Historic Places of the Red River FIELD TRIPS: Volume II - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Historic Places of the Red River FIELD TRIPS: Volume II


Historic Places of the Red River FIELD TRIPS: Volume II – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Historic Places of the Red River FIELD TRIPS: Volume II

Historic Places of the Red River FIELD TRIPS
Volume II
  • Rivers West
  • Manitoba Historic Resources
  • Historic Places Initiative

Rivers West
Come Explore
Historic Places along the Red River are great
places to explore they bring history to life!
St. Boniface Museum
Lots to see and do
  • Here are just a few places to visit
  • Lower Fort Garry
  • Fort Dufferin
  • Neubergthal street village
  • Riel House
  • St. Norbert Provincial Heritage Park
  • Convent of the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus
    and Mary
  • Canadian Pacific Railway Station
  • The Exchange District
  • Walker Theatre
  • St. Boniface Cathedral
  • St. Andrews Lock and Dam

Stan Milosevic www.manitobaphotos.com
CPR Station
Lower Fort Garry
Have you ever been to Lower Fort Garry? There is
so much to see and do there.
Stan Milosevic www.manitobaphotos.com
Lower Fort Garry
Lower Fort Garry was built between 1830 and 1850
it is a big place. This is the oldest stone fur
trading post in North America!
Parks Canada
Lower Fort Garry
  • The fort has many stories to tell.
  • One of the stories is about life in the fur trade
    with trappers, traders and voyageurs.

M. G. Leyson, Grade 6
Lower Fort Garry
  • LFG supplied the fur trade. It was a shipping
    centre like a warehouse for the fur trade.
    Instead of semi trailers they used York boats.
  • Goods were shipped to LFG from London and furs
    were sent to London from LFG all by boat.

Lower Fort Garry
  • When you visit LFG you can meet traders and
    people who lived and worked at the fort 150 years
  • They might ask you to help them with the work.

Parks Canada
Lower Fort Garry
  • In 1871 a very important meeting took place at
  • The Ojibwa and Cree met with Canadian
    representatives to sign Treaty One an agreement
    still very important today!

Lower Fort Garry
  • In 1873 another big event occurred at the fort.
  • The North West Mounted Police had just been
    formed and they were on their way west to keep
    peace on the frontier.

Lower Fort Garry
  • The newly formed police force, later named the
    RCMP, stayed at LFG before going to Fort Dufferin
    to start their famous March West across the wild

Lower Fort Garry
  • Because of its location on the Red River, the
    fort has played many important roles in our
  • A visit to the fort is full of fun stories of our
    past that you can be part of.

Parks Canada
Fort Dufferin
  • Fort Dufferin is not what you think of as a fort
    it had no walls or turrets. But it played an
    important role in protecting Canada.

Fort Dufferin
  • In the early 1800s there was no clear border
    between Canada and the USA. People argued over
    land because they didnt know where the border

Fort Dufferin
  • In 1872 a group of Britons and Canadians were
    sent to measure and mark the 49th parallel
    between the two countries, from Lake of the Woods
    all the way across the frontier to the Rocky

Fort Dufferin
  • These were the men of the Boundary Commission.
    They built Fort Dufferin on the edge of the Red
    River at the 49th parallel. It would be their
    camp and home base for the next two years.

Fort Dufferin
  • They had no GPS or modern equipment to determine
    where the border was so they used the stars!
  • In the dead of night, they took readings from a
    telescope. The first important reading was taken
    at Fort Dufferin.

Fort Dufferin
  • The work was hard. They had to make their way in
    the wild prairie grassland.
  • They faced scorching sun, blizzards, mosquitoes,
    and grass fires too wide to outrun. It was
    difficult to find water, food and firewood across
    the thousand kilometres of wilderness.

Fort Dufferin
  • After the astronomers found the 49th parallel
    with the stars, crews marked the border with
    large mounds.
  • They also built a trail, which would later be
    used by the NWMP and tens of thousands of
    pioneers who followed.

Fort Dufferin
  • While the Boundary Commission was out marking the
    border and blazing the trail across the West,
    another group came to use Fort Dufferin.
  • Do you know who they were?

