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Title: CHINA


1
CHINA
2
OWL NEWS MONDAY
3
INTRODUCTION
4
Welcome Im chitto
5
HINDI CHINI BHAI BHAI
6
SCOPE
  • PART I - GEO-POLITICAL/STRATEGIC
    IMPORTANCE OF CHINA
  • PART II -CHINESE ECONOMY
  • PART III - CHINAS ARMED FORCES
  • PART IV - FOREIGN RELATIONS
  • PART V - CHINA IN THE YEAR 2010

7
PART I
GEO-POLITICAL AND STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE
8
An ancient Chinese missionary student is
supposed to have lamented
  • Chinese history is remote, obscure and
    monotonous, worst of all, there is too much of it

9
Geography and Demography
10
LOCATION AND SIZE
  • CHINA LIES BETWEEN
  • LONGITUDE 78º 08 E AND 135º 05 E
  • LATITUDE 18º 09 N AND 53º 34 N

11
LOCATION AND SIZE
  • THE LANDMASS
  • GENERALLY SLOPES FROM WEST TO EAST
  • ELEVATION VARYING FROM 8000 M ABOVE SEA LEVEL TO
    150 M BELOW SEA LEVEL

12
LOCATION AND SIZE
  • SIZE
  • THIRD LARGEST COUNTRY IN THE WORLD AFTER RUSSIA
    AND CANADA
  • LARGEST IN ASIA, WITH AN AREA OF 9,562,904 SQUARE
    KM

13
POPULATION
  • MOST POPULOUS COUNTRY IN THE WORLD
  • APPROXIMATELY 1.2 BILLION PEOPLE

14
POPULATION
  • 93.3 POPULATION IS HAN CHINESE
  • BALANCE A MIX OF VARIOUS NATIONALITIES

15
RELIGION AND LANGUAGE
  • MOST IMPORTANT RELIGIONS ARE-
  • CONFUCIANISM
  • TAOISM
  • BUDDHISM
  • MUSLIMS AND CHRISTIANS

16
RELIGION AND LANGUAGE
  • MAIN LANGUAGE IS MANDARIN
  • LITERACY RATE 85

17
DEMOGRAPHIC PATTERN
  • DENSITY-107 PER SQUARE KM
  • DISTRIBUTION IS UNEVEN
  • POPULATION CROWDED INTO 45 OF THE LAND

18
DEMOGRAPHIC PATTERN
  • PROVINCES LIKE JIANG HAVE DENSITY OF 2000 PER
    SQUARE KM
  • URBAN POPULATION IS 35 OF THE TOTAL

19
CHINESE CIVILISATION
  • ORIGINATED IN AREA OF YELLOW RIVER
  • CHANGS STARTED DYNASTIC RULE AND CONTINUED TO
    RULE TILL AROUND 214 B C

20
CHINESE CIVILISATION
  • CHANGS OVERTHROWN BY ZHOU DYNASTY
  • ZHOU DYNASTY FOLLOWED BY QUIN DYNASTY

21
CHINESE CIVILISATION
  • QUIN DYNASTY FOLLOWED BY HANS SONGS
  • FINALLY MONGOLS RULED FROM 1279 AD TO 1368 AD
  • MING DYNASTY TOOK THE REINS IN 1368 AD

22
CHINESE CIVILISATION
  • OCCUPATION OF CHINA BY MANCHUS IN 1688
  • MANCHU EMPIRE BEGAN TO CRUMBLE BY THE MIDDLE OF
    THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

23
DECLINE OF MANCHU RULE
  • POLICY OF ISOLATION BEGAN TO BREAKDOWN
  • CHINA LAGGED BEHIND
  • SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY UNDERMINED RELIGIOUS UNITY

24
DECLINE OF MANCHU RULE
  • OPIUM WARS FROM 1839 - 42 AND 1856-60 LOST BY
    CHINESE
  • FORFEITED HONG KONG TO BRITISH


25
DECLINE OF MANCHU RULE
  • COMPLETE COLONISATION AVERTED
  • NUMBER OF PORTS OPENED

26
DECLINE OF MANCHU RULE
  • CHINESE SLIDE CONTINUED
  • LOSSES IN WARS, WITH FRANCE AND BRITAIN, JAPAN,
    RUSSIA AND US
  • MOUNTING DISSATISFACTION PRECIPITATED ANOTHER
    UPRISING IN 1900

27
DECLINE OF MANCHU RULE
  • REVOLUTIONISTS IN 1911 OVERTHREW THE CHING REGIME
  • THIS MADE CHINA TECHNICALLY A REPUBLIC

28
MODERN CHINA
  • POLITICAL HISTORY OF REPUBLICS FIRST YEAR WAS
    TUMULTUOUS
  • CIVIL WAR BROKE OUT IN 1917
  • IN 1926, CHIANG-KAI-SHEK, OVERTHREW THE GOVERNMENT

29
MODERN CHINA
  • COMMUNISTS ENGINEERED A COUP AGAINST
    CHIANG-KAI-SHEK IN DECEMBER 1936
  • IN JANUARY 1949 BEIJING TAKEN OVER BY COMMUNISTS
  • CHIANG AND HIS NATIONALISTS FLED TO TAIWAN

30
MODERN CHINA
  • CHIANG PROCLAIMED TAIPEI AS THE TEMPORARY CAPITAL
  • COMMUNIST GOVERNMENT CONSOLIDATED ON THE MAINLAND
    BY 1ST OCTOBER 1949
  • RECOGNISED BY USSR, GREAT BRITAIN AND INDIA

31
COMMUNIST RULE UNDER MAO
  • CULTURAL REVOLUTION
  • HUNDRED FLOWERS MOVEMENT
  • GREAT LEAP FORWARD

32
ERA OF DENG XIAO PING
  • EMERGENCE FROM THE BAMBOO CURTAIN

33
OWL NEWS MONDAY
34
CULTURAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
35
CULTURE
  • PROUD OF CULTURAL ANTECEDENTS
  • CONSIDER CHINA CENTRE OF WORLD
  • UNITY OF CHINA - AN ACHIEVEMENT

36
MODERN CHINESE CULTURE
  • RISE OF MAO TSE TUNG
  • ABOLITION OF THE CLASS SYSTEM
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF COMMUNISM
  • THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION

37
MODERN CHINESE CULTURE
  • CHINESE TRADITIONAL THOUGHTS CENTRED AROUND TWO
    ANCIENT CUSTOMS
  • TRANSFERENCE OF GODS INTO HUMAN BEINGS
  • THE BELIEF THAT A PERSON LIVES THROUGH HIS
    DESCENDANTS

38
CUSTOMS
  • CONCUBINAGE AND POLYGAMY
  • PATRIARCHIAL FAMILY SET UP
  • HIERARCHICAL SOCIETY

39
ART
  • POETRY WAS PRODUCED EN-MASS
  • PAINTINGS
  • JADE ARTISTRY
  • POTTERY

40
OWL NEWS MONDAY
41
GEO-STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE
  • EURASIA HAS THE WORLDS SIX LARGEST ECONOMIES AND
    MILITARY SPENDERS

42
GEO-STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE
  • CHINA, RUSSIA, INDIA AND SE ASIA ARE IN THIS
    REGION

43
GEO-STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE
  • THE REGION ACCOUNTS FOR
  • 75 OF THE WORLD POPULATION
  • 60 OF THE WORLDS GNP
  • 75 OF THE WORLDS ENERGY RESOURCES

