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Title: RacialEthnic Disproportionality in Special Education: Is this related to general ed What We All Need


1
Racial/Ethnic Disproportionality in Special
Education Is this related to general ed?What
We All Need to Know
  • Leslie Pyper, OSPI
  • leslie.pyper_at_k12.wa.us

2
What is Disproportionality?
  • students of a specific ethnicity or race
  • over-represented or under-represented


Over-rep
Under-rep
3
In at least forty-five states, black children in
special education are extensively overrepresented
in some categories. Extensive
overrepresentation is also found for American
Indian children.
Parrish, T. (2002). Racial Disparities in the
Identification, Funding, and Provision of Special
Education. In D. Losen G. Orfield (Eds.) Racial
Inequity in Special Education (pgs. 15-37) .
Cambridge, MA Harvard Education Press.
4
  • The overrepresentation of minority students in
    certain disability categories continues to be one
    of the most persistent and complex issues in the
    field of special education

Skiba, et al, 2006
5
  • Disproportionality is especially apparent for
    African American males in high-incidence
    categories such as mental retardation and
    emotional disturbance.

Oswald, Coutinho and Best (2000)
African American students are the most
overrepresented group in special education
programs in nearly every state, and
disproportionate representation is most
pronounced in MR and ED African American
students are 2.88 times more likely than European
American students to be labeled as MR and 1.92
times more likely to be identified as ED.
Skiba, Russell J., et al. (2006)
6
  • The professional literature distinguishes between
    judgmental non-judgmental disability categories

nonjudgmental or low-incidence
(hard) Deafness Blindness Orthopedic
impairment Severe mental retardation
judgmental or high-incidence (soft) Specific
learning disability Mental retardation
Emotional disturbance
7
dpi.wi.gov/sped/ppt/dis-losen.ppt
8
(No Transcript)
9
  • 1998 2004 students served under IDEA
  • All 6 -21 yr-olds increased less than 1
  • American Indian/Alaska Native students increased
    4
  • (from 10 to 14 percent)
  • Six million 6 to 21 yr-olds were served in 2004

  • (9 of total population)
  • 14 of American Indians/Alaska Natives
  • 13 of Blacks
  • 9 of Whites
  • 8 of Hispanics
  • 5 of Asians/Pacific Islanders

KewalRamani, A., Gilbertson, L., Fox, M., and
Provasnik, S. (2007). Status and Trends in the
Education of Racial and Ethnic Minorities (NCES
2007-039). National Center for Education
Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S.
Department of Education. Washington, DC.
10
Losen and Orfield (2002) state
unconscious racial bias, resource
inequalities, unjustifiable reliance on IQ and
other evaluation tools, educators inappropriate
responses to high stakes testing, and power
differentials between minority parents and school
officials all influence disproportionate
identification of minority students.
11
Thoughts about disproportionate representation?
What contributes ?
12
On Sept. 20, 2002, Dr. Billy C. Hawkins was
inaugurated as the 20th President of Texas
College in Tyler, Texas.
http//www.ferris.edu/htmls/alumni/cg/spring2003/
hawkins.htm
13
In Washington
Percent enrolled
Percent in special ed
  • 2.7
  • 7.8
  • 5.6
  • 14.0
  • 67.5