Fort Dufferin
  • It was the North West Mounted Police. They were
    here to train and get ready to start their March
  • They stayed for two weeks before striking out on
    the Boundary Commission Trail.

Fort Dufferin
  • Two years after the Boundary Commission started,
    they reached the Rocky Mountains. On August 18,
    1874 they began their trip back to Fort Dufferin
    it took 43 days.
  • After that the fort was sold to the government to
    become an immigration station.

  • The next group to use Fort Dufferin were the many
    pioneers coming to settle prairie homesteads.
  • Among them were thousands of Mennonites making
    the long trip from Russia.

  • The Canadian government wanted the Mennonites to
    come to the West because they were very good
  • The government promised the Mennonites two blocks
    of land one on the east side of the Red River
    and one on the west side.

Mennonite West Reserve
  • All across the West Reserve the Mennonites built
    little villages with their family and friends.
  • They are called street villages because they are
    laid out along one street.

  • A common sight in the street village is the
    housebarn. Can you guess what that is?

It is a house with a barn attached a good idea
for cold Manitoba winters. You dont have to go
outdoors to feed the animals.
  • Neubergthal is a street village close to Altona.
  • The whole village is a National Historic Site.
  • Would you like to live in a National Historic
    Site? What do you think it would be like?

  • Would you like to live in a housebarn and bake
    fresh bread and cookies in a Russian bake oven?
  • Maybe you would like to help feed the animals in
    the barn?
  • Visit Neubergthal National Historic Site and you
    may be able to do both.

Town of Altona website
Riel House
  • Along the Red River in south St. Vital sits the
    house of Louis Riels mother Julie. This was the
    second house built for Julie on this long river
    lot. It was built in 1891 and remained the family
    home until 1968.

Parks Canada
Riel House
  • It was in this house that Louis Riel lay in state
    after his execution and here his youngest
    children, Jean-Louis and Angelique, lived after
    Louis died.

Riel House
  • Today Louis Riel is considered one of the
    nations founding fathers both the founder of
    Manitoba and a Father of Confederation.

Stan Milosevic www.manitobaphotos.com
Riel House
  • Riel and his provisional government of 1869-1870
    were not always seen as the heroes they are
  • During the Northwest Rebellion (1885) in
    Saskatchewan, Riel and the Métis were seen by
    some as traitors because they fought for the
    rights of the people living there.

Riel House
  • Louis Riel was executed in Regina in 1885 for
    leading the Northwest Rebellion in Saskatchewan.
    His body was returned to Manitoba and lay in
    state at Riel House for two days before being
    buried at St. Boniface Cathedral.
  • That is why Riel House is now a National Historic

Riel House
  • How many things can you think of that are named
    after Louis Riel?

Stan Milosevic www.manitobaphotos.com
Riel House
  • When you visit Riel House you can do lots churn
    butter, make bannock, create a fléché and play
    games just like Jean-Louis and Angelique did.

Parks Canada
Parks Canada
St. Norbert Provincial Park
  • Across the Red River and just to the south of
    Riel House is St. Norbert.
  • Nestled between the Red and La Salle rivers is a
    wee park that tells the story of Métis and French
    settlers. Do you know its name?

St. Norbert Provincial Park
  • Right it is St. Norbert Provincial Park! It is
    a fun place to go to find out more about the
    Métis and some of the early French settlers in
    the area. They have houses to explore, games to
    play and trails to follow.

A. Knispel
Fort Garry Historical Society
St. Norbert Provincial Park
  • One house you will explore is Bohémier House. It
    was built for a family from Quebec that came to
    live in Manitoba in 1883.
  • Why do you think they might have come here?

Stan Milosevic www.manitobaphotos.com
St. Norbert Provincial Park
  • Another place to explore is Turenne House.
  • Or maybe you will be put to work in its big
    vegetable garden!

Fort Garry Historical Society
St. Norbert Provincial Park
  • Both houses have strange artifacts or historic
    objects. Be sure to ask your guide what they were
    used for in the olden days.

Fort Garry Historical Society
Fort Garry Historical Society
Fort Garry Historical Society
St. Norbert Provincial Park
  • There is lots to do and see at St. Norbert Park!