44
OWL NEWS MONDAY
45
ASSETS
  • LARGE LANDMASS
  • VAST MANPOWER RESOURCES AND CHEAP LABOUR
  • ABUNDANT NATURAL RESOURCES

46
ASSETS
  • COASTAL FRONTIERS OF ABOUT 5800 KILOMETRES,
    FAVOURING OCEAN TRADE
  • NATURAL FRONTIER OBSTACLES ON ALL SIDES

47
ASSETS
  • A HIGH LITERACY RATE OF 85
  • A WELL DEVELOPED COMMUNICATION SYSTEM OF INLAND
    WATER TRANSPORT, ROADS AND RAILWAYS

48
LIABILITIES
  • ONLY 11 OF THE TOTAL LAND IS ARABLE
  • EXCESS POPULATION PRESSURE ON EAST AND SOUTH EAST
    CHINA
  • DIFFICULT TERRAIN, WHICH IMPEDES DEVELOPMENT IN
    NORTH AND NORTH-EAST CHINA

49
CHINESE SPHERE OF INFLUENCE
  • CHINA WELL POISED TO BECOME A WORLD LEADER
  • CAN EXERCISE DIRECT INFLUENCE ON
  • THE SOUTH/EAST CHINA SEA
  • BAY OF BENGAL
  • THE ARABIAN SEA
  • CENTRAL ASIAN REPUBLICS

50
RELATIONSHIP WITH NEIGHBOURS
  • ONLY COUNTRY TO HAVE 16 NEIGHBOURS
  • MAINTAINS GOOD RELATIONS WITH SOME
  • INDIFFERENT TO OTHERS

51
RELATIONSHIP WITH NEIGHBOURS
  • SINO PAK ALLIANCE SURVIVED MANY UPHEAVALS
  • SETTLING BORDER DISPUTES WITH HER NEIGHBOURS
  • INDIA IS ONLY COUNTRY WITH UNRESOLVED BORDER
    DISPUTE

52
OWL NEWS MONDAY
53
JOIN THE DSSC AT WELLINGTON
  • FREE ! FREE ! FREE ! ONE YEAR OF HOLIDAY AND
    FUN.(THATS IF ONE CALLS THIS FUN )
  • FREE HORSE RIDING, ANGLING, TREKKING ETC.
  • BRING YOUR KIDS ALONG, BUT MAKE ARRANGEMENTS TO
    LOOK AFTER THEM.

54
  • THAT IS NOT ALL, FREE LESSONS IN PUBLIC SPEAKING
    AND CRITICISM.
  • LADIES CAN KEEP BUSY DOING ITOW AND COMPUTER
    CLASSES.
  • SPECIALLY ARRANGEGED DIPLOMAS ARE ALSO AVAILABLE.
  • COME ONE COME ALL, JOIN THE DSSC.

55
PART II
ECONOMY
56
ECONOMY
  • CHINA IS CALLED AN AWAKENED DRAGON
  • HAS A TRADE TURNOVER EXCEEDING 196 BILLION
  • EXPECTED TO OVER TAKE THE ECONOMIES OF GERMANY
    AND JAPAN

57
ECONOMY
  • FAILED TO ENTER THE ERA OF MODERN ECONOMIC
    GROWTH UNTIL 1949
  • INCREASED RAPIDLY AFTER 1949
  • LIMITED RESOURCES FOR INVESTMENT PREVENTED CHINA
    FROM PRODUCING ADVANCED EQUIPMENT

58
ECONOMY
  • ERA OF ECONOMIC REFORM
  • THE RESPONSIBILITY SYSTEM OF PRODUCTION IN
    AGRICULTURE

59
ECONOMY
  • ROLE OF GOVERNMENT WAS REDUCED IN MOST OTHER
    SECTORS
  • EACH NEW POLICY PERIOD RETAINED MOST OF THE
    EXISTING ECONOMIC ORGANISATION

60
ECONOMY
  • BY 1956, 67.5 OF ALL MODERN INDUSTRIAL
    ENTERPRISES WERE STATE OWNED

61
ECONOMY
  • BETWEEN 1952 AND 1957 INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION
    INCREASED AT A RATE OF 19
  • NATIONAL INCOME GREW AT A RATE OF 9 A
    YEAR
  • 'THE GREAT LEAP FORWARD'

62
ECONOMY
  • ECONOMIC STABILITY WAS RESTORED BETWEEN 1961-65
  • BY 1966, PRODUCTION IN BOTH AGRICULTURE AND
    INDUSTRY SURPASSED THE GREAT LEAP FORWARD PERIOD

63
ECONOMY
  • INDUSTRIAL OUTPUT 14 IN 1977 AND 13 IN 1978
  • AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION WAS STIMULATED IN 1979 BY
    AN INCREASE OF OVER 22 IN THE PROCUREMENT
    PRICES

64
ECONOMY
  • FOREIGN-TRADE PROCEDURES WERE GREATLY EASED
  • THE ROLE OF FREE MARKETS FOR FARM PRODUCE WAS
    FURTHER EXPANDED

65
ECONOMY
  • FARM INCOMES ROSE RAPIDLY
  • FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS 24.2 b IN THE FIRST
    HALF OF 1998

66
ECONOMY
  • BY 1987, THE ECONOMY MADE MAJOR STRIDES TOWARDS
    IMPROVING LIVING STANDARDS

67
ECONOMY
  • THE EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTIVITY WAS GREATLY
    INCREASED BY
  • REVIVAL OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEM
  • OPENING OF THE ECONOMY TO BROADER TRADE
  • THE EXPANDED USE OF THE MARKET TO VITALISE
    COMMERCE

68
ECONOMY
  • INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES DISPERSED
  • GROWING POOL OF TECHNICIANS

69
ECONOMIC REFORMS
  • DENG XIAO PENG ERA
  • FOUR POINT MODERNISATION PROGRAMME
  • SHARPLY REDUCED AGRICULTURAL YIELDS IN 1950s
    AND 1960s

70
ECONOMIC REFORMS
  • DENG XIAO PENG ERA
  • AFTER 1979, PEASANT HOUSEHOLDS WERE ALLOCATED
    THEIR OWN PLOTS OF LAND UNDER CONTRACT

71
ECONOMIC REFORMS
  • DENG XIAO PENG ERA
  • ALLOWED TO SELL THE SURPLUS IN THE MARKET
  • THE AVERAGE ANNUAL GROWTH RATE OF AGRICULTURAL
    ROSE TO 5.2

72
ECONOMIC REFORMS
  • BETWEEN LATE 70s AND 90s THE INDUSTRIAL
    PRODUCTION INCREASED AT A RATE OF 10.8
  • THE COAL OUTPUT HAS DOUBLED
  • ELECTRICITY HAS INCREASED BY THREE TIMES
  • STEEL PRODUCTION BY TWO AND HALF TIMES

73
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY REFORMS
  • LOST SCIENTISTS AND TECHNICIANS DURING THE
    CULTURAL REVOLUTION
  • CHINA TILL RECENTLY BELIEVED IN THE "COPY-BOOK"
    TECHNOLOGY (REVERSE ENGINEERING)

74
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY REFORMS
  • THE THRUST WAS ON QUANTITY AND NOT QUALITY BEFORE
    REFORMS
  • NOW THE THRUST IN CHINA IS FOCUSSING ON QUALITY

