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National Vision for Land Parcel Databases in the United States

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Title: National Vision for Land Parcel Databases in the United States


1
National Vision for Land Parcel Databases in the
United States
NSGIC March 27, 2007 David J. Cowen,
University of South Carolina Chair National
Research Council Study
2
Land Parcel Databases A National VisionThe
National Research Council Study Committee
3
Project Scope
Building from the NRC's 1980 report "Need for a
Multipurpose Cadastre," This study will highlight
the status of land parcel databases in the United
States, provide a vision for the future, and
develop a strategy to complete this NSDI
Framework data layer..
4
Enmark FIG
5
Fair Equitable Property Taxes Columbia SC
6
What do we know ?
  • There is a critical need for a better
    land-information system in the United States to
    improve
  • land-conveyance procedures,
  • furnish a basis for equitable taxation
  • provide much-need information for resource
    management and environmental planning

7
Parcels are a critical part of a modern GIS
8
Parcels are linked to many operationsof
Government
9
DuPage, IL Parcels Based Model
10
Benefits From Parcel Data
  • Potential Benefits to Local Government
  • Assures that the best available data are used in
    each public transaction
  • Avoids conflicts among land records of different
    public offices
  • Improves accuracy of real-property assessments
  • Provides base maps for local planning and
    preliminary engineering studies
  • Provides a standardized data base for
    neighborhood, municipal, county. or regional
    development plans
  • Avoids costs of maintaining separate map systems
    and land data files
  • Encourages coordination among separate map
    systems and land data files
  • Improves public attitudes toward administration
    of local government programs
  • Potential Benefits to state governments.
  • Provides accurate inventories of natural assets
  • Provides accurate locational references for
    administration of state regulations such as
    pollution controls
  • Accurately locate state ownership of other
    interest in land
  • Provides a standardize data base for management
    of public lands
  • Provides large-scale base maps for siting studies
  • Simplifies coordination among stat and local
    offices
  • Potential benefits to the federal government

11
Benefits
  • Potential Benefits to Private Firms
  • Provides faster access to records affecting
    individual rights, especially land title
  • Clarifies the boundaries of area restricted by
    zoning wetlands restrictions and pollution
    controls or other use controls
  • Produces accurate maps that can be used for
    resolving private interests in the land
  • Reduces costs of public utilities by replacing
    present duplicative base mapping programs
  • Improves efficiently of tax supported government
    services as describes earlier in this table
  • Potential Benefits to Individuals
  • Provides faster access to records affecting
    individual rights, especially land title
  • Clarifies the boundaries of areas restricted by
    zoning, wetland restrictions, pollution controls,
    or other user controls
  • Produces accurate maps that can be used for
    resolving private interests in the land
  • Reduces cost of public utilities by replacing
    present duplicative base-mapping programs
  • Improves efficiency of tax supported government
    services as described earlier in this table

12
What do we know?
  • Current technology is adequate in most cases for
    the surveying, mapping, data collecting, filing
    and dissemination of information.
  • Advancement in computer applications,
    communication networks and copying processes
    promise of more-efficient use of the multipurpose
    cadastre.

13
What do we know ?
  • The major obstacles
  • organizational and institutional requirements.

14
But, of course, we knew that in 1980
1980
15
States Role
  • That each state authorize an Office of Land
    Information Systems, through legislation where
    necessary, to implement the multipurpose cadastre
  • That states enact legislation to ensure the
    compatibility of county and local records
  • Promoting effective, efficient and compatible LIS
    among governmental levels in cooperation with the
    federal government to ensure compatibility on a
    national basis
  • Setting Standards for state, regional and local
    government surveying, mapping and land data
    collection making use of federal technical
    studies

16
1980 Recommendations
  • While the federal role was to coordinate and fund
    the program they clearly recognized that the
    actual data collection must come from the bottom
    up at a series of county level Offices of Land
    Information Systems.
  • We recommend that local governments be the
    primary access point for local land information
  • That local governments maintain and data
    compatible with a multipurpose cadastre and
    transmit these data to high levels of government
    when needed.