Fort Garry Historical Society
Fort Garry Historical Society
A. Knispel
Fort Garry Historical Society
Convent of the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus
and Mary
  • The convent at St. Pierre-Jolys was built in
    1900. It is the third oldest convent still
    standing in Manitoba.
  • It was a school as well as a place for the
    sisters to live. Would you like to go to school

Convent of the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus
and Mary
  • Archbishop Taché asked the Sisters of the Holy
    Names of Jesus and Mary, in Montreal, to come to
    Manitoba to help the Grey Nuns teach school and
    take care of people.
  • It was a long trip here, but they were welcomed
    by the Grey Nuns and put to work.

Convent of the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus
and Mary
  • The sisters settled into teaching like here at
    the convent.
  • Girls who went to school at the convent lived
    here, on the top floor.
  • Boys didnt live here they just came to school
    every day from home.
  • Would you rather live here or travel here every

Convent of the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus
and Mary
  • In the middle of the convents mansard roof is a
    small bell tower can you see it?
  • On the second floor there is a little chapel,
    with two stained-glass windows.
  • The attic on the top level is where the girls
    lived when going to school.

Convent of the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus
and Mary
  • The convent has been the centre of the community
    since it was built more than 100 years ago.
  • The building is now a museum that tells the story
    of the important role the sisters played in
    education, health care and social services in

Convent of the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus
and Mary
  • Up and down the Red River, sisters travelled or
    lived in small towns to take care of the people,
    to teach school, to help the sick and elderly.
  • What do you think their life would be like?

Convent of the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus
and Mary
  • On your field trip to the convent museum you can
    see where the children went to school and the
    sisters lived.
  • You can also visit Goulet House and Cabane a
    Sucre on the museum grounds. Do you know what
    Cabane a Sucre means?

Canadian Pacific Railway Station
  • When settlers were coming west it took a long
    time to get here.
  • Just like the Mennonites and the sisters at the
    convent, they had to take lots of different forms
    of transportation.
  • Then in the late 1880s the railway was completed
    across eastern Canada to Manitoba.

Canadian Pacific Railway Station
  • By 1900, Winnipeg was booming. It was the fastest
    growing city in North America and was called the
    Gateway to the West.
  • Thousands of people were arriving in the city

Canadian Pacific Railway Station
  • Winnipeg needed a new train station one that
    was very grand to fit the citys reputation as
    Gateway to the West.
  • The new CPR station was completed in 1905.

Stan Milosevic www.manitobaphotos.com
Canadian Pacific Railway Station
  • The new station was impressive outside and
  • It was a monument to the success of the CPR. It
    showed the wealth of Winnipeg and impressed those
    who walked through its doors.

Canadian Pacific Railway Station
  • Would you be impressed if you were a poor
    immigrant child coming to Canada 100 years ago?
  • Would this look like a palace to you?

Canadian Pacific Railway Station
  • The station was part of a complex, which included
    the luxurious Royal Alexandra Hotel.
  • The Royal Alexandra Hotel, a city landmark, was
    demolished in 1971.

Canadian Pacific Railway Station
  • The building continued to operate as a railway
    station until 1978. The CPR left the station in
  • Today it is a provincial and national historic
    site because of its architecture and history.
  • The CPR station is now home to the Aboriginal
    Centre of Winnipeg.

Parks Canada
The Exchange District
  • From 1880 to 1913 Winnipeg was Canadas fastest
    growing city.
  • In 1905, construction in Winnipeg was greater
    than any other city in North America.
  • Some thought Winnipeg would become the capital of

Stan Milosevic www.manitobaphotos.com
The Exchange District
  • Winnipegs rise as a major city was tied to two
  • One was supplying the growing population of
    immigrants settling in Manitoba. They needed
    everything from clothes to ploughs.
  • The second was the change from subsistence
    farming to commercial agriculture and exporting

Stan Milosevic www.manitobaphotos.com
The Exchange District
  • The Exchange District was the hub of Winnipegs
    business. Within an area of twenty blocks, west
    from the Red River and north from Portage Avenue,
    were banks, warehouses, and Canadas first

Stan Milosevic www.manitobaphotos.com
The Exchange District
  • Winnipeg was the leader in the fields of finance,
    manufacturing, wholesale distribution and
    international grain trade.
  • The Winnipeg Grain Exchange was the largest in
    the world!