75
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY REFORMS
  • 5000 RESEARCH INSTITUTES FUNDED BY BEIJING
  • BY 1997 27 MILLION PROFESSIONALS AND
    TECHNICIANS

76
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY REFORMS
  • SCIENTIFIC EXPENDITURE IN 1997 WAS 6.88
    BILLION
  • 33,000 KEY RESULTS, 62,000 PATENT APPLICATIONS
    APPROVED

77
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY REFORMS
  • 2.46 LAKH CONTRACTS OF TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY
  • THE VALUES OF TRANSACTIONS WERE 2.53 BILLION

78
PLA AND INDUSTRY
  • CONVERSION OF MILITARY TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCING
    CIVILIAN GOODS A BOOMING SUCCESS
  • THE PLA HAS SOME 10,000 VENTURES, WHICH BRING IN
    AN ANNUAL PROFIT OF 5 TO 6 BILLION DOLLARS

79
FOREIGN TRADE
  • FOREIGN TRADE FOR 1992 HAD BEEN EQUAL TO THAT FOR
    THE PREVIOUS 13 YEARS
  • FOREIGN TRADE IN 1993 WAS ITSELF TWICE AS THAT OF
    1992
  • SHOWN A SUSTAINED GROWTH RATE OF OVER 10 DURING
    THAT PERIOD

80
FOREIGN TRADE
  • HOWEVER THE YEARS AFTER 1992 IT HAS SHOWN A
    REDUCTION IN GROWTH RATE
  • SEEMS POISED TO BECOME THE WORLD'S LARGEST
    ECONOMY BY 2010

81
FOREIGN INVESTMENT
  • CHOSEN TO ATTRACT FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT
  • MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES WERE ENCOURAGED BECAUSE
    OF TWO REASONS
  • TO PRODUCE GOODS AND SERVICES AT HIGHLY
    COMPETITIVE RATES
  • INFLOW SERVED AS A SHAKE UP TO THE STATE OWNED
    ENTERPRISES

82
SOCIALIST MARKET ECONOMY
  • IN 1993, ADOPTED 'CONSTRUCTION OF THE SOCIALIST
    MARKET ECONOMY
  • RECOGNITION OF THE COMPATIBILITY OF MARKET FORCES
    AND SOCIALIST IDEOLOGY

83
SOCIALIST MARKET ECONOMY
  • IMPRESSIVE GROWTH RATE OF THE GDP RECORDED BY THE
    CHINESE ECONOMY
  • THE CAPITAL GOODS SEGMENT HAVE OUTPERFORMED THE
    GDP

84
MARKET REFORMS
  • REALISED THAT SUCCESS OF REFORMS DEPENDS ON THE
    AGRICULTURAL SECTOR
  • CONCENTRATED ON DEVELOPING A SOUND INFRASTRUCTURE
    FOR THE AGRICULTURAL

85
MARKET REFORMS
  • REFORMS INTRODUCED AS SMALL SCALE EXPERIMENTS ON
    REGIONAL BASIS
  • THE EMPHASIS OF ALL THE REFORMS HAS BEEN
    OUTWARD LOOKING TO ATTRACT FDI

86
OBSTACLES IN MARKET REFORMS
  • SHORT TERM PROSPECTS PRESENT A VERY ROSY
    PICTURE
  • A NEED TO SERIOUSLY ADDRESS LONG TERM MACRO
    ECONOMIC IMBALANCES
  • MANY IDEOLOGICAL CONTRADICTIONS

87
OBSTACLES IN MARKET REFORMS
  • 85 OF FDI CONFINED TO THE COASTAL REGIONS
  • SUPPLY BOTTLENECKS IN ENERGY AND RAW MATERIALS
  • DISPARITY BETWEEN REGIONS IN INCOME AND STANDARD
    OF LIVING
  • MAY MANIFEST INTO STRIFE

88
PROBLEM AREAS
  • INCREASING BUDGET DEFICIT
  • VAST STATE OWNED ENTERPRISES SECTOR
  • BOTH ASPECTS CANNOT BE READILY CORRECTED

89
PROBLEM AREAS
  • THE VAST POPULATION OF CHINA HAS RESULTED
    EXCESSIVE ORGANISATION
  • GROWING DISSATISFACTION OF PEASANTRY
  • FOOD SHORTAGE AND GRADUAL WEAKENING OF
    CENTRAL FORCES

90
PROBLEM AREAS
  • THE POLITICAL STRUCTURE A SERIOUS BOTTLE NECK
  • REFORMS INSEPARABLY LINKED WITH THE CONTINUITY
    OF SINGLE POLITICAL PARTY

91
SINO - US ECONOMIC RELATIONS
  • CAREFULLY CULTIVATED THE US BUSINESS COMMUNITY
  • THEIR AMBASSADORS INFLUENCE US DECISION MAKING
    BODIES
  • HAS REACH IN EVERY BRANCH OF THE US GOVERNMENT

92
SINO - US ECONOMIC RELATIONS
  • DESPITE DIVERGENT VIEWS, THE USA HAS BEEN
    REVIEWING RENEWING THE MFN STATUS
  • USA HAS DE-LINKED THE HUMAN RIGHTS PERFORMANCE
    FROM TRADE

93
  • Trade is not the most effective way to
    pressurise china to improve its human rights
    record
  • US SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

94
SINO - US ECONOMIC RELATIONS
  • ECONOMIC RECOVERY OF USA DEPENDS ON
  • LEVELS OF EMPLOYMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY
  • STABLE PATTERN OF EXPORT PERFORMANCE
  • INVOLVES TARGETING NEW AND LARGE MARKETS

95
SINO - US ECONOMIC RELATIONS
  • IN THE ECONOMIC EQUATION USA IS A DISADVANTAGED
    PARTNER
  • NOT RENEWING THE MFN STATUS WOULD AFFECT 10 OF
    CHINESE EXPORTS

96
OWL NEWS MONDAY
97
PARTS OF SPEECH
  • NOUN
  • PRONOUN
  • ADJECTIVE
  • VERB
  • ADVERB
  • PREPOSITION
  • CONJUNCTION
  • INTERJECTION

98
SORRY SNaFU (Standard Naval F Up)
DEFINITION AS PER JSSD VOL III
99
PARTS OF SPEECH
  • World Trade Organisation
  • Sino-Indian Defence Strategy
  • 1962 War
  • Crystal Ball Gazing
  • Maritime Air Operations
  • ABC of World Economy
  • IMF Graph
  • Black Magic

100
DS
  • BEFORE RELEGATION
  • DIRECTED STUFF
  • AFTER RELEGATION
  • DIRECTING STAFF

101
HINDI CHEENEE BYE BYE
102
MAO Delhi Heldi Kuthar
Thakur Mahe Hema Chetak Katcha Shankush
Sushkhan
  • MAO O Ma

103
WORLDS GDP
2000
YEAR
104
ATTRACTIONS IN DECEMBER
  • HRD CAPSULE
  • PAK AND CHINA CONFIDENTIAL
  • EMP OF STK CORPS
  • MID TERM BREAK.
  • DONT MISS THEM.