17
1980 Recommendations
  • that federal legislation be prepared to
    authorize and fund a program to support the
    creation of a multipurpose cadastre in all parts
    of the Nation
  • that the Office of Management and Budget
    designate a lead agency for the multipurpose
    cadastre.

18
What if recommendations had been followed ???
  • Savings
  • Tax payer
  • Effort
  • Better land use
  • Cheaper property transactions
  • Insurance premiums
  • Appraisals
  • Lives
  • How would we be conducting the 2010 Census?

19
Summit - Land Parcel Databases A National
Vision Sponsored by The National Research
Council Committee on Land Parcel Databases A
National Vision
  • GOAL
  • To assemble stakeholders who have a major
    interest in the management and use of land
    records in order to obtain input on
  • How different organizations would benefit from
    national land parcel data
  • Strategies for developing, coordinating, and
    maintaining national land parcel data
  • FORMAT Three panel discussion sessions
  • 900-930 Introduction
  • 930-1130 Session 1 Federal Agencies
  • 1230-230 Session 2 Private
    Sector-Property Interests
  • 300- 500 Session 3 Professional
    Organizations

20
Ben Clark, Zillow
  • Zillow We are Just a media company - Goal to
    attract eyeballs to web site
  • Also interested in helping Arkansas complete
    parcels
  • Difficult to justify the most rural areas

21
Synthesis of Stakeholder Feedback
  • The committee appreciates the input
  • Findings will become part of the study and a
    manuscript
  • More than 400 responses
  • Thousands of comments
  • Wide range of stakeholders
  • In the trenches local, state, federal and
    private sector
  • Managers
  • Elected officials
  • Producers
  • Consumers
  • Very opinionated
  • Passionate about parcels

22
Feedback from 400 respondents Not A Survey
23
Extreme Positive
  • Currently municipalities and counties with
    17th-century land records systems are
    systematically crippled in their ability to
    administer taxation equitably, conserve their
    natural resources, plan for rational growth, and
    educate their students in geospatial
    technologies.
  • It's really amazing that there are no digital
    parcel maps readily available in large areas of
    the country. This is the 21st century,
    Hello????? (Donald Cooke, GDT Founder, TeleAtlas
    North America)

24
Extreme Negative
  • I think this is primarily a 'sales job' by
    individuals who stand to personally gain from a
    national cadastre. Because of the volume of
    change taking place in many areas of the Country,
    a national database would be consistently
    out-of-date and lead to decisions based on
    incorrect information. The value to this County
    would be minimal. Now, if some funding were
    attached to participation in a national effort,
    to help maintain the information, then I could
    see a benefit at the local level. (Richard
    Hanning, GIS Manager, Greenville County
    Government, SC)

25
Cowens Random Observations
  • Note Not findings or Recommendations

26
Brief History of the last Quarter Century
  • Technology
  • High resolution data
  • Cheap processors and disk space
  • Ubiquitous high speed/ high band width networks
  • COTS software manage parcel fabric
  • Local Business Case
  • 70 parcels completed
  • - Roseau County, MN
  • State
  • Integrators Revenue
  • NSGIC
  • Federal
  • Census/DHS/HUD/NOAA
  • FGDC/GOS/National Map
  • GAO/ Congress
  • GLOB
  • Internationally
  • FIG Cadastre 2014
  • European Union
  • Organizationally
  • NSGIC
  • NRC MSC
  • URISA/ AAG GISCI
  • OGC
  • MAPPS/ACSM/ ASPRS/GITA
  • Private
  • MicroSoft
  • Google
  • Zillow
  • Boundary Solutions, Proxix, Sidwellmaps
  • Individuals
  • Expectations
  • Access
  • Privacy

