ensure compliance- It is
    good to follow up frequently to assure

TEKS Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills
  • TEKS Strand
  • Year Overview
  • Instructional Planning Guide
  • Small Group Activity and Discussion of TEKS
  • Reading /Literacy Core Program and Interventions

TEKS Strand Overview
  • STRAND TWO Patterns, Relationships and Algebraic
    Thinking Handout
  • TEKS 208
  • Algebra II
  • Describe functional relationships for given
    problem situations and write equations or
    inequalities to answer questions arising from
  • Review Overview

Instructional Planning Guide
  • Locate TEKS 208 Patterns, Generalizations,
    Relationships, Proportional Reasoning and Making
  • Locate TEKS 208 b1 The student understands that
    a function represents a dependence of one
    quantity on another and can be described in a
    variety of ways
  • Review other categories of the IPG

Lesson Plans and Differentiated Instruction
  • Components of DI
  • DI Model
  • Multiple Intelligences Activity
  • Tools/Websites
  • Design Tool
  • Instructional Design Activity
  • Other DI Strategies

Differentiated Instruction
  • 4 Components of Differentiated Instruction
  • Student Learner Characteristics
  • Deep and Rich Content Knowledge
  • Repertoire of Strategies for DI
  • Classroom Organization and Management

Differentiated Instruction Model
  • Pre Assessment of Prior Knowledge
  • Content What the Teacher plans to teach
  • Process How Teacher plans instruction
  • Assessment Measurement of Content
  • Analysis of Student Learning (ongoing)
  • You cant differentiate instruction until you
    know how your kids differ

Multiple Intelligences Activity
  • This is one example of Differentiated Instruction
    related to Learner Characteristics
  • Complete the Assessment
  • Share your results with the person next with you
  • Discuss how this type of activity would help you
    differentiate instruction in your classroom

Tools and Websites for Learner Characteristics
  • Categories of Learner Characteristics
  • Readiness Levels www.earlyreading.info
  • Interests/Hobbies/Motivators-www.familyeducation.c
  • Self-Management- www.educationplanet.com
  • Learning Styles- www.howtolearn.com/lsinventory

Instructional Design Tool 6 steps
  • 1 What am I teaching
  • 2 Pre-Assessment Tool/Activity
  • 3 Lesson Design Instructional Activities
  • 4 Grouping
  • 5 Assessment/ Product
  • 6 Additional Instructional Decisions Students
    who require additional supports/Accommodations/
  • Modifications/In-class support/Individual

Instructional Design Activity
  • Get in a group of 4
  • See handouts on Science 4th grade planning guide
    and 4 student case studies
  • Using Design Tool fill in the following
    information 1 4th grade science scientific
    method 2 Review computer based data on each
    student, 3,4 Activity 1a- Label environment
    using vocabulary-whole group, Activity 1b
    Accountable Talk/Gallery Walk small group

Instructional Design Activity
  • 3,4 Activity 2a Develop criterion chart with
    partner, Activity 2b Identify steps of the
    inquiry or scientific method large group,
    Activity 3 Complete interactive journal
  • 5 Activity 1a assessment product is labeled
    environment, Activity 2a,b assessment is
    completed criterion chart and steps of scientific
    method,Activity 3 assessment is completed

Instructional Design Activity
  • 6 Using handout on 4 student case studies
    design the accommodations, modifications,
    in-class support and individualized assessment
    that will be needed for each of these students to
    participate in the science lesson
  • Share reflections about this activity in the
    large group

Other DI Strategies
  • Organizers for Concept Teaching
  • Use of checklists for writing, math
  • Response Cards and benefits
  • Tiered Learning Activity
  • Graphic Organizers
  • Created Differentiated Learning environments

Behavior Management
  • TBSI-Texas Behavior Support Initiative
  • Schoolwide/Classroom Interventions
  • Individual Interventions
  • Use of Time Out
  • Severe Behavior

Behavior Management
  • Functional Behavior Assessment
  • Behavior Intervention Plan
  • Manifestation Determination
  • Positive Behavioral Interventions
  • Sample Contracts

FBA-Functional Behavior Assessment
  • A FBA is a process of analyzing the behaviors of
    a student in terms of what happens immediately
    before and after the behavior of concern. The
    purpose is to determine the function of the
    behavior. A FBA is a team effort and should
    include all team members who work directly with
    the student. The FBA can be done outside an ARD
    but its results should be discussed in an ARD
    because it is the driver of the BIP.

