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Career development looks at the longterm career effectiveness and success of organizational personne


A successful career development program, in attempting to match individual ... Career development involves a person's past, present and future work roles. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Career development looks at the longterm career effectiveness and success of organizational personne

  • Career development looks at the long-term
    career effectiveness and success of
    organizational personnel. A successful career
    development program, in attempting to match
    individual abilities and aspirations with the
    needs of the organization, should develop people
    for the long-term needs of the organization and
    address the dynamic changes that will take place
    over time.

Career development has been defined as the
interaction of psychological, sociological,
economic, physical and chance factors that shape
the sequence of jobs, occupations or careers that
a person may engage in throughout a lifetime.
  • Career development is a major aspect of human
    development. It includes ones entire life span
    and concerns the whole person. Career
    development involves a persons past, present and
    future work roles. It is linked to a persons
    self-concept, family life, and all aspects of
    ones environmental and cultural conditions.

Career Practices...
  • 1. Selection and placement are crucial to
  • 2. Lifelong learning depends on mobility.
  • 3. Job assignments provide real time learning.
  • 4. Mentoring, coaching and relationships are
    integral to learning.
  • 5. People need information and support to
    self-manage careers.
  • 6. Career moves should be valued.
  • 7. Older workers need not be deadwood.
  • Hall and Associates

S.T.E.E.P. Impact on Career Development
  • Sociological, e.g., women working outside the
  • Technological, e.g., development of powerful PCs
  • Environmental, e.g., living in California
  • Economic, e.g., significant growth of mutual
  • Political, e.g., welfare reform act and states

  • Employees and organizations alike engage in
    essential career development activities to
    improve the effectiveness of career development.

The amount of time spent and the degree of
importance placed on these activities together
enhance harmony between the employees and the
organization. This harmony is known as the area
of career development congruence.
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Moving Up
Moving Across
Growing in Place
Moving Down
Organizational Career Development
Career Management
Career Planning
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  • A. Career The sequence of a persons
    work-related activities, behaviors and associated
    attitudes, values and aspirations over the span
    of ones life.
  • B. Organizational Career Development The
    outcomes of the interaction between individual
    career planning and institutional career
    management processes.
  • C. Career Planning A deliberate process for
    becoming aware of self, opportunities,
    constraints, choices and consequences, for
    identifying career-related goals, and for
    programming of work, education and related
    developmental experiences to provide the
    direction timing and sequence of steps to attain
    a specific career goal.
  • D. Career Management An ongoing process of
    preparing, implementing and monitoring career
    plans undertaken by the individual alone or in
    concert with the organizations career system.

  • An organizational career development program
    (as opposed to employee training) should have a
    long term focus on increasing the organizations
    effectiveness in managing its human resources.
    Positive results accruing to a well-designed
    career development program
  • Ensures needed talent will be available
  • staff requirements identified
  • employee identified to prepare for requirements
  • Improve ability to attract and retain high talent
  • cope with competition for needed talent
  • reduce employee attrition

  • Ensure minorities and women get opportunities
  • grown internal talent
  • comply with affirmative action programs
  • enhance cultural diversity
  • Reduce employee frustration
  • cope with downsizing, mergers, etc.
  • increase morale (employability)
  • Promote organizational Goodwill

  • Today many forces are encouraging
    organization-sponsored career planning programs.
  • 1. Affirmative action programs.
  • 2. Women, mid-career employees, and college
    recruits are seeking career planning assistance.
  • 3. Highly talented candidates demand
    organizations demonstrate that career
    advancement opportunities exist.
  • 4. Corporate growth and development results in a
    need for more qualified human resources.
  • 5. A competitive environment demands that top
    companies/agencies support key personnel.

Key Trends in Career Development Programming
  • 1. Will return as company benefit
  • 2. More extensive outplacement services
  • 3. Development of Talent Alliance programs
  • 4. Larger use of employee leasing programs
  • 5. Convergence with general counseling (but now
    stress, family problems and outgrowth of job)
  • 6. Limited RD, so limited empirical base
  • 7. Increased use of inventories, aptitude tests,
    surveys (will be controversial)

  • Organizational activities designed to enhance
    career development include
  • (1) the establishment of a job posting
  • (2) the development of mentoring activities,
  • (3) the development of career resource
  • (4) the training of managers as career
  • (5) the planning and implementing of career
    development workshops,
  • (6) human resource planning and forecasting
  • (7) utilizing performance appraisals, and
  • (8) developing career pathing programs.

Activities of the CD department
  • Job posting systems (an open process)
  • Employee request system (an emerging concept)
  • Mentoring Systems
  • a good mentor is open, perceptive, personable
  • a good mentor has high status
  • a good mentor is tolerant of disagreements,
    different styles

Activities of the CD department Contd.
  • Career Resource Center
  • educational and training info
  • career planning
  • personal growth activities
  • job finding skills
  • management/supervision

A Five-Stage Approach to Career Development
  • The term career has been interpreted or defined
    in various ways in the professional literature.
    equating career with the sum of all life
    experiences including education, work, leisure
    activities, social and civic memberships and
    responsibilities, and family membership. This
    view holds that all life development is an aspect
    of career.