Stan Milosevic www.manitobaphotos.com
The Exchange District
  • The bank buildings exhibited the wealth of
    Winnipeg and the West.
  • The Union Bank and Confederation buildings are
    the first skyscrapers built in Canada!

Stan Milosevic www.manitobaphotos.com
The Exchange District
  • Winnipeg came to be called the Chicago of the
    North because the two cities shared similarities
    in their growth, prosperity and architecture.
    Both were major commercial, financial,
    manufacturing and transportation centres.

Stan Milosevic www.manitobaphotos.com
The Exchange District
  • Great events happened in the Exchange District.
    One of them was the Winnipeg General Strike in
    Market Square.

Stan Milosevic www.manitobaphotos.com
The Exchange District
  • Winnipegs economic boom did not last. Wheat
    prices fell and so did mass immigration causing
    a drop in Winnipegs retail and wholesale
  • The opening of the Panama Canal ended Winnipegs
    role as a transportation and shipment centre. Do
    you know where Panama is?

Stan Milosevic www.manitobaphotos.com
The Exchange District
  • Then came the bust years.
  • Since the 1920s there was little demand to
    replace buildings in the Exchange District.
  • This is a good thing can you guess why?

Stan Milosevic www.manitobaphotos.com
The Exchange District
  • It is good because we didnt tear down all our
    heritage buildings some of which are very
    special so today it is a National Historic
    Site. It tells us the story of the boom years.
  • Do you know why else it is good?

The Exchange District
  • The second reason is because now our Exchange
    District is a great place to make movies.
  • Can you name any movies filmed here?

The Walker Theatre
  • On February 18, 1907 the lights dimmed, the crowd
    settled and the curtain rose on the first of many
    live performances at the newly built Walker

The Walker Theatre
  • Named after owner Corliss Powers Walker, the
    theatre was perhaps the finest of the many
    theatres that sprang up to provide entertainment
    to the growing population in Winnipeg.

The Walker Theatre
  • Modelled after theatres in Chicago, the Walker
  • a magnificent vaulted ceiling
  • a huge stage framed by an impressive proscenium
  • side loges and two balconies

The Walker Theatre
  • The top balcony, reached by a separate exterior
    entrance, was furnished with wooden benches. The
    Gods, as they were called, provided inexpensive
    seating. Corliss Walker tried to make cultural
    performances available to rich and poor alike.

View from The Gods
The Walker Theatre
  • Imagine sitting comfortably in the loge waiting
    to see the top performers of the day. You could
    hear the buzz of the crowd as they anticipated
    the performance and visited with friends and
  • Which performers would you like to see here?

The Walker Theatre
  • While the finest New York shows were memorable,
    it was the social and political events held here
    that had lasting impact.
  • On January 28, 1914, Nellie McClung and others,
    including Walkers wife and daughter, put on a
    show called A Mock Parliament. The event helped
    women win the right to vote in Manitoba.

The Walker Theatre
  • On Sunday December 22, 1918, a political meeting
    of the Winnipeg Trade Council and the Socialist
    Party of Canada took place at the Walker Theatre.
  • This was one of the mass meetings of Winnipeg
    workers leading up the 1919 Winnipeg General

The Walker Theatre
  • You can still see shows at the Walker but it is
    now named after a famous Winnipeg performer
    Burton Cummings!

St. Boniface Cathedral
  • Across the river from The Forks you can see an
    impressive site the St. Boniface Cathedral.
  • It is one of the most recognized landmarks in the
    city of Winnipeg.

Stan Milosevic www.manitobaphotos.com
St. Boniface Cathedral
  • The cathedral has a long and sometimes sad story.
  • It started as a small log chapel beside the river
    in 1818. But there are no pictures of that first
  • By 1832 Father Provencher and his followers
    needed a bigger space. They built this church
    with two spires.

St. Boniface 1839
St. Boniface Cathedral
  • Sadly the beautiful church with two spires burned
    down in 1860. But Bishop Provencher, Bishop Taché
    and their flock did not give up. They built
    another church two years later

Painting by William Napier in 1858
St. Boniface Cathedral
  • This church, with one spire, served the people
    for many years. The population was growing
    steadily so by the early 1900s a new, bigger
    church was needed.
  • Also, this church was having problems the
    ringing bells caused so much vibration the walls
    were cracking.