FBA-Functional Behavioral Assessment
  • Components of the FBA
  • Identify strengths of the student
  • Identify student interests
  • Identify behaviors of concern
  • Identify the context in which behavior occurs
  • Identify the antecedents and triggers that occur
    prior to behavior
  • A FBA must be developed for a SpEd student who
    has been removed for 10 days or more

Behavior Intervention Plan
  • If a student has a BIP they must have a FBA also
  • The FBA guides the development of the BIP
  • The BIP clearly indicates the strategies and
    consequences which apply to each problem behavior
  • The law requires the use of positive behavior
    supports and strategies for all problem behaviors
  • IEP goals are developed to support the BIP

Manifestation Determination
  • A Manifestation Determination ARD must be held
    when a SpEd students removal is for more than 10
    days or when a student has committed a special
    circumstance offense (weapons, drugs or serious
    bodily injury)
  • See handout for procedures for preparation for
    Manifestation ARD and activities carried out
    during the ARD

Manifestation Determination
  • The following two standards must be considered to
    determine if the behavior of a student is a
    manifestation of the students disability
  • Standard 1 Is the behavior subject to
    disciplinary action a direct result of failure of
    the school to implement the IEP (Were the SpEd
    services and BIP strategies provided consistent
    with the students IEP and placement?)

Manifestation Determination
  • Standard 2 Based on the information presented
    to this committee , does there appear to be a
    direct and substantial relationship between the
    incident in question and the students
  • If either of the 2 standards are met the behavior
    is considered to be a manifestation of the
    students disability and the student cant be
    removed to an AEP but must remain in current

Manifestation Determination
  • Because the student remains in the current
    placement the ARD committee must problem solve
    and revise the FBA and BIP
  • If the behavioral infraction falls into a special
    circumstance category(drugs, weapons, serious
    bodily injury) the student can be removed for up
    to 45 days
  • If the 2 standards are not met the SpEd student
    may be removed with the same procedures used for

IEP Development and Case Study
  • Writing Measurable Goals and Objectives
  • Sample IEP
  • Data Collection

Measurable Annual Goals
  • Goals must be aligned with student needs,
    strengths, preferences and interests
  • Goals should be written based on estimated
    progress on an annual basis
  • Goals should relate to general curriculum and
    provide a sequence of meaningful learning

What Makes up an Objective
  • Measurable precise statements of expected
  • The subject or person expected to act
  • An observable action verb that can be verified
  • Conditions that should be present to act upon
  • Criterion on how the action will be measured and
    how you will know the skill has been mastered

Sample IEP and Data Collection
  • Review of IEP on Charlie and identification of
    the components of measurable goals and objectives
  • The main purpose of data collection is to
    establish a baseline or present level of
    performance and to create a system to determine a
    students progress toward achievement of the
    goals and objectives

Types of Data Collection
  • Narrative/descriptive
  • Use of numbers to tally, date, count or score
  • Permanent products such as tests, projects,
    observation records, point sheets, portfolios and
    other assignments
  • There are 4 types of recording systems
    frequency, interval, duration and latency
  • Ways of organizing data include graphs, charts
    and summary tables

IEP Case Study
  • Divide into groups of four-number off 1-4
  • Read the case study
  • Complete the IEP Worksheet
  • Develop one data collection form
  • Discuss in Groups 1-4
  • Large Group Share

