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Classification

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Classification grouping of different types of organisms based upon similarities in structure and evolutionary relationships – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classification


1
Classification
  • grouping of different types of organisms based
    upon similarities in structure and evolutionary
    relationships

2
WHY CLASSIFY?
  • In order to more easily study the unity and
    diversity of living organisms in an organized
    manner, biologists classify organisms
  • This means that they group organisms together
    based on their common characteristics
  • Physical structure is often the primary basis for
    biological classification

3
Early classification
  • Animals Plants
  • With the discovery of the MICROSCOPE in the
    1600s many new organisms were discovered
  • This was the basis for the change in the
    classification system

4
BIONOMIAL NOMENCLATURE
  • Carolus Linneaus devised binomial nomenclature
  • (2 names in Latin) Genus-Species
  • ex. scientific name of humans ..... Homo sapiens
  • Homo is the genus name .... sapiens is the
    species name
  • Both have to be printed in italics or underlined
  • -Genus is ALWAYS capitalized

5
MODERN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
  • KINGDOM
  • PHYLLUM
  • CLASS
  • ORDER
  • FAMILY
  • GENUS
  • SPECIES

6
HOW TO REMEMBER THAT
  • KING PHILIP CAME OVER FOR GOOD SOUP

7
KINGDOMS
  • The 6 Kingdom System is based on the following
    criteria
  • 1. Presence or absence of a nuclear membrane
  • 2. Unicellularity versus multicellularity
  • 3. Type of nutrition

8
Archaebacteria
  • most primitive and often live in extreme
    environments
  • LIVE IN UNUSUALLY HARSH ENVIRONMENTS
  • unicellular and no nucleus
  • This is the Proposed 6th KINGDOM
  • There are 3 types
  • salt loving, heat loving methane loving

9
Kingdom Monera
  • bacteria and blue green algae
  • have a primitive cell structure
  • no organized nucleus or nuclear membrane
  • Three basic types of bacteria
  • Coccus-
  • Baccillus-
  • Spirillum-

10
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11
Kingdom Protista
  • Predominately unicellular organisms with plant or
    animal-like characteristics
  • examples include protozoa and all algae except
    the blue-green
  • have a true nucleus and nuclear membrane
  • Classification of Protists Most protozoa are
    motile (CAN MOVE) and are divided into phyla
    based on their means of LOCOMOTION

12
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13
  • Animal-like Protists
  • Often animal like Protists are called PROTOZOA
  • They can live in fresh or salt water, in the
    soil, or in the bodies of other organisms
  • Plant-like Protists
  • Plant-like Protists are commonly called ALGAE
  • They contain chloroplasts and are therefore
    AUTOTROPHIC

14
Spirogyra
  • plant-like Protists that contains thread-like
    filaments of chloroplasts
  • They may reproduce asexually by MITOSIS or
    sexually by CONJUGATION

15
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16
Plant and Animal like Protists
  • The Euglena
  • exhibits both animal-like and Plant-like
    characteristics
  • contains chloroplasts, which are involved in
    PHOTOSYNTHESIS
  • contains a flagellum, which is used for
    LOCOMOTION
  • euglena may be autotrophic or heterotrophic
    depending on the environment
  • In a light environment euglena would be
    AUTOTROPHIC
  • In a dark environment the euglena would be
    HETEROTROPHIC

17
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18
KINGDOM FUNGI
  • examples include yeasts, molds, and mushrooms
  • cells are usually organized into branched,
    multinucleate filaments which absorb digested
    food from the external environment
  • Mushrooms are made up of a network of tubes
    called HYPHAE

19
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20
Kingdom Plantae
  • multicellular - possess chloroplasts and cell
    walls
  • make their own food - PHOTOSYNTHESIS
  • Reproduce sexually can be asexual
  • Vascular plants are more advanced - they have
    evolved specialized tissues, xylem, which is
    involved in structural support and water
    conduction, and phloem, which functions in food
    conduction
  • Nonvascular plants are usually no more than an
    inch or two in height because they do not have
    adequate support, which is provided by vascular
    tissues to other plants, to grow bigger

21
ONION CELLS FROM LAB NOTE THE BOXY SHAPE OF
PLANT CELLS THE DISTINCT CELL WALL
22
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23
Kingdom Animalia
  • multi-cellular organisms which ingest their food
    HETEROTROPHS
  • Reproduce sexually

24
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25
Viruses
  • not classified in a kingdom
  • contain genetic material (DNA) but lack cell
    structures
  • only carry on the life function of reproduction
  • They must have a host (another living organism)
    to be able to reproduce
  • This causes disease in the host (Ex colds,
    rabies, AIDS, flu)

26
Bacteriophages invade the host cell, take over
the cell, and begin replicating viruses,
eventually lysing or bursting the host cell,
releasing the new viruses to infect additional
cells
Papillomavirus is a DNA virus that causes warts
POLIO VIRUS
27
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