American Indian/AN 4.0
Asian/PI 4.7
Black 7.7
Hispanic 14.0
White 67.8
October Report Card 2006 enrollment
Dec 1 Childcount 2006
14
Washingtons definition
Disproportionate Representation
Racial/ethnic distribution of students in
special education and related services or in
specific eligibility categories that falls
outside the threshold defined by the state and
cannot be justified by the unique characteristics
of the district and is the result of
inappropriate identification.  
Threshold WRR of lt 0.5 or gt 2.0 over 3
consecutive yrs (so, less
than half as likely or more than twice as likely)
NOTE Over-representation or under-representation
shown in these weighted risk ratios means we have
to look further to determine if the
disproportionate representation is due to
inappropriate identification.
Numerically speaking --
1.0 means an equal likelihood (or risk) as all
other students
15
Indicator 9 Disproportionate representation in
special education and related services
State Totals
1.0 means an equal likelihood (or risk) as all
other students
16
Indicator 10 Disproportionate representation in
specific eligibility categories
State Totals
Under-rep
Over-rep
Under-rep
17
Indicator 10 Disproportionate representation in
specific eligibility categories
Example A random district
18
must not focus solely on district data, since
disproportionality at the school level may be
masked by districtwide data
Losen, D. Welner, K. G. (2002). Legal
Challenges to Inappropriate and Inadequate
Special Education for Minority Children. In D.
Losen G. Orfield (Eds.) Racial Inequity in
Special Education (pgs. 167-194) . Cambridge, MA
Harvard Education Press.
19
What does the rest of the country look like?
How does Washington compare to the rest of the
country?
20
Risk Ratio for American Indian/ Alaska Native in
Special Education Fall 2006
1.5 and 2
2 and 3
Above 3
WRRC presentation
21
Risk Ratio for African American in Special
Education - Fall 2006
1.5 and 2
2 and 3
Above 3
WRRC presentation
22
Risk Ratio for American Indian and Alaska Native
MR Fall 2006
1.5 and 2
2 and 3
Above 3
WRRC presentation
23
Risk Ratio for American Indian and Alaska Native
ED Fall 2006
1.5 and 2
2 and 3
Above 3
WRRC presentation
24
Risk Ratio for African American MR Fall 2006
1.5 and 2
2 and 3
Above 3
WRRC presentation
25
Risk Ratio for African American ED Fall 2006
1.5 and 2
2 and 3
Above 3
WRRC presentation
26
2006 Childcount Data 6-21 yrs
In Washington
27
(No Transcript)
28
(No Transcript)
29
2004
4 of all 6- to 21-year-olds, or about half of
all children in this age group served under IDEA,
were identified as having a specific learning
disability. 8 of American Indians/Alaska
Natives 6 of Blacks 5 of Hispanics 4 of
Whites 2 of Asians/Pacific Islanders
KewalRamani, A., Gilbertson, L., Fox, M., and
Provasnik, S. (2007). Status and Trends in the
Education of Racial and Ethnic Minorities (NCES
2007-039). National Center for Education
Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S.
Department of Education. Washington, DC.
30
(No Transcript)
31
50 States and DC, including BIE schools
Table 1
80-100 in gen ed setting
Table 2 40-79 Table 3
0-39
So, who is separated most from their peers?
32
In Washington
33
In Washington
Most restrictive
Does setting matter??
34
there are two prevalent trends in the data
  • once identified, minority students from every
    major racial group are more likely than white
    students with disabilities to be removed from the
    general education classroom for all or part of
    their school day and
  • black students are most often over-identified in
    the disability categories that have the highest
    correlation with isolation from the general
    education setting, mental retardation and
    emotional disturbance.

Garcia Fierros, Edward, Conroy, James W.
(2002) Double Jeopardy An Exploration of
Restrictiveness and Race in Special Education. In
Losen Orfield (Eds.) Racial Inequity in Special
Education (39-70). Cambridge, MA Harvard
Education Press
35
Disproportionality can contribute to significant
racial separation (Harry Klingner, 2006 Losen
Orfield, 2002) Once students are receiving
special education services, they tend to remain
in special education classes and they are likely
to encounter a limited, less rigorous curriculum
(Harry Klingner, 2006)Lower expectations can
lead to diminished academic and post-secondary
opportunities (National Research Council,
2002)
36
the research does suggest that unconscious
racial bias, stereotypes, and other race-linked
factors have a significant impact on the patterns
of identification, placement, and quality of
services for minority children, and particularly
for African-American children.
Losen, D. Orfield, G. (2002). Introduction. In
D. Losen G. Orfield (Eds.) Racial Inequity in
Special Education . Cambridge, MA Harvard
Education Press.
37
To believe with certainty, we must begin by
doubting. Polish Proverb
38
IDEA 2004
  • Sec. 616 (a)(3) MONITORING PRIORITIES The
    Secretary shall monitor the States, and shall
    require each State to monitor the local
    educational agencies located in the State using
    quantifiable indicators in each of the following
    priority areas, and using such qualitative
    indicators as are needed to adequately measure
    performance in the following priority areas
  • FAPE in the LRE
  • General Supervision
  • Disproportionate Representation
  • (inappropriate
    identification)

