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Awakenings%20

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Title: Awakenings%20


1
Awakenings Enlightenments
  • pp. 91-98

2
Pattern of Religions
  • Variety in colonial America
  • Difficult to impose any one religion on any large
    area
  • Church of England in VA, MD, NY, NC, SC, GA
  • Increased variety in Christian denominations
  • Catholics Jews remained religious minorities
    suffered persecution

3
The Great Awakening
  • Concerns about declining piety (reverence for
    God) increased secularism
  • Began with increased religious fervor,
    1730s-1740s
  • Esp. appealed to women younger sons
  • Reflected desire to break away from families and
    start a new life

4
Great Awakening
  • Evangelists
  • John Charles Wesley-Methodism
  • George Whitefield-see link
  • Jonathan Edwards-Puritan
  • Led to divisions between New Light revivalists
    Old Light traditionalists
  • Some revivalists said book learning was a
    hindrance to salvation
  • G.A. caused a great upheaval in the culture of
    colonies

5
Enlightenment
  • Result of scientific intellectual discoveries
  • In competition with the Great Awakening
  • Natural laws regulated workings of nature
  • Francis Bacon, John Locke older ideas
  • Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas
    Paine, James Madison were newer thinkers
  • Human reason
  • Created progress advanced knowledge

6
Enlightenment
  • Increased emphasis on the importance of
    education, politics, government
  • Encouraged one to look at oneself, rather than
    look to God for guidance

7
Education
  • Emphasis on education in colonies, but work often
    interfered
  • MA law in 1647 required every town to have a
    school
  • Quakers set up church schools
  • Apprentices learned from craftsmen in cities
    evening schools
  • Few children went beyond primary school years
  • Literacy rates in colonies were higher than in
    Europe
  • Over ½ of white men could read and write

8
Education
  • Males had more educational opportunities, but
    females had primary home schooling and higher
    literacy rates
  • African slaves had few chances at schooling
  • Literacy discouraged, so there was no questioning
    of status
  • Most Natives preferred to educate their children
    in their own way
  • Due to increased literacy, almanacs were
    published and circulated (p. 94-95)

9
First Colleges
  • Tied to religion training of preachers but had
    wide-ranging curricula
  • Logic, ethics, physics, geometry, astronomy,
    Latin, Greek, etc.
  • Harvard, 1636, MA
  • William Mary, 1693, VA
  • Yale, 1701, CT
  • College of New Jersey (Princeton), 1746
  • Kings College (Columbia), 1754, NY
  • Academy of College of Philadelphia (Penn, Ben
    Fr.)
  • Offered mechanics, chem., agri., govt.,
    commerce, languages, 1st medical school

10
The Spread of Science
  • Increased interest in scientific knowledge
  • At colleges
  • By amateurs scientific societies
  • Ben FranklinKite experiment proved that
    lightning electricity were the same invented
    the lightning rod
  • Cotton MatherInoculation against small pox

11
Concepts of Law Politics
  • In comparison to England court procedures were
    simpler punishments were different
  • Stocks, branding irons, whipping posts, ducking
    stools
  • Royal government was far away, so colonies had a
    large measure of self-rule
  • Voted for colonial assemblies
  • Royal governors had limited powers
  • Colonies largely were independent of Parliament
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