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INTRODUCTION TO TOXICOLOGY

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Title: INTRODUCTION TO TOXICOLOGY


1
INTRODUCTION TO TOXICOLOGY
  • Background Information for Toxicity Testing with
    California Blackworms and Alcohol
  • Created by Stefani D. Hines with modifications by
    Debbie Gevirtzman,
  • SWEHSC, University of Arizona

2
Toxicology
  • What is it?
  • How is it used?

3
Toxicology
  • The study of harmful effects of chemicals on
    living systems

4
Toxicology
  • Biology
  • Chemistry
  • Physiology
  • Physics
  • Statistics
  • Immunology
  • Ecology
  • Forensic Medicine
  • Clinical Treatments
  • Drug Development
  • Public Health
  • Industrial Hygiene
  • Veterinary Science
  • Agriculture
  • Environmental Science

5
CONGRATULATIONS!
  • You are already toxicologists!

6
Hazard
  • A chemical substance, physical agent, or
    biological agent that can harm the health of
    people

7
Exposure
  • Contact with a hazard

8
Routes of Entry
9
Routes of Entry
  • Ingestion chemicals can enter the body by
    eating or drinking
  • Inhalation chemicals can be breathed into the
    lungs
  • Absorption - chemicals can enter the body by
    moving through the skin

10
Dose
  • Dose is the amount of a chemical that gets inside
    of your body.
  • Measured in mg of chemical/kg or lb of weight

11
Dose A Visual Explanation
12
Who took the largest dose of Tylenol?
Weight 125 lb 135 lb 20 lb 5 lb Tylenol 300
mg 600 mg 100 mg 50 mg
13
Calculating Dose
50 mg ? 5 lb 10 mg/lb
300 mg ? 125 lb 2.4 mg/lb
14
The Dose Makes The Poison
  • What is it that is not a poison? All things are
    poisons and nothing is without poison. It is the
    dose only that makes a thing not a poison.
  • Paracelsus, 1493-1541

15
Most hazardous substances exhibit a
dose-response relationship. What does this
mean?
A. The harm caused by the hazard increases as
the amount of hazard entering the body (dose)
increases. B. It does not matter how big a dose
you receive, you will always have the same amount
of harm/sickness. C. Exposure to the hazard
always results in harm.
16
Dose-Response Curve for Alcohol
Death
Labored breathing
Unconscious
Deep sleep
Response
Sleep
Giddy
No effect
No effect
Dose
17
Dose-Response Curve for Vitamin D
Toxic
Healthy
Response
Unhealthy
Dose
18
Exposure
  • Exposure Frequency how often
  • Exposure Duration how long
  • Exposure Concentration how much

19
For a Chemical to Affect You
  • Exposure
  • Dose

20
Toxicity
  • Acute Toxicity a high toxicant dose over a
    short period of time
  • Chronic Toxicity a small dose of a toxicant
    over a long period of time

21
Factors Affecting Toxicity
  • Extrinsic Factors occur outside the body
  • Intrinsic Factors occur within an individual
    organism

22
Intrinsic Factors
  • Age
  • Genetic Difference
  • Body Size

23
Control
  • Our biggest chemical risks are with things we
    have control over

24
Control
  • Food
  • Exposure to Known Hazards in Daily Lifestyle
  • Cigarettes
  • Alcohol
  • Preventable Poisonings

25
Factors Contributing to Cancer Risk in the U.S.
  • Diet 35
  • Tobacco 30
  • Occupational exposures pollution 5
  • Infection (viruses) 10
  • Other 20
  • Genetic susceptibility
  • Sun/radiation
  • Alcohol

26
  • And now, lets do the blackworm lab!
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