39
34 CFR 300.306 Determination of eligibility.
  • (b) Special rule for eligibility determination.
  • A child must not be determined to be a child
    with a disability under this part
  • (1) If the determinant factor for that
    determination is
  • Lack of appropriate instruction in reading,
    including
  • the essential components of reading instruction
    (as defined in section 1208(3)
  • of the ESEA)
  • (ii) Lack of appropriate instruction in math or
  • (iii) Limited English proficiency
  • In making the determination, each public agency
    must ---
  • (i) Draw upon information from a variety of
    sources, including aptitude
  • and achievement tests, parent input, and teacher
    recommendations,
  • as well as information about the childs physical
    condition, social or
  • cultural background, and adaptive behavior and
  • (ii) Ensure that information obtained from all of
    these sources is
  • documented and carefully considered.

40
SPP 20 Indicators
Data Collection
Verification Visits
District Profile
Washington Special Education Program Review
Process
On-site cooperative venture
LEA App Self-evaluation
System Analysis
TA/ feedback
Review, Analysis, Selection
Review, Analysis, Selection
Self-study
TA
Training TA
41
Each year, the monitoring team must reach
conclusions on whether those districts meeting
the data criteria are inappropriately identifying
students for special education and/or in specific
eligibility categories. The information
provided in the Self-evaluation helps the
monitoring team rule out those districts not at
risk and determine the districts for which more
information is needed.
42
When more information is needed, districts may
be required to participate in
  • Technical Assistance
  • Self-study
  • System Analysis
  • Verification Visit

For disproportionate representation, these may
involve general and special education staff.
43
The issue at hand is much larger than special
education it is the improvement of
educational outcomes for all students.
44
Given 60 seconds, use 4 straight lines to connect
all of the dots without lifting your pen
Center on the Social Emotional Foundations for
Early Learning CSEFEL U.S. Dept of Health
Human Services http//www.csefel.uiuc.edu/m
odules.html
45


CSEFEL
46
Labeled educable mentally retarded and placed
in special education from 3rd -10th grade Now
the President of Texas College in Tyler, Texas.
47
Why?
Some Hypotheses
  • Failure of general education to educate children
    from diverse backgrounds
  • Misidentification, misuse of tests
  • Lack of access to effective instruction
  • Insufficient resources
  • Teachers who are less well prepared
  • Poverty

NICHCY National Dissemination Center for
Children with Disabilities www.nichcy.org
48
Research on biological social factors
Rates of premature births Exposure
to pre- and post-natal toxins Poverty
Adequate health
care Nutrition
Books / Quality childcare
Exposure to fluent English speakers
Direct teaching / Qualified teachers
49
Poverty If some of the biological factors
associated with being poor are contributing to
higher rates of disability wouldnt we see
disproportionate s in medically-diagnosed
(non-judgmental) categories as well?
50
Daniel Losen (2002) discusses the challenges
to the poverty theory
  • There are gross racial disparities for Blacks
    compared
  • to Whites and Hispanics in mental
    retardation and
  • emotional disturbance, but not
  • in medically diagnosed disabilities
  • b) There are dramatic differences in the risk
    for disability
  • from one state to the next

51
  • Hispanics have substantially lower risk for
    mental
  • retardation and emotional disturbance
    compared to Whites, and even lower compared to
    Blacks, even though Hispanics and Blacks share a
    far greater risk for poverty, exposure to
    environmental toxins and low academic
    achievement and
  • There are large disparities in cognitive
    disability
  • identification rates between boys and
    girls generally, and especially between Black
    boys and girls.

Minority Overrepresentation and Underservicing in
Special Education.Losen, Daniel
J. Principal Jan 2002  81(3) p. 45 (EJ637130)