Team Hoyt Video
  • View Video
  • Discussion
  • Introduction of Stages of Grief
  • 1. Denial
  • 2. Anger
  • 3. Bargaining
  • 4. Depression
  • 5. Acceptance

Guidelines for Positive Communication with Parents
  • To Parents/ To Teachers
  • Principles of Collaboration
  • Taking Care of Yourself
  • Moving Toward the Roar
  • Interest Based Problem Solving
  • Summarizing and Reframing
  • Steps of IBPS

Parent Guidelines for Communication
  • Respect Teachers Time
  • Provide Information about your child
  • Respect the Teachers Expertise
  • Be honest and polite
  • Talk to the right person about concerns
  • Talk about the present
  • Value the unique qualities of the teacher
  • Realize teacher has emotional needs
  • Teacher cannot fix disability

Teacher Guidelines for Communication
  • Be available
  • Communicate as often as needed
  • Respond as quickly as you can to parents
  • Show parents that you value input
  • Help parents prepare for transitions
  • Be sensitive to cultural differences
  • Respect the parents child rearing skills
  • Be positive about the child
  • Try to walk in parents shoes

Principles of Collaboration
  • Focus on the child
  • Allow enough time for meetings
  • Think creatively
  • Focus on strengths
  • Work to reduce defensiveness
  • Every encounter matters
  • Maintain a sense of humor
  • Avoid talking negative about others
  • Build a culture of acceptance

Taking Care of Yourself
  • Both parents and school staff need to take breaks
    from children
  • Remember the only person you can change is
  • Take a break after a difficult encounter
  • Debrief with a friend or colleague after a
    difficult encounter
  • Be accepting of yourself and others
  • Dont try to have all of the answers
  • Listen carefully and say Thanks

Moving Toward the Roar
  • Read this Masai Tribal story to the large group
  • Reflect on how this relates to our work with
    families and coworkers and our ability to resolve

Interests Based Problem Solving
  • Types of Questions
  • Open Ended These help people speak more freely
  • Closed These questions result in short answers
    and limited info
  • Leading Leads the person to answer the way the
    questioner wants
  • Why These questions seek the reason behind some
    action or thought may cause defensive response

Summarizing and Reframing
  • Reflecting- parroting the speaker
  • Paraphrasing reflect thoughts of the speaker in
    your own words
  • Neutral Language changes strong emotional words
    to more neutral terms Ex. Angry becomes upset
  • Summarizing - using neutral language does not
    require the speaker to repeat every word but
    rather gives an overview

Steps of Interests Based Problem Solving
  • Stage One Prepare for the Discussion (
  • Stage Two The Discussion (Negotiation) Steps of
    this process include
  • 1. Opening
  • 2. Gather and Share Information
  • Including the position and interests of both
  • 3. Define the Problem based on interest of each

Steps of Interests Based Problem Solving
  • 4. Generate and Discuss Options
  • 5. Create the Solution
  • 6. Closure
  • Communication Skills that Facilitate IBPS/
  • Active Listening
  • Asking Open Ended Questions
  • Using I statements
  • Summarizing using Neutral Language
  • Separating Positions from Interests

Role Play Activity
  • Select a partner
  • Determine who will be the parent and the
  • Read The Unhappy Parent
  • Role Play utilizing the IBPS skills
  • Discuss your responses to the process
  • Large Group discussion

Beginning of Year Activities
  • Compliance
  • Communication and Planning
  • ESY
  • TAKS
  • Surrogate Parents
  • Other Language
  • Transition

Study Tips for TeXes SpEd Review Exam
  • Review of Typical Development
  • Review of Disabilities
  • Review of Strategies/Methods
  • Review of Test Taking Strategies
  • Practice Test Questions

  • Youve Been a Great Group to Work With !!!!
  • Please feel free to contact me
  • Steve Hamman
  • 512-258-4208
  • skhamman_at_msn.com
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