St. Boniface Cathedral
  • In 1905 they began to build again. This time they
    built the new cathedral behind the existing one.
    You can see both in this picture.
  • You can also see the Grey Nuns Convent, now the
    St. Boniface Museum, in the foreground.

St. Boniface Cathedral
  • This was to be the most magnificent of all the
    cathedrals. It was a work of art.

St. Boniface Cathedral
  • The cathedral was loved for its beautiful
    architecture inside and out. But 60 years after
    being built

St. Boniface Cathedral
  • disaster struck!
  • On July 22, 1968 the cathedral went up in flames,

University of Manitoba Archives
St. Boniface Cathedral
  • Little was left of the cathedral but a shell.
  • Still, the people of St. Boniface would face the
    challenge and build their cathedral again! This
    time they would ask one of their greatest
    architects to design a cathedral within the ruins
    of the old one.

Travel Manitoba
St. Boniface Cathedral
  • The great St. Boniface architect Etienne
    Gaboury built the new cathedral, sheltered
    inside the walls of the ruins.

Heritage Winnipeg
St. Boniface Cathedral
  • On your visit to the cathedral you will see the
    burned out ruins and the new church sheltered
  • You can also explore the cemetery where many
    famous Manitobans are buried, including Louis

G. Hebert
St. Andrews Lock Dam
  • At one time the Red River was like the
    Trans-Canada Highway. Instead of semi trailers,
    boats moved goods up and down the river.
  • But there was a bad stretch of river called Grand
    Rapids at St. Andrews.

St. Andrews Lock Dam
  • No matter what kind of boat you had canoe,
    barge, York boat or steamer they were broken to
    bits in the rapids. Cargo and lives were lost
    trying to run those treacherous rapids.

St. Andrews Lock Dam
  • So at either end of the rapids, cargos were
    unloaded, put onto ox carts or wagons and hauled
    to the other end of the rapids, then reloaded
    onto another boat.
  • It was a lot of work and slowed down
    transportation terribly.

Rivers West
St. Andrews Lock Dam
  • The only solution they could find was to build a
    dam at the north end of the rapids. The dam would
    hold the water back so it would be deeper over
    the rapids and boats could travel safely.

St. Andrews Lock Dam
  • The trouble was how to build it so in the spring
    the ice on the river did not clog up at the dam.
    Ice jams would cause more problems.
  • A special kind of dam was built called a
    curtain dam that would allow ice to flow
    through it.

Public Works Canada
St. Andrews Lock Dam
  • It works by using big wooden curtains like
    window blinds. They roll down in front of the dam
    to hold the water back from flowing through the

Public Works Canada
St. Andrews Lock Dam
  • A lock would also be needed to let boats get
    around the dam. Do you know how a lock works?
  • Hint On one side of the dam the water is higher
    than on the other side, so how would they adjust
    for water levels?

St. Andrews Lock Dam
  • A boat would pull into the lock, like a big
    swimming pool. The water in the lock would be
    either pumped in or drained out depending on
    which way the boat was going. Then the boat could
    pull out of the lock at the same water level as
    the river.

St. Andrews Lock Dam
  • It was hard work to build a dam in 1905.

Building the lock
Public Works Canada
Public Works Canada
St. Andrews Lock Dam
  • They had no heavy equipment so most of the work
    was done by men and horses.

Public Works Canada
Public Works Canada
St. Andrews Lock Dam
  • In 1910, St. Andrews Lock and Dam were finally
    finished. The opening was a big event. Prime
    Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier was there to
    celebrate the opening.

St. Andrews Lock Dam
  • The St. Andrews Lock and Dam is an amazing
    engineering achievement. It is the largest
    curtain dam ever constructed and possibly the
    last surviving one in the world.
  • Today it is a National Historic Site and a great
    place to fish!

Come Explore
  • Historic places along the Red River are rich in
    our history. Each place has its own story to
    tell. Come explore them and listen to what tales
    they might tell you.

Rivers West
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