52
the relationship between poverty and
identification differs for African-American
children versus other children and is not uniform
across disability categories.
poverty proved in general to be a weak and
inconsistent predictor of disproportionality.
these results must be seen as consistent with a
body of literature that has failed to establish
any reliable relationship between rates of
poverty and disproportionate placement in special
education
Russell J Skiba,  Lori Poloni-Staudinger,  Ada B
Simmons,  L Renae Feggins-Azziz,  Choong-Geun
Chung. (2005). Unproven Links Can Poverty
Explain Ethnic Disproportionality in Special
Education? The Journal of Special
Education, 39(3), 130-144.  Retrieved January 20,
2008, from ProQuest Education Journals database.
(Document ID 923001841).
53
The effects of poverty cannot satisfactorily
explain racial disparities in identification for
mental retardation or emotional disturbance.
Losen, D. Orfield, G. (2002). Introduction. In
D. Losen G. Orfield (Eds.) Racial Inequity in
Special Education . Cambridge, MA Harvard
Education Press.
54
Harvards Research Findings
  • Subjectivity of assessment confounds
    determinations of special education eligibility.
  • Race/Ethnicity and gender are highly correlated
    with significant overrepresentation of minority
    students in special education, even after
    accounting for the effect of poverty.
  • Under-servicing of minority students with
    disabilities increases the likelihood of
    discipline problems and school failure.
  • High-stakes testing can contribute to serious
    problems for minority students with disabilities.
  • Minority students are more likely to receive
    services in restrictive special education
    settings.

dpi.wi.gov/sped/ppt/dis-losen.ppt
55
Disproportionality is a very complex issue with
many contributing factors.
There is not one cause, nor one solution.
Deciding not to choose is still making a
choice. (Author
unknown)
56
  • It's a little like wrestling
  • a gorilla.

You don't quit when you're tired,
you quit when the gorilla is tired.
Robert Strauss
57
Not surprisingly, overrepresentation data for
black students in special education mirror
overrepresentation in such undesirable categories
as dropping out, suspension and expulsion,
low-track placement, involvement with juvenile
justice, and underrepresentation in Advanced
Placement (AP) and gifted classes.
The most effective remedies will go beyond the
special education evaluation process and entail
regular education reforms.
Losen, D. Welner, K. G. (2002). Legal
Challenges to Inappropriate and Inadequate
Special Education for Minority Children. In D.
Losen G. Orfield (Eds.) Racial Inequity in
Special Education (pgs. 167-194) . Cambridge, MA
Harvard Education Press.
58
Russ Skiba, at the Center for Evaluation and
Education Policy (Indiana University),
highlights findings related to discipline
Black students suspended 2-3x more The
literature shows disproportionality exists
in Office referrals Suspension
expulsion Corporal punishment There is also
evidence of disproportionality by Economic
status Gender Disability category
Discipline and Disproportionality in the New
IDEIA www.nccrest.org/events/cec_2006_HO.ppt
59
Who gets suspended from school and why A
demographic analysis of schools and disciplinary
infractions in a large school district Raffaele
Mendez, L. M., Knoff, H. M. (2003). Who gets
suspended from school and why A demographic
analysis of schools and disciplinary infractions
in a large school district. Education and
Treatment of Children, 26(1), 30-51. Minority
students continue to be grossly overrepresented
when rates of suspension are compared Based
on the data from a number of diverse studies, it
appears that school suspension is being used with
increasing frequency, in a disproportionate
manner relative to minorities, and for
infractions that should be handled with less
intensive disciplinary strategies. Moreover,
these studies indicate that school suspension
often is not successful in decreasing students
chronic and inappropriate behavior, and it is
related to a variety of negative academic and
educational outcomes for students.
60
Who gets suspended from school and why A
demographic analysis of schools and disciplinary
infractions in a large school district Raffaele
Mendez, L. M., Knoff, H. M. (2003). Who gets
suspended from school and why A demographic
analysis of schools and disciplinary infractions
in a large school district. Education and
Treatment of Children, 26(1), 30-51.
Given the intensity of a disciplinary action
where a student is barred from attending school
and the concomitant loss of instruction and
academic engaged time, one might think that only
the most egregious behaviors would result in
school suspension. However, contrary to popular
belief, most out-of-school suspensions across the
country are for minor infractions of school rules
rather than for dangerous or violent acts.
61
Florida Study 12th largest district in the
nation
Elementary Black males gt3x as likely as White
or Hispanic males Black females gt 8x as likely
as White or Hispanic females
Middle school Males Black 48.9 127.06
per 100 B males White 25
52.41 per 100 W males Females Black 31.88
69.13 per 100 B females White
9.28 16.47 per 100 W females Across all 3
levels Black males 2x as likely as White
males Black females gt3x as likely as White
females
62
Disproportionality is Greatest at Suburban Schools
Discipline and Disproportionality in the New
IDEIA www.nccrest.org/events/cec_2006_HO.ppt
Indiana study
63
What Behaviors are Students Referred For?
Of 32 infractions, only 8 significant
differences
  • White students referred more for
  • Smoking
  • Vandalism
  • Leaving w/o permission
  • Obscene Language
  • Black students referred more for
  • Disrespect
  • Excessive Noise
  • Threat
  • Loitering