105
STRATEGIC COMPULSIONS AND THREAT PERCEPTIONS
106
INDICATORS TO MODERNISATION OF PLA
  • DEFENCE EXPENDITURE-4 TIMES THE OFFICIAL DECLARED
    EXPENDITURE
  • PEOPLES WAR UNDER MODERN CONDITIONS (PEUMC) AN
    AIRLAND BATTLE DOCTRINE

107
INDICATORS TO MODERNISATION OF PLA
  • THE THRUST IN ACQUISITION OF SCIENTIFIC AND
    TECHNOLOGICAL CAPABILITY
  • ARMS ACQUISITION AND MILITARY MODERNISATION

108
GEOPOLITICAL ENVIRONMENT AND SECURITY
  • AN IMPORTANT DIMENSION
  • RESPONSIBLE FOR SHAPING THREAT PERCEPTIONS,
    FOREIGN AND DEFENCE POLICIES

109
GEOPOLITICAL ENVIRONMENT AND SECURITY
  • CENTRED AROUND TWO FACETS
  • HER EXTREME POSSESSIVE ATTITUDE TO HER PRESENT
    AND PAST TERRITORIES
  • HER SENSITIVENESS TO SECCESSIONARY TENDENCIES

110
IRREDENTISM
  • TAIWAN
  • MACAU

111
CHINESE CLAIM ON TAIWAN
  • EVERY SOVEREIGN STATE HAS A RIGHT TO PROTECT ITS
    UNITY AND TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY
  • TAIWAN HISTORICALLY BELONGS TO CHINA
  • IT IS CONSIDERED A PART OF CHINA BY THE
    INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY

112
Tibet
113
BACKGROUND
  • THE EXTENT OF CHINESE INFLUENCE AND CONTROL
    OVER TIBET IS DISPUTED SINCE CHINA ITSELF WAS
    UNDER THE COLONIAL YOKE

114
BACKGROUND
  • BRITISH REGARDED TIBET AS A BUFFER STATE
  • SHIMLA CONFERENCE OF 1914, RECOGNISED CHINESE
    SUZERAINTY, BUT NOT SOVEREIGNTY, OVER TIBET

115
BACKGROUND
  • PLA INVADED TIBET IN 1950
  • IN 1954, INDIA REACHED AN AGREEMENT RECOGNISED
    TIBET AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF CHINA

116
BACKGROUND
  • DALAI LAMA FLED TO INDIA
  • THE CHINESE REGARD THE GOVERNMENT IN EXILE AS AN
    OBSTACLE TO INDO CHINESE RELATIONS

117
DEFENCE FORCES OF CHINA
118
THE PLA
  • THE PEOPLES LIBERATION ARMY CONSISTS OF
  • THE ARMY
  • THE NAVY
  • THE AIR FORCE

119
DOCTRINE
  • NO MAJOR WAR IS GOING TO BE FOUGHT IN THE NEAR
    FUTURE
  • PROPELLED HER INTO A DOCTRINE CALLED PEOPLES WAR
    UNDER MODERN CONDITIONS
  • CREATION OF THE RAPID REACTION FORCE

120
DOCTRINE
  • THE PLA IN FUTURE CONFLICT IS EXPECTED TO OCCUPY
    DISPUTED AREAS WITH A HIGH-TECH ARMY
  • THEREAFTER, LEAVE IT TO THE POLITICAL LEADERS TO
    NEGOTIATE FAVOURABLY

121
ARMY
  • WORLDS LARGEST MILITARY FORCE
  • DEFENCE BUDGET 10 8 Bn
  • PLA STRENGTH 3 MILLION

122
ARMY
  • ARMY 2 2 MILLION MEN (80 OF THE PLAS TOTAL
    MANPOWER)
  • CONSIDERED TO BE A DEFENSIVE FORCE
  • LACKS LOGISTICS SUPPORT FOR PROTRACTED
    LARGE-SCALE OPERATIONS

123
ROLES ASSIGNED TO THE PLA
  • TO DEFEND THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE PRC
  • TO DETER ATTACK BY ANY NATION

124
ROLES ASSIGNED TO THE PLA
  • TO ASSIST IN THE MAINTENANCE OF INTERNAL SECURITY
    IN PRC
  • TO SUPPORT THE FOREIGN POLICY OBJECTIVES OF PRC

125
ORGANISATION
  • CHINA IS DIVIDED INTO 7 MILITARY REGIONS

126
SHENYANG
JINAN
127
ARMY
  • THE ERSTWHILE 35 FIELD ARMIES HAVE BEEN SEEN
    REORGANISED INTO 21 INTEGRATED GROUP ARMIES

128
ARMY
  • CONSCRIPTION IS COMPULSORY BUT SELECTIVE
  • ONLY SOME OF THE POTENTIAL RESERVIST ARE CALLED
    UP
  • SERVICE IS THREE YEARS WITH THE ARMY, FOUR YEARS
    WITH THE AF AND NAVY

129
COMPOSITION OF GP ARMIES
  • 78 INF DIVS
  • 10 ARMD
  • 5 ARTY DIVS
  • 15 ENGR REGTS
  • PMF 1.2 MILLION

130
TYPES OF GP ARMIES
  • PLAINS
  • MOUNTAINS
  • FRONTIER/COASTAL

131
ARMY EQPT HOLDINGS
  • MBT 8,800
  • LT TANKS 1,200
  • AFV/ICV 5,500
  • TOWED ARTY 14,500
  • HEPTRS 130

132
OWL NEWS MONDAY
133
NAVY(PLAN)
  • THE END OF COLD WAR HAS LEFT A VACUUM IN EXTRA
    REGIONAL NAVAL PRESENCE IN THE INDIAN OCEAN
  • CHINA CONSIDERS HER RIGHT TO BE THE SUCCESSOR TO
    THE USSR AND US FLEETS

134
NAVY(PLAN)
  • CHINESE MARITIME DEVELOPMENTS STARTED IN 1960s
  • SHIP YARD EXPANSION AND SHIP BUILDING RECEIVED
    DUE ATTENTION FROM THE BEGINNING OF THIS DECADE

135
NAVY(PLAN)
  • THE PLA NAVY (PLAN) IS LARGE AND HAS INDEPENDENT
    AIR ARM
  • MODERNISATION OF PLAN INCLUDES UPGRADING OF
    SHIPBOARD WEAPON SYSTEMS

136
NAVY(PLAN)
  • BUILDING LARGE DESTROYERS EQUIPPED WITH WESTERN
    TECHNOLOGY
  • BUILDING LARGE BATTLESHIPS FITTED WITH MISSILES
    AND ADVANCED ELECTRONICS

137
NAVY(PLAN)
  • EXPECTED TO EITHER BUILD OR BUY SEVERAL LIGHT
    AIRCRAFT CARRIERS BY 2026

138
ORGANIZATION OF PLAN
  • THE PLAN IS ORGANISED IN
  • NORTH SEA FLEET
  • SOUTH SEA FLEET
  • EAST SEA FLEET

139
NORTH SEA FLEET
QINGDAO
140
SOUTH SEA FLEET
DONSHAN
DONSHAN
ZHANJIANG
141
EAST SEA FLEET
LIANYUNGANG
SHANGHAI
DONGSHAN
142
TOTAL ASSETS
  • HAS 18 BASES WHICH CAN TAKE UP TO ABOUT 1850
    VESSELS
  • THE CHINESE NAVY IS 2,60,000 MEN STRONG

143
TOTAL ASSETS
  • 54 SURFACE WARSHIPS, 860 COASTAL VESSELS AND 105
    SUBMARINES
  • OF THESE ONE IS XIA CLASS SSBN AND THREE ARE
    HAN CLASS SSNS