27
Scale/Resolution/Granularity
Delaware 2002 Ortho produced for 12400
28
Scale/Resolution/Granularity
NLCD
29
Scale/Resolution/Granularity
Delaware 2002 LULC at 12400
30
Microsoft Virtual Earth for State and
Local Governments North Carolina GIS
Conference 3 March 2007 Bill Gail Microsoft
31
(No Transcript)
32
Customizing the Virtual Earth Platform for
GovernmentApplications from Partners -
MapDotNet Server (ISC)
33
Customizing the Virtual Earth Platform for
GovernmentApplications from Partners -
MapDotNet Server (ISC)
34
Patent National Parcel Map Data Portal
Boundary Solutions Inc.
35
What is Confidential About an Address?
36
TIGER vs Parcel Addresses Hope they can find my
house!!
116 Ila Ln Parcel
37
116 Ila Lane, 29206Assessor Not confidential
  • Owners David Sandra Cowen,
  • Legal residence
  • Taxes 2,293
  • Market Value 196,900

38
116 Ila Lane, 29206People Finder - Not
Confidential
  • Who has lived at 116 Ila lane?
  • Dave (Age 63) , Sandy, Scott, Rachel Jeffs
    former girlfriend

39
116 Ila Lane, 29206Zillow - Not Confidential
  • Estimated Value 223,100,
  • Rooms 4 Bed Room, 3 Bath ,
  • Size 2,680 Sq Ft

40
Census Address Points Confidential
Latitude and Longitude
41
Parcel vs Census Block
42
Parcels Corporate Limits
43
Census versus Tele Atlas Address Points
Part of 800 Million Tax Payer Investment
Confidential
Commercial Not Confidential
44
British Ordnance Survey Licensed but NOT
CONFIDENTIAL
45
Necessary
46
A Presentation to National Research
CouncilCommittee on Land Parcel Databases A
National VisionBruce A. Davis, Ph.D.Director,
Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment
CenterScience and Technology DirectorateDepartme
nt of Homeland SecurityDeputy Program Manager
for Disaster Management and Homeland Security
ApplicationsApplied Sciences Directorate NASA
Stennis Space CenterFebruary 7, 2005
47
(No Transcript)
48
What benefits do you perceive from having a
national multipurpose cadastre?
  • Parcel data is the fundamental building block
    for all geographic analysis and serves as the raw
    material for most applications most geographic
    analysis is benefit from the ability to
    understand the result at the parcel level
  • A multipurpose cadastre enables a vast range of
    location-based services that will improve safety
    and increase efficiency of current operations
  • Available, critical data for emergency response
  • Local parcel data were still being sought 8
    weeks into the response to Hurricane Katrina
  • Impact from most disasters is best understood at
    the parcel level
  • GIS is becoming the way disasters are managed. A
    common operating picture depends on an available
    multipurpose cadastre
  • National response centers such as IMAAC depend
    on the availability of local data for accurate
    hazard predictions and health recommendations
    such as shelter in place
  • Most DHS programs depend on geographic data
    that is at the parcel scale - for example
    Critical Infrastructure Program
  • The ability to protect the privacy of individuals
    is dependent on an accurate parcel-level database

49
GAO - Undocumented Property 600 Million - 1.4
Billion
(2) registrants who used bogus damaged addresses,
(3) registrants who had never lived at the
declared damaged addresses or did not live at the
declared damaged address at the time of disaster,
50
Like a Good Neighbor ?State Farm Suspends
Policies in MS
51
Tennessee Comptroller of the Treasury
Appraisal Ratio
52
State Maintained Coverage
53
Technically Feasible
54
Australia Google MapAddress Matching to Parcel
Nation Wide
55
York County SC Mecklenburg Co, NC NC One Map
and National Map Portal
56
Forest Service Property in SC
57
FSA Common Land UnitsSub Parcel Fields
58
NPR - All Things Considered, July 31, 2006
www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId5590
541
59
Parcels on Zillow
60
Affordable
61
What Do Parcels Cost?
  • Wake County - Free via FTP
  • Mecklenburg County 250
  • Los Angles 2006 100,000
  • 2007 Free
  • Santa Clara CA 250,000

62
Redundant
  • For example, within King County WA, even though
    there is county wide parcel program 10-15 cities
    are independently engaged in parcel mapping to
    varying levels of skill and sophistication.
    (George Horning King County WA GIS URISA,
    2006).