Discipline and Disproportionality in the New
IDEIA www.nccrest.org/events/cec_2006_HO.ppt
64
What does getting suspended have to do with
disproportionality in special education?
65
pbis.org
66
Supporting Social Competence Academic
Achievement
Basics 4 PBS Elements
OUTCOMES
Supporting Decision Making
DATA
Supporting Staff Behavior
SYSTEMS
PRACTICES
Supporting Student Behavior
67
Graduation Rates
National graduation rates
All Male Black
50.2
42.8 American Indian/AN 51.1
47 Hispanic 53.2
48 White 74.9
70.8 Asian/PI
76.8 72.6
Adapted from a table in Losing our Future How
Minority Youths are being Left Behind by the
Graduation Rate Crisis Joint Release by The
Civil Rights Project at Harvard University , The
Urban Institute, Advocates for Children of New
York, and The Civil Society Institute (2004)
Washington
estimates an overall grad rate of 74.3
(Class of 2005) Black 62.1
Hispanic 60.9 AI/AN 58.9
Asian/PI 80.5
White 78.8
68
Percentage distribution of students across NAEP
reading achievement levels, by race/ethnicity and
grade 2003
National
http//nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/criteria.
asp SOURCE U.S. Department of Education,
National Center for Education Statistics,
National Assessment of Educational Progress
(NAEP), 2003 Reading Assessment.
69
Percentage distribution of students across NAEP
reading achievement levels, by race/ethnicity and
grade 2007
National
http//nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/criteria.
asp SOURCE U.S. Department of Education,
National Center for Education Statistics,
National Assessment of Educational Progress
(NAEP), 2003 Reading Assessment.
70
WA Adequate Yearly Progress 2006-07
71
WA Adequate Yearly Progress 2006-07
72
WA Adequate Yearly Progress 2006-07
73
Academic predictorsare important to consider in
discussions of disproportionate representation
because academic achievement is a strong
predictor of referral and eventual placement in
special education.
educators are able to influence the academic
achievement of their students in fact, it is
their primary role.
John L. Hosp Daniel J. Reschly. (2004).
Disproportionate Representation of Minority
Students in Special Education Academic,
Demographic, and Economic Predictors. Exceptional
Children, 70(2), 185-199.
74
In Washington
Annual Dropout Rates for student groups
  • From OSPIs Graduation and Dropout Statistics For
    Washingtons Counties, Districts, and Schools,
    School Year 2004-05
  • Most dropouts are white but proportion is less
    than enrollment 9-12.
  • American Indian students drop out at twice their
    rate of
  • enrollment.
  • Blacks Hispanics also have disproportionate
    drop out rates

All Students Grades 9-12 (04-05) Am
Indian 10.2 Hispanic
8.3 Black 7.0 White
4.4 Asian/PI 3.3
75
Cumulative Dropout Rates (Class of 2005) WA
Dropout Rates
"Graduation and Dropout Statistics 2004-2005 for
Washington's Counties, Districts, and Schools

www.k12.wa.us/DataAdmin/pubdocs/GradDropout/04-
05/Graduationdropoutstatistics2004-05.pdf
76
  • To the extent that minority students are
    misclassified, segregated, or inadequately
    served, special education can contribute to a
    denial of equality of opportunity, with
    devastating results in communities throughout the
    nation
  • (The Executive Summary from the Conference on
    Minority Issues in Special Education - The Civil
    Rights Project, Harvard University, 2000)

77
  • Osher, Woodruff and Sims (2002) point out that
    receiving inappropriate services may be more
    harmful than receiving none at all and that
    higher rates of disciplinary action and
    placements in correctional facilities are more
    common for minority students.
  • Minority youths are over-represented in the
    juvenile justice system , especially in secure
    confinement, in every state in the nation.
    (Childrens Defense Fund Action Council)