144
TOTAL ASSETS
  • SUBMARINES 63
  • DESTROYERS 18
  • FRIGATES 35
  • MISSILE CRAFT 163
  • MINE LAYER 1
  • MINE SWEEPERS 118
  • LST 73
  • COMBAT AC 541
  • HEPTRS 25 (ARMED)

145
OWL NEWS MONDAY
146
Reporting from Beijing
147
PLA AIR FORCE
148
SOVIET SUPPLIED AIRCRAFT
  • MIG - 15, 17, 19 AND 21
  • IL -28
  • TU - 4

149
PLAAF ORGANISATION
  • BASED ON SOVIET PATTERN
  • 12 AIRCRAFT PER SQN
  • 03 SQN PER REGMENT
  • 03 REGMENT PER AIR DIVISION

150
ROLES ASSIGNED
  • AIR DEFENCE
  • GROUND ATTACK
  • TACTICAL BOMBING

151
PLA AF HOLDING
  • AD ARTY 16 DIV
  • 03 AIRBORNE PARA DIV

152
PLA AF HOLDING
  • FIGHTERS 4100 ( F-6,A-5,
  • F- 7,F-8,Q-5)
  • BOMBERS 400
  • TRANSPORT 400
  • RECCE 290
  • HEPTRS 210

153
MODERNISATION
  • AIRCRAFT ACQUISITION
  • ( SU-27, MIG 31)
  • AIR DEFENCE SYSTEMS
  • DEVELOPMENT OF MULTIROLE AGILE AIRCRAFT
  • MOU WITH INDIA AND KOREA FOR TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT

154
MODERNISATION
  • AVIONICS FOR SURVEILLANCE AND
    RECCONAISSANCE
  • ASI-5 MULTIMODE FIRE CONTROL RADAR
  • DAY/NIGHT IMAGING PODS

155
STRATEGIC MISSILES
DF-5 (CSS-4) ICBM/MIRV NUCLEAR
15000 KM DF-4 (CSS-3) ICBM
NUCLEAR 7000 KM DF-5
(CSS-2) IRBM NUCLEAR 2700
KM JL1 SLBM NUCLEAR
2200 -3000 KM DF-31 ICBM NUCLEAR
gt8000 KM
156
LEGEND
AIRFIELD
ROAD
157
OWL NEWS MONDAY
158
(No Transcript)
159
(No Transcript)
160
CHINESE NUCLEAR CAPABILITY
  • HOW MIGHT CHINA USE THE ATOM BOMB?

161
OBJECTIVES OF NUCLEAR CAPABILITY
  • NATIONAL SECURITY BY DETERRING AN ATTACK BY A
    SUPER POWER
  • ESTABLISH INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATING POSITION FROM
    A POSITION OF STRENGTH

162
OBJECTIVES OF NUCLEAR CAPABILITY
  • TO BREAK THE NUCLEAR MONOPOLY OF WORLD SUPER
    POWERS

163
NUCLEAR PROGRAMME
  • BEGAN NUCLEAR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME WITH THE HELP
    OF ERSTWHILE SOVIET UNION IN 1950s
  • DUE TO CONFLICTS WITH USSR DECIDED TO GO AHEAD ON
    HER OWN

164
NUCLEAR PROGRAMME
  • IT IS SUSPECTED THAT NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY WAS
    STOLEN FROM THE USA BY CHINA

165
NUCLEAR ARSENAL
  • 400 WARHEADS
  • SECOND ARTY CORPS RESPONSIBLE FOR DELIVERY
  • DELIVERY BY FIGHTER AIRCRAFT

166
CHINESE NUCLEAR STRATEGY
  • AMBIGUOUS IN CONTRAST WITH THAT OF RUSSIA AND THE
    USA
  • FINAL AUTHORITY FOR THE USE RESTS WITH THE PARTY

167
CHINESE NUCLEAR STRATEGY
  • BELIEVES IN FLEXIBLE RESPONSE STRATEGY
  • RETAIN THE OPTION OF SELECTIVE DETERRENCE

168
CHINESE NUCLEAR STRATEGY
  • TO FORCE NUCLEAR INACTION BY FRIGHTENING THE
    ADVERSARY
  • PLEDGES NOT TO BE THE FIRST TO USE NUCLEAR
    WEAPONS

169
CHINESE NUCLEAR STRATEGY
  • USE OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS WITHIN OWN TERRITORY
    AGAINST AN INVADING ARMY IS NOT A VIOLATION OF
    THE PLEDGE

170
TRI-POLAR DETERRENCE
  • TWO PRONGED STRATEGY TO DETER RUSSIA AND US
  • CAN MATERIALLY INCREASE THE NUMBER OF TARGETS IT
    CAN ATTACK IN SHORT SPAN OF TIME

171
OWL NEWS MONDAY
172
CATEGORISATION OF THREAT
  • INTERNAL
  • MINORITIES
  • LIBERALISATION
  • CHANGING CULTURAL VALUES

173
CATEGORISATION OF THREAT
  • EXTERNAL
  • USA - OPEN ADVERSARY
  • JAPAN - POWERFUL RESURGENT ADVERSARY
  • VIETNAM - UNPREDICTABLE ACE HITMAN

174
CATEGORISATION OF THREAT
  • EXTERNAL
  • RUSSIA - POWERFUL THREATENING FORCE
  • INDIA - NEO-NUCLEAR WITH ADVANCING MISSILE
    TECHNOLOGY

175
CHINESE GEOPOLITICAL FACETS
  • EXTREME POSSESSIVE ATTITUDE TO HER TERRITORIES
  • SENSITIVENESS TO SECESSIONERY TENDENCIES

176
SUPPORT TO SECESSIONIST MOVEMENT
  • HAS LARGE ETHNIC POPULATION OF
  • KAZAKHS
  • KYRGHYS
  • TAZIKS
  • UIGHURS

177
SUPPORT TO SECESSIONIST MOVEMENT
  • MOSTLY MUSLIMS AND SHARE CULTURAL AND RELIGIOUS
    LINKS WITH CARs
  • RISE OF TALIBAN ALARMED THESE STATES

178
SUPPORT TO SECESSIONIST MOVEMENT
  • LESS LIKELY TO SUPPORT THESE MINORITIES
  • SHANGHAI TREATY STOP SPONSORING THESE GROUPS

179
TIBET
  • CONQUERED BY MONGOLS IN 13TH CENTURY
  • CAME UNDER MANCHU CONTROL IN 18TH CENTURY

180
CRITICAL DEFICIENCIES IN MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF
CHINA
  • EQUIPMENT IS 10-20 YEARS BEHIND THAT OF THE WEST
  • MILITARY COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT OUTDATED

181
CRITICAL DEFICIENCIES IN MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF
CHINA
  • LACKS INTEGRATED AIRBORNE WARNING AND CONTROL
    SYSTEM (AWACS) FORCE
  • UAVs ARE UNDER DEVELOPMENT

182
CRITICAL DEFICIENCIES IN MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF
CHINA
  • SYSTEMS - INTEGRATION SKILLS ARE POOR
  • INADEQUATE MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES AND
    NON-EXISTENT INTEGRATED LOGISTIC SUPPORT

183
PROGRESS MADE
  • SOME AREAS OF COMMAND AND CONTROL
  • CRUISE MISSILE TECHNOLOGY

184
CONTROL OF SLOC IN IOR REGION
  • NAVAL CONFLICT IN BAY OF BENGAL LESS LIKELY
  • SLOCs ARE IMPORTANT FOR US AND WESTERN POWERS IN
    THIS REGION