63
Local Business Case
  • About 920 counties have programs
  • 98,000,000 parcels
  • 70 parcels completed

64
Cost Estimate Stage and von Meyer
294,600,000 Start up 80,700,000 Recurring
Estimates About 49 Million _at_ 6
65
How Many Parcels are Available in the Parcel
Workforce
66
Roseau County, MN 14,000 Parcels, 16,000 people
and 200,000
  • The need was very evident but it was hard to find
    funding in a county budget stressed by state
    cutbacks and increased services.
  • The difference that made Roseau Countys GIS a
    success is the persistence of staff and the
    progressive attitude and support of the Roseau
    County Board of Commissioners.
  • All section corners in the county with a GPS unit
    borrowed from the Greenbush School District. The
    GPS unit was acquired by the school district as
    the result of a science project grant.

67
Harris MAF/TIGER Accuracy Improvement800
Million
68
Thailand - 118.1 Million from U.S. taxpayers
69
USAID - Afghanistan East Timor
70
Straw Man Model - Arkansas
71
Low Risk Funding Model
72
Timely
73
Lots of Organizations
74
Cadastre Part of NSDI Framework
75
NSDI Parcel Related Geospatial data
Cadastre
Framework?
Federal Lands
Governmental Units
Housing
Land Conveyance
GAO 2004
76
Building a common cadastral data model and core
land records management tools with
object-oriented technology
77
NILS Partners
  • State
  • Washington DNR
  • Arizona State Land Office
  • Montana
  • Tennessee
  • Utah
  • Federal
  • BLM
  • USFS
  • Bureau of Indian Affairs
  • Minerals Management Service
  • Fish Wildlife Service
  • Local
  • Maricopa Co, Arizona
  • Pima Co, Arizona
  • Pinal Co, Arizona
  • Oakland Co, Michigan
  • Polk Co, Oregon
  • Private
  • ESRI
  • Fairview Industries
  • UCLID

78
(No Transcript)
79
Connecting the Components
Looks like Parcels
80
GIS for the Nation Geospatial One Stop
81
Cadastral GIS for Nation
82
Parcels on Zillow
83
National Community Reinvestment
CoalitionContests Zillow
Zillows over and under appraisals negatively
impact on consumers real estate and financial
transactions, and injures entire communities,
While the focus of the attached complaint is
upon all communities regardless of income, the
fair housing complaint will argue that Zillow
perpetuates the undervaluation of low-moderate
income communities in violation of the Federal
Fair Housing Act.
84
DHS Geospatial Data Model
85
FGDC Framework Package
86
DHS Parcel Model Attributes
87
DHS - Operations Damage Assessment
88
HUD Request for ParcelsJune 2006 10 Months
Later
89
HUD RFQ June 2006
  • standardized parcel level geography and
    normalized core attributes linked to the parcel
    id
  • support HUDs long-term planning efforts and
    will provide a data model for similar
    hazard-based projects on a national level
  • complete and make publicly accessible a
    spatially enabled parcel data layer that can be
    used to support HUDs long-term planning for
    hurricane affected areas in the Gulf region
  • the data structure enables the ability to
    migrate to a standardized national parcel layer
    and the geo-services as envisioned by the Federal
    Geographic Data Committee.

90
NSGIC 50 States Initiative
Fundamental change in the way all governments
will work together in the future to build the
National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI).
Instead of the current build it and they will
come philosophy that relies on random grants and
partnerships, A new program emphasizing
strategic and business planning with specifically
targeted implementation grants, performance
measures and incentives will be employed.
91
NSGIC Imagery for the Nation
92
  • Geospatial Line of Business Update
  • FGDC Steering Committee Meeting
  • June 19, 2006

93
Key Items from GLOB
  • Hold Data Stewards responsible and Accountable
    for key datasets
  • Facilitate data acquisition requirements through
    50 states initiative
  • Develop and implement common grants language for
    geo information and services
  • Increase inter-governmental coordination
    activities

94
Schedule
  • Report Under review
  • Reviews Back Early April
  • Review Coordination April
  • Sponsor Feedback May
  • Publication (pdf) Early June
  • Panel Discussion ESRI - Mid June
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