78
Social consequences???
Are there effects on communities?
Unemployment poverty drug abuse and
addiction incarceration
intergenerational dependency
Millions lost in revenue and taxes each year
79
It is easier to build strong children than to
repair broken men.
Frederick Douglass.
80
leadership is needed at all levels ---
classroom, building, district, school, community
to ensure that all students receive an
appropriate education.
National Alliance of Black School Educators
(NABSE) And the ILIAD Partnership
we need to shift the focus to what all public
educators should do to improve educational
opportunities and outcomes for all children
Racial Inequity in Special Education .
Cambridge, MA Harvard Education Press.
81
A potential resource RTI
82
America's future walks through the doors of our
schools every day.
Mary Jean LeTendre.
83
The Civil Rights Project (CRP) and The National
Research Council (NRC) Say
  • School policies and practices are contributing
    factors.
  • Inadequate teacher training and support for
    classroom and behavior management may contribute
    to racial disproportionality.
  • Research indicates that special education
    over-identification and overly restrictive
    placements reflect some inappropriate use of
    special education as a disciplinary tool.

dpi.wi.gov/sped/ppt/dis-losen.ppt
84
Areas of Agreement Continued CRP NRC
  • To focus on reducing numeric disparities alone,
    without ensuring that minority students are
    making meaningful academic progress, is ill
    advised.
  • Numerous studies demonstrating that racial
    stereotypes and bias affects decisions teachers
    make about students (Chapter 5 of NRC Report).
  • Socio-economic and environmental factors likely
    contribute to heightened incidence of disability.

The Civil Rights Project Harvard
University
dpi.wi.gov/sped/ppt/dis-losen.ppt
85
Inadequate supports in regular and special
education settingsIneffective management of
behavior
Two major issues that have tremendous impact
Two potential resources RTI PBIS
86
It is important to appreciate that the risk of
low academic performance and challenging
behaviors does not reside solely within the child
or family --- instructional, classroom and school
variables can and do contribute to academic
problems.
Burnette, J. (1998). Reducing the
disproportionate representation of minority
students in special education. Reston, VA ERIC
Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted
Education. http//www.ericec.org
87
Many school professionals need further training
in classroom management so that they avoid
contributing to a childs challenging behavior.
(Reschly, 2002 National Alliance of Black School
Educators (NABSE) ILIAD Project, 2002
Division For Early Childhood, 1999)
Professional development opportunities in a
variety of areas are a must for educators to be
able to effectively maintain an active learning
environment where the quality of the educational
experience is optimal for each and every student.
NABSE ILIAD Project, 2002 Coutinho Oswald,
2000
88
Technical assistance and supports are needed
that consider the needs of students and
teachers in regular classrooms alongside
potential problems in the process of evaluation
and placement.
Reducing the paper disparity without improving
the quality of both regular and special
education classrooms could result in further
underservicing of students with academic and
special education needs.
Losen, D. Welner, K. G. (2002). Legal
Challenges to Inappropriate and Inadequate
Special Education for Minority Children. In D.
Losen G. Orfield (Eds.) Racial Inequity in
Special Education (pgs. 167-194) . Cambridge, MA
Harvard Education Press.
89
seek remedies that improve both
regular and special education.
Classroom management Prov. of challenging acad
curriculum multiple modes

of instruction
Training
  • Smaller class size
  • Use of effective programs of instruction
  • More inclusive, heterogeneous classrooms
  • Teacher collaboration /problem solving (gen ed
    spec ed)
  • Pervasive effective student supports
    services
  • Incentive programs to attract keep
    multilingual teachers
  • Requirements that racial data are collected,
    reported, and used
  • in the evaluation process

Losen, D. Welner, K. G. (2002). Legal
Challenges to Inappropriate and Inadequate
Special Education for Minority Children. In D.
Losen G. Orfield (Eds.) Racial Inequity in
Special Education (pgs. 167-194) . Cambridge, MA
Harvard Education Press.
90
Reducing overrepresentation is a matter of
creating a successful school environment for all
students and accurately distinguishing
disabilities from cultural differences.
Burnette, J. (1998). Reducing the
disproportionate representation of minority
students in special education. Reston, VA ERIC
Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted
Education. http//www.ericec.org
91
  • The future is not a result of choices among
    alternative paths offered by the present, but a
    place that is created -- created first in the
    mind and will, created next in activity.
  • The future is not some place we are going to, but
    one we are creating. The paths are not to be
    found, but made, and the activity of making them,
    changes both the maker and the destination.
    - John Schaar, futurist