185
LAND THREAT
  • INTEGRATED WAR IN THREE DIMENSIONS AIR LAND
    BATTLE
  • USE OF AIR, HELIBORNE, AIRBORNE AND SPECIAL
    FORCES IN A SIMULTANEOUS DEEP BATTLE
  • TRAINING IN NBC SCENARIOS, BOTH IN OFFENCE AND
    DEFENCE

186
MARITIME THREAT
  • REGARDS INDIA AS A POTENTIAL COMPETITOR FOR
    CONTROL IN SOUTH EAST ASIA AND AS THE
    PRINCIPLE ADVERSARY ACROSS MALACCA STRAITS
  • HER INTERESTS IN THE INDIAN OCEAN ARE LONG-TERM
    AND STRATEGIC

187
POLICY IN THE BAY OF BENGAL
  • TO DEVELOP RELATIONS WITH MYANMAR - LAND BASED
    ACCESS IN BAY OF BENGAL
  • TO DEVELOP A BLUE-WATER CAPABILITY
  • TO LIMIT INDIAN NAVAL FORCE PROJECTION TO THE
    WEST OF SINGAPORE

188
Military Counter Measures
189
MILITARY COUNTER MEASURES
  • INDIAN ARMED FORCES UNDER CONSTRAINTS OF
    BUDGETING
  • UNLIKELY TO GROW IN SIZE

190
MILITARY COUNTER MEASURES
  • CHINA RECOGNISED THE NEED TO REDUCE MANPOWER
  • PLA HAS LESS ECONOMIC LIMITATIONS
  • INDIAN ARMED FORCES RESTRUCTURE ITSELF TO SUIT
    POLITICAL ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

191
INDIAN RESPONSE TO CHINESE THREAT IN 21ST CENTURY
  • RESTRUCTURING AND RESIZING THE ARMY
  • DEVELOPMENT AND ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGICAL FORCE
    MULTIPLIERS
  • INTEGRATED STRATEGIC AND TACTICAL C4I2 SYSTEMS

192
INDIAN RESPONSE TO CHINESE THREAT IN 21ST CENTURY
  • DEVELOPMENT AND ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGICAL FORCE
    MULTIPLIERS
  • BETTER RADARS, SAMS, SSMS, UAVS,
  • AIR-TO- AIR REFUELLING
  • INTEGRATED LOGISTICS

193
INDIAN RESPONSE TO CHINESE THREAT IN 21ST CENTURY
  • DEVELOPMENT OF CREDIBLE RAPID DEPLOYMENT AND
    AMPHIBIOUS CAPABILITY OF A DIVISION EACH
  • DOCTRINAL SHIFT TO INFO-AGE WARFARE

194
OWL NEWS MONDAY
195
SPOT WHATS WRONG CONTEST
  • SPOT WHATS WRONG IN THE PHOTOGRAPH WE SHOW YOU.
  • 100 EARLY BIRD PRIZES.
  • FIRST TEN CORRECT ENTRIES. FREE TRIP TO PYKARA,
    ALL EXPENSES PAID.
  • WINNER FREE MSC DEGREE
  • ONE BUMPER PRIZE. PSC QUALIFICATION.

196
CHINESE AIR FORCE
197
SEND IN YOUR ENTRIES TO
  • CHINA STUDY CELL C/O AIR WING DSSC WELLINGTON
    TAMILNADU.

198
P A R T I V
199
FOREIGN POLICY OF CHINA
200
SINO - RUSSIA
201
SINO RUSSIA
  • SITUATION CHANGED WITH THE FORMATION OF THE CIS
  • RUSSIA APPRECIATED THAT CHINA COULD BECOME AN
    IMPORTANT ALLY IN THIS NEW UNI-POLAR WORLD ORDER
  • CHINA HAD MONEY POWER AND RUSSIA HAD THE
    TECHNOLOGY

202
HISTORICAL AGREEMENT
  • ALL CONTROVERSIES AND BORDER DISPUTES WERE TO BE
    SETTLED BY PEACEFUL MEANS
  • CEDING OF TERRITORIES TO EACH OTHER AND REDUCTION
    OF TROOPS AT THE BORDERS

203
HISTORICAL AGREEMENT
  • MODEL TREATY FOR SETTLING BORDER DISPUTES BETWEEN
    VARIOUS NATIONS

204
RUSSIA
CHINA
STRATEGIC TRIANGLE
?
INDIA
205
SINO - JAPAN
206
SINO - JAPAN
  • HISTORICALLY JAPAN HAS BEEN A THREAT TO CHINA
  • 1978 TREATY OF PEACE AND FRIENDSHIP
  • 1996 JAPANESE RIGHT WING GROUP LANDED ON SENKAKU
    ISLAND

207
STEPS TO NORMALIZE RELATIONS
  • PRESIDENT HASHIMOTO MET PRESIDENT JIANG ZEMIN IN
    1996
  • IN 1997 JAPAN ANNOUNCED LIFTING OF THE FREEZE OF
    GRANTS IN AID

208
STEPS TO NORMALISE RELATIONS
  • UNDERSTANDING REACHED TO EXPAND CO-OPERATION IN
    THE AREAS OF
  • HIGH TECHNOLOGY
  • INFORMATION

209
STEPS TO NORMALISE RELATIONS
  • UNDERSTANDING REACHED TO EXPAND CO-OPERATION IN
    THE AREAS OF
  • ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
  • AGRICULTURE AND INFRASTRUCTURE
  • PROMOTE SECURITY DIALOGUES
  • 33 ITEM CO-OPERATION PLAN

210
TAIWAN
211
REASONS FOR TENSIONS
  • VISIT TO CORNELL UNIVERSITY IN 1995 BY TAIWAN
    PRESIDENT LEE-TENG-HUI
  • SHIFT FROM THE AGREEMENT SIGNED BY PRESIDENT
    RICHARD NIXON IN 1972

212
TAIWANS REQUIREMENTS
  • VOTERS ON THE ISLAND FOR INDEPENDENCE
  • INTERNATIONAL RECOGNITION OF ITS SOVEREIGN STATUS
  • BECOME SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT FROM CHINA

213
RESULTS OF INTERNET SURVEY CARRIED OUT FOR
SOVEREIGNTY
  • 70.17 SAID "YES"
  • 20. 28 SAID "NO

214
CLAIM OF JURISDICTION OVER TAIWAN
  • EVERY SOVEREIGN STATE HAS THE RIGHT TO PROTECT
    ITS UNITY AND TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY
  • TAIWAN HISTORICALLY BELONGS TO CHINA

215
CLAIM OF JURISDICTION OVER TAIWAN
  • THE PROCLAMATION ISSUED AT THE CAIRO CONFERENCE
    IN 1943 STATES THAT TAIWAN BE RETURNED TO CHINA
  • TAIWAN IS CONSIDERED A PART OF CHINA BY THE
    INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY

216
WORLD POSITION ON TAIWAN
  • NO PERMISSION REQUIRED FROM CHINA TO
  • TRADE WITH TAIWAN
  • TRANSIT PEOPLE, AIRCRAFT AND SHIPS TO AND FROM
    TAIWAN