  • According to Zenger (1981), the organization
    maintains several fundamental responsibilities
    regarding career development
  • 1. Agree that career pathing is a vital part of
    the organization.
  • 2. Prepare career paths for employees.
  • 3. Maintain an efficient, complete job posting
  • 4. Train managers as career counselors.
  • 5. Provide assessment testing.
  • 6. Communicate the organizations philosophy.
  • 7. Reward managers who develop people and
    establish mentoring programs.
  • 8. Provide career workshops for employees to
    explore career development issues.
  • 9. Establish a human resource forecasting
  • 10. Develop an effective performance appraisal
  • 11. Establish career resource centers.

  • Because of this vital relationship,
    organizations tend to take two approaches when
    establishing career development programs. They
    employ career development specialists or
    relinquish career development responsibilities
    directly to managers and supervisors (Jones,
    Kaye, Taylor, 1984). The latter alternative
    appeals to many organizations because of its
    simplicity and cost benefits. It can also be
    argued that the supervisors impact on a workers
    career is greater than any other organizational

  • In addition to job counseling, managers maintain
  • eight different roles associated with career
  • 1. Communicator--one who promotes a two-way
    exchange between him/herself and the employees.
  • 2. Appraiser--one who evaluates an employees
    performance and provides feedback.
  • 3. Coach--one who gives instruction or skill
  • 4. Mentor--one who serves as a sponsor to
    facilitate an employees career growth.
  • 5. Advisor--one who directs and supports an
    employees career growth.
  • 6. Broker--one who serves as an agent for the
  • 7. Advocate--one who intervenes on behalf of the
    employee for benefits, promotions, and
    elimination of obstacles.
  • 8. Referred Agent--one who identifies resources
    to help an employee with a specific problem
    (Leibowitz Schlossberg, 1986).

Managers and supervisors...
  • Benefit from having practical experience.
  • Can make realistic appraisals of organizational
  • Can use information from past performance
    evaluation to make realistic suggestions
    concerning career planning.
  • Can evaluate external economic opportunities
    pertaining to business
  • Have experienced similar career decisions and
    can be empathetic toward the employee (Gilley
    Moore, 1986).

  • In career development, the employee is
    responsible for career planning and the
    organization, more specifically the HRD
    practitioner, is responsible for career
    management. These two separate but related
    processes combine to make up the organizational
    career development process. Career planning is a
    process of setting up employee career objectives
    and developing activities that will achieve them.
    Career management refers to specific human
    resource activities, such as job placement,
    performance appraisal, counseling, training, and

  • A favored form of career development
    enhancement is workshops and seminars designed to
    encourage employees to take responsibilities for
    their careers. Employees can reflect on their
    present occupation in order to determine their
    level of satisfaction.

Thus, workshops and seminars are excellent
vehicles for orienting employees to career/life
planning, a major component of career development.
Prototype Career Workshop (Lawrence Livermore)
  • Week 1--Orientation to career planning (4 hrs.)
  • Week 2--Assessment of work values, personality
    style, interests also training in career
    decision making (16 hrs.)
  • Week 3--Individual interview--a structured
    interview focusing on past achievement is
    videotaped (1 hr)
  • Week 4--Mini seminars made up of small groups of
    employees work to identify motivated
    skills and effective work style (10 hrs.)
  • Week 5--Individual counseling session focuses on
    developing and individual career development
    plan (1 hr)

Prototype Career Workshop (Lawrence Livermore)
  • Week 6--Individuals independently gather
    information and work on career development
    plan (varies)
  • Week 7--Each person presents the what, how, when,
    and where of their career development plan to
    other seminar participants (8 hrs.)

Some HRD competencies in CD...
  • Adult Learning and Development
  • Career Development Theories
  • Career Facilitation and Advising
  • Electronic Systems Skills
  • Job Design and Evaluation
  • Training and Development Techniques
  • Organizational and Management Understandings
  • Project and Program Management
  • Needs Assessment and Research
  • Interpersonal and Group Skills

Creating an Organization Career Development
  • 1. Start small and design a specific program in
    response to particular institutional and
    employee needs. Expand the program on a gradual
    basis, identifying priorities and desired time
  • 2. Design the system to interface with other
    ongoing personnel processes, such as performance
    appraisal, human resource planning, and training
    and development programs.
  • 3. Obtain top management support via policy,
    physical presence, and budgetary provisions.
  • 4. Encourage line management ownership of
    career development activities and utilize
    personnel as third- party change agents.
  • 5. Establish indicators of programs
    effectiveness and measure and communicate the

Creating an Organization Career Development
Program (Contd)
  • 6. Promote voluntary employee participation in
    the program.
  • 7. Provide a balance of individual and
    organizational interventions.

8. Prepare and train employees and managers for
changes likely to occur as a result of system
implementation. 9. Be patient and provide time
for problem solving.
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