92
Significant Disproportionality
34 CFR 300.646
Identification, placement, discipline
DATA ONLY!!!
Identification special education, specific
eligibility categories Placement LRE tables
2,3,4,5 40-79 gen ed 0-39 gen ed
separate schools residential placements
Discipline incidence, duration, type
incidence of times subject to
disciplinary action duration length
of suspension or expulsion type
in-school / out-of-school
OSEP guidance July 28, 2008
93
If not now, when?
-- Talmud.
94
Resources
The Civil Rights Project at UCLA
  • http//www.civilrightsproject.ucla.edu/research/sp
    ecialed/specialed_gen.php
  • You can read the intro to Racial Inequity in
    Special Education
  • Access links to
  • Diversity
  • Dropouts
  • NCLB
  • High stakes testing
  • Discipline
  • Bilingual education
  • Desegregation

Racial Inequity in Special Education. Edited by
Daniel Losen Gary Orfield. 2002.
95
NCCRESt --- National Center for Culturally
Responsive Education Systems (funded by US Dept
of Ed, OSEP) www.nccrest.org provides
technical assistance and professional development
to close the achievement gap between students
from culturally and linguistically diverse
backgrounds and their peers, and reduce
inappropriate referrals to special education. The
project targets improvements in culturally
responsive practices, early intervention,
literacy, and positive behavioral supports. The
Equity Center at the Northwest Regional
Educational Laboratory http//www.nwrel.or
g/cnorse/ -- funded by US DOE -- offers T/TA
on issues relating to equity in
education http//clas.uiuc.edu  -- Culturally
and linguistically appropriate
services  (mostly related to
early childhood) www.asha.org   -- American
Speech language Hearing Association www.wslha
.org -- Washington Speech and Hearing
Association
96
Regional Resource Centers TA funded by OSEP
http//rrfcnetwork.org/wrrc
(Western RRC)
OSPI Learning Improvement
http//www.k12.wa.us/SpecialEd/RTI.aspx
OSEP Disproportionality resources http//idea.ed.
gov/explore/view/p/2Croot2Cdynamic2CTopicalArea
2C72C
Methods for assessing disproportionality
OSEP/Westat guidance doc http//www.ideadata.
org/docs/Disproportionality20Technical20Assistan
ce20Guide.pdf
National Dissemination Center for Children w/
Disabilities http//www.nichcy.org
97
Losing Our Future How Minority Youth are being
Left Behind by the Graduation Rate Crisis
http//www.urban.org/publications/410936.html
Discipline and Disproportionality in the New
IDEIA www.nccrest.org/events/cec_2006_HO.ppt
Racial Disproportionality in School Disciplinary
Practices www.lapositivebehavior.com/news/School_D
iscipline_Brief1.pdf
98
TA Alliance for Parent Centers http//www.taalli
ance.org/research/disprop.htm Natl Assoc of
School Psychologists http//www.nasponline.org/ C
ouncil of Chief State School Officers
http//www.ccsso.org/
Elementary Middle Schools Technical Assistance
Centers http//www.emstac.org/registered/topics/d
isproportionality/intro.htm
99
http//www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/ell/overv
iew.html   -- Office of Special Education
Programs (OSEP) English Language
Learners Below is a section from the resources
part of the above page (ELL) that may be helpful
--- Identification of Potential ELL
Students Handbook of English language Proficiency
Tests. This guide provides an overview of
assessing English language proficiency, details
regarding five different tests, and a checklist
for selecting an appropriate test for a
district's needs. http//www.ncela.gwu.edu/pubs/ea
cwest/elptests.htm Identifying
Limited-English-Proficient Students. This handout
provides information on identifying ELL students
and establishing transition and/or exit criteria.
The handout also includes sample instruments for
identifying ELL students. http//www.ncela.gwu.edu
/pubs/eacwest/handouts/id-lep/backgrnd.htm
Assessment of ELL Status Assessment in ESL
Bilingual Education - A Hot Topic Paper. An
overview of assessing language proficiency,
review of assessment instruments, achievement
testing, and special education assessments, by
Gary Hargett, Ph.D. http//www.nwrac.org/pub/hot/a
ssessment.html
100
Things do not change we change.
Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862)
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