217
WORLD POSITION ON TAIWAN
  • CHINAS CLAIM OVER TAIWAN IS FACTUALLY WEAK
  • NO IMMEDIATE ANSWER

218
SINO US
219
SINO-US RELATIONS
  • DECISION OF THE US TO SUPPORT CHIANG-KAI SHEK IN
    HIS STRUGGLE AGAINST MAO
  • KOREAN CONFLICT OF 1950

220
SINO-US RELATIONS
  • EISENHOWER'S THREAT TO USE NUCLEAR WEAPON
  • US SUPPLY OF ARMS AND EQUIPMENT TO TAIWAN

221
RELATIONS NOW
  • RICHARD NIXON CONSIDERABLY IMPROVED THEIR
    RELATIONS
  • THE MILITARY TIES WERE STRENGTHENED IN THE LATE
    70s

222
RELATIONS NOW
  • CHINA CONSIDERS USA MORE AS A FRIEND THAN AN ALLY
  • USA ON THE OTHER HAND, SEES CHINA AS AN EMERGING
    MARKET FOR HER GOODS

223
AMERICAN POLICY
  • BASED ON 1979 TAIWAN RELATIONS ACT
  • BEIJING OPPOSED INTERFERENCE IN DOMESTIC POLITICS
  • LIKELY DANGER TO SINO-US RELATIONS

224
SINO - EU
225
CHINA -EU
  • CHINA IS THE THIRD LARGEST NON-EUROPEAN TRADING
    PARTNER FOR THE EU
  • THE EU BACKS CHINA'S TRANSITION TOWARDS AN OPEN
    SOCIETY BASED UPON THE RULE OF LAW

226
AREAS OF MUTUAL CO-OPERATION
  • REGIONAL CO-OPERATION
  • ENVIRONMENTAL AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  • ARMS CONTROL AND NON-PROLIFERATION
  • REDUCTION IN CROSS BORDER CRIMES

227
SINO - SRILANKA
228
FOREIGN POLICY
  • ATTITUDE WAS DETERMINED BY THREE MAJOR FACTORS
  • SRI LANKA'S CLOSE ASSOCIATION WITH UNITED KINGDOM
  • DOMESTIC POLITICS
  • SOVIET UNIONS VETO OF SRI LANKA'S ADMISSION TO
    THE UNITED NATIONS

229
SRI LANKAS VIEW
  • INTENSE DISLIKE FOR COMMUNISM
  • A NEW POWER PATTERN WITH INDIA AS THE DOMINANT
    POWER IN THE SUBCONTINENT
  • WELCOMES COUNTER POISE TO INDIA'S POWER AND
    INFLUENCE

230
SINO- MYANMAR
231
CHINA'S POLICY
  • STAGES OF CHINAS POLICY
  • MYANMAR PRO-WEST
  • ACCUSED U Nu AS STOOGE OF US
  • THE WHITE FLAG COMMUNIST MOVEMENT
  • CHINA'S MOVE TO RESTORE STATUS QUO

232
MYANMARS RESPONSE
  • WITHDREW FROM THE NON-ALIGNMENT MOVEMENT
  • RECEPTIVE TO CHINAS NEEDS TO WARD OFF THREATS OF
    REBELS
  • CHINESE HAVE OBTAINED BASE FACILITIES FROM
    MYANMAR AT HANGYI ISLANDS AND COCO ISLAND

233
SINO BANGLADESH
234
BACKGROUND
  • CHINA NEVER SUPPORTED THE BANGLA MOVEMENT FOR
    INDEPENDENCE
  • RECOGNISED BANGLADESH AS LATE AS 1975

235
PRESENT SITUATION
  • CHINA IS MAJOR SUPPLIER OF ARMS
  • ACTIVE CO-OPERATION BETWEEN CHINA AND BANGLADESH

236
SINO - NEPAL
237
CHINA NEPAL RELATIONS
  • HISTORICAL LINKS
  • GEO-CONTIGUOUS STATES
  • LOFTY HIMALAYAS AS INSULATION

238
CHINA NEPAL RELATIONS
  • LOCATION STRATEGIC
  • NEPAL A BUFFER STATE

239
SINO - PAK
240
CHINA PAKISTAN RELATIONS
  • FIRST MUSLIM COUNTRY TO RECOGNISE PRC
  • PAKISTAN GAVE AWAY 2050 SQ KM OF POK
  • PIA FIRST AIRLINE OPERATING TO BEIJING

241
CHINESE ROLE IN THE 1965 INDO-PAK WAR
  • CHINA HELD INDIA SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR CONFLICT
  • SUPPORTED KASHMIRIS RIGHT TO SELF-DETERMINATION

242
CHINESE ROLE IN THE 1965 INDO-PAK WAR
  • ACCUSED UN OF ACTING TO PAKISTAN'S DETRIMENT
  • REACTED VIOLENTLY IN SIKKIM

243
CHINA'S POLICY ON PAKISTAN
  • AGGRESSIVE EXPANSION / DIPLOMATIC MANOEUVRING
    AIMED TO -
  • DOMINATE SOUTH ASIA
  • INTEGRATE THE SOUTH ASIAN ECONOMY WITH HER OWN
  • SUPPLICATE US INFLUENCE IN ASIA

244
BENEFITS TO PAKISTAN
  • DIPLOMATIC SUPPORT
  • MILITARY EQUIPMENT IN LARGE AMOUNTS

245
BENEFITS TO PAKISTAN
  • ASSISTANCE IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION AND DEFENCE
    PRODUCTION
  • TRANSFER OF INTERMEDIATE BALLISTIC MISSILES LIKE
    THE M-11 SRBMS ETC

246
SINO - INDIA
247
CHINA - INDIA
  • INDIA AND CHINA EMERGED AS POLITICAL ENTITIES AT
    THE SAME TIME
  • INDIA - PEACEFUL DEMOCRATIC NON - ALIGNED COUNTRY
  • CHINA - MODERN COMMUNIST NATION

248
RELATIONS
  • NEVER FOLLOWED ANY UNIFORM PATTERN
  • SINO-INDIAN RELATIONS BEST UNDERSTOOD BY DIVIDING
    IT INTO DIFFERENT PERIODS

249
PERIOD FROM 1947-50
  • PT JAWAHARLAL NEHRU DESCRIBED CHINA AS "A MIGHTY
    COUNTRY WITH A MIGHTY PAST"
  • INDIA RECOGNISED THE PRC IN DEC 1949

250
PERIOD FROM 1950-54
  • CHANGES IN RELATIONS FROM IDEOLOGICAL DISTANCE TO
    STATE OF FRIENDSHIP DESPITE
  • KOREAN WAR
  • TAKE OVER OF TIBET BY THE PLA

251
PERIOD OF HINDI-CHINI-BHAI-BHAI
  • SOCIO-CULTURAL EXCHANGES
  • CHINESE INCURSIONS IN NORTHERN FRONTIERS
  • 1956 57 ROAD ACROSS AKSAI - CHIN

252
PERIOD FROM 1959 - 62
  • IN JAN 1959 CHOU EN LAI CHALLENGED ESTABLISHED
    BOUNDARY BETWEEN INDIA AND CHINA
  • IN SEP 1959 CLAIMED 50,000 SQ MILES OF INDIAN
    TERRITORY

253
PERIOD FROM 1959 - 62
  • IN 1962 CHINA MOUNTED A FULL-FLEDGED ATTACK ON
    INDIA
  • CHINA MOVED CLOSER TO PAKISTAN SUPPORTED HER
    IN 1965, 71 WARS WITH INDIA

254
PERIOD SINCE 1976
  • IN 1976 DIPLOMATIC TIES RESUMED
  • MODEST LINKS IN TRADE, BANKING AND SHIPPING
    RE-ESTABLISHED
  • IN 1988 JOINT WORKING GROUP SET UP TO SOLVE THE
    BORDER DISPUTES

255
HURDLES IN RELATIONS
  • CHINA DOES NOT RECOGNISE MAC MAHON LINE
  • SIKKIM AND ARUNACHAL ARE NOT RECOGNISED BY CHINA
    AS PARTS OF INDIA
  • AKSAI CHIN STANDS IN THE WAY

256
HURDLES IN RELATIONS
  • OVERT AND COVERT SUPPORT BY CHINA TO PAKISTAN
  • CHINA SEES INDIA AS A MAJOR RIVAL IN SE ASIA

257
HURDLES IN RELATIONS
  • JOINED HANDS WITH PAKISTAN TO INTERNATIONALISE
    THE KASHMIR ISSUE
  • CHINA'S MILITARY BASES IN MYANMAR AND TIBET
  • INDIA'S NUCLEAR TESTS NOT LIKED BY CHINA

258
HURDLES IN RELATIONS
  • INDIA MUST SIGN THE CTBT AND THE NPT
    UNCONDITIONALLY
  • INDIA'S SUPPORT TO THE DALAI LAMA

259
PART V
260
CHINA CRYSTAL GAZING
261
  • A first- rate theory predicts a second- rate
    theory forbids and a third- rate theory explains
    after the event.
  • Alexander Isaakovich Kitaigordskii
  •  

262
PRO DEMOCRACY
  • ELECTIONS AT VILLAGE AND LOCAL LEVELS
  •   KEEN INTEREST IN INDIAN DEMOCRACY
  • DEMOCRACY AN ACCEPTABLE FORM OF GOVERNMENT
  • TINNANMEN SQUARE INCIDENT AND COLLAPSE OF
    ERSTWHILE USSR

263
ANTI DEMOCRACY
  •    Communism more suited to manage large
    countries like China
  •    
  • Common man not interested in democracy

264
POLITICAL SCENARIO
  • EMERGING MULTI-POLAR WORLD
  • INDIA SHOULD MAINTAIN EQUI-DISTANCE
  • INDO-RUSSIAN-CHINA AXIS

265
POLITICAL SCENARIO
  • INDIA IS IN THE PERIPHERAL VISION OF CHINA
  • SINO-INDIAN RELATIONSHIP--THE POWER FOR ASIANS
    THEORY
  • LIKELY ADMISSION IN G-8 AND THE WTO

266
FUTURE
  • DREAM OF GREATER CHINA
  • GREAT MILITARY POWER
  • BEFRIEND PAKISTAN
  • CONFRONTATION WITH ASEAN

267
The 17th century has been described as the age of
reason the 18th as of enlightenment 19th as of
progress and the 20th as one of anxiety and
extremes My hunch is that 21st century would be
a century of uncertainty
  • KR NARAYANAN

268
CONCLUSION
269
TRENDS IN SINO INDIA RELATIONS
  • THE JOINT WORKING GROUP , AGREED IN DISENGAGEMENT
    OF TROOPS IN THE ARUNACHAL PRADESH AREA
  • INDIAS CONCERNS ABOUT CHINESE INTENTIONS

270
INDIAN CONCERNS ABOUT CHINESE INTENTIONS
  • TIBET
  • MYANMAR
  • PAKISTAN

271
POSITIVE ASPECTS OF SINO-INDIAN RELATIONS
  • CHINA'S STAND ON KASHMIR PORTRAYED DURING THE
    KARGIL CRISIS
  • CHINA SUPPORTING INDIA'S BID FOR A NON-PERMANENT
    SEAT IN THE UN SECURITY COUNCIL

272
POSITIVE ASPECTS OF SINO-INDIAN RELATIONS
  • SHARE THE SAME SECURITY PERCEPTION ARISING OUT OF
    AFGHANISTAN AND CENTRAL ASIA
  • STRONG COMMITMENT TO ESTABLISH PEACE AND
    TRANQUILLITY ON THE SINO-INDIAN BORDER

273
MAJOR CULTURAL LANDMARKS OF CHINA
  • DISCOVERY OF WRITING - SHANG PERIOD (1523-1028
    BC)
  • PHILOSOPHICAL AGE OF ZHOU (1027 -526 BC)
  • MAGNETIC COMPASS AND PAPER (202 - 220 BC)

274
MAJOR CULTURAL LANDMARKS OF CHINA
THE CHANG PERIOD (618-906 AD) AGE OF CULTURAL
EXCELLENCE THE SUNG PERIOD 960-1279 AD)MOVING
TYPE AND PRINTING THE MONGOLIAN PERIOD
(1260-1368AD)
275
MAJOR CULTURAL LANDMARKS OF CHINA
MING PERIOD (1368-1644 AD) COMMISSIONING OF
YUNG-LO ENCYCLOPAEDIA PHILOSOPHICAL AGE OF
ZHOU (1027 -526 BC)
276
TERRITORIAL DISPUTES
  • BOUNDARY DISPUTE WITH RUSSIA
  • SINO-INDIAN BOUNDARY DISPUTE
  • SINO-VIETNAMESE DISPUTE
  • BOUNDARY DISPUTE WITH JAPAN AND CHINA

277
SINO - INDIAN BOUNDARY DISPUTE
  • CHINA SHARES A 2400-MILE BORDER WITH INDIA
  • 128,000 SQ KM OF TERRITORY STILL DISPUTED
  • PROBLEM STEMS FROM THE MARKING OF THE MCMAHON LINE

278
SINO-RUSSIAN BOUNDARY DISPUTE
  • DISPUTE IS OVER A SECTION OF THE CHINESE
    MANCHURIAN BORDER
  • CREATED BY THE UNEQUAL SINO-RUSSIAN TREATIES OF
    THE 19TH CENTURY
  • MOST PROBLEMS HAVE BEEN SORTED OUT

279
SINO - VIETNAMESE DISPUTE
  • THE SINO VIETNAMESE DISPUTE REVOLVES AROUND
  • THE LAND BOUNDARIES
  • CLAIMS OVER THE PARCEL AND SPARTLEY ISLANDS

280
BOUNDARY DISPUTES WITH JAPAN AND TAIWAN
  • CENTRES ON A GROUP OF ISLANDS TO THE NORTH-WEST
    OF TAIWAN
  • THESE ISLANDS ARE REFERRED TO AS THE SENKAKUS BY
    JAPAN, DEAOYUDO BY CHINA AND DIAOVUTAI BY TAIWAN

281
Political Counter Measures
282
STRATEGIC COUNTER MEASURES
  • OPEN VIABLE NUCLEAR OPTION
  • A CLEAR AND TRANSPARENT NUCLEAR DOCTRINE IS
    ESSENTIAL
  • IMPROVEMENT OF RELATIONS WITH SUPERPOWERS
  • DEVELOP INDIAN ECONOMY

283
CHINESE CONCERNS
  • IMPROVEMENT OF RELATIONS WITH OUR NEIGHBOURS
  • INDIA NEEDS TO BE WISE IN ITS DEALINGS WITH
    THE MANY NASCENT NATIONS AND POWER GROUPS
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