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Medieval Art/Architecture


Medieval Art/Architecture This time period was broken down into 3 Periods: 1) Early Medieval Art 475-1050 AD 2) Romanesque Art 1050-1300 AD 3) Gothic Art 1150-1500 AD ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Medieval Art/Architecture

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • This time period was broken down
    into 3 Periods
  • 1) Early Medieval Art 475-1050 AD
  • 2) Romanesque Art 1050-1300 AD
  • 3) Gothic Art 1150-1500 AD (Gets its own chapter)

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • 1) The Middle Ages was also known as the Dark
  • 2) During this time, many things about modern
    times were born
  • a) Parliamentary government
  • b) Common Law
  • c) Present day language
  • d) Modern nation states

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • 3) The church became VERY important during this
    time period
  • 4) Charles the Great also known as Charlemagne
    was largely responsible for the great
    accomplishments during the Carolingian dynasty.
  • a) Became the 1st of the Holy Roman Emperors
  • b) He encouraged learning and the arts
  • c) Students learned math, grammar and psalms.
  • d) His greatest achievement was preserving
    ancient manuscripts.
  • 5) Feudalism was a system in which weak
    noblemen gave up their lands and much of their
    freedom to more powerful lords in return for

Medieval Art/Architecture
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Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Churches and Monasteries
  • 1) Many of the churches were designed after Roman
    models. The Roman civic basilica continued to
    be the popular type of structure for religious
  • 2) Some changes were made to the old style of the
    basilicas. For example
  • a) A Transept was added. This was another aisle
    that cut directly across the nave and side
  • 3) Most of the churches built during this time
    were made of wood so they no longer exist.

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Churches and Monasteries
  • 4) Monasticism This is a way of life in which
    individuals gathered together to spend their days
    in prayer and self-denial. This became important
    during this time.
  • 5) Architecture/structures of Monasteries
  • a) Outside Look Thick stone walls and small
  • b) Inside Look Damp, dark, torches for
    lighting, arched doorways and cloisters.
  • 6) Cloister an open court or garden and the
    covered walkway surrounding it.

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Manuscript
  • 1) This style of art captures this time period
  • 2) Until the printing press was invented
    (Renaissance time), ALL books were copied by
  • 3) It was usually done by monks in monasteries.

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Manuscript Illumination
  • 4) Monks used sliver, gold and other rich colors
    to paint these- Illumination Manuscript
  • 5) The monks brought inspiration and skill to
    their work.
  • 6) Through out this period, manuscripts of the
    Gospels were illustrated. Symbols were used so
    the reader could identify each of the Gospel
  • a) Matthew- Angel
  • b) Mark-Lion
  • c) Luke-Bull
  • d) John-Eagle
  • Ex. The painting of St. Matthew (Carolingian
    Manuscript) pg. 3

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Manuscript Illumination
  • 7) The church was the center of this time period,
    the importance of these manuscripts was to get
    the message of faith across.
  • a) Written part was for those who could read.
  • b) Illustrated part was for those who couldnt
  • 8) Artists also expressed these religious
    messages through carvings and reliefs.

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Romanesque Period
  • The Romanesque was especially apparent in the
  • 1) Feudalism became very important during this
    time period
  • a) Land was the only source of wealth and power.
  • b) Land was very limited.
  • c) Nobles, lords and kings fought constantly
    over land.
  • d) Because of the limited land, fighting, etc.
    this caused many of the nobles, lords, etc. to
    build castles.

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Romanesque Period
  • 2) Castles were considered TOWERS OF STONE
    consisting of towers, walls, moats, and
  • Castles although were NOT pleasant places to

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Romanesque Castles
  • There were SEVERAL reasons why life in a castle
    was so hard
  • a) The main purpose was for defense NOT living.
  • b) There were NO windows-The outer walls had
    only slots.
  • c) Stairs were very steep.
  • d) Passage ways were dark and narrow.
  • e) Rooms were always drafty and were sparsely
    furnished or decorated.

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Romanesque Castles
  • f) The only warmth came from fireplaces, and
    the largest fireplace was always located in the
    Great Hall.
  • g) Great Hall was where the family gathered and
    meals were served here.
  • h) One type of simple decoration that was used
    often was Tapestries are textile wall hangings
    that were woven, painted or embroidered with
    colorful scenes.
  • They were also used to keep out the dampness.

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Romanesque Castles

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Growth of Cities
  • 1) Soon the growth of trade and industry
    brought about and economy based on and no longer
    on land so castles became outdated, because
    cities began to emerge.
  • 2) These cities still needed protection so
    they constructed barricades that were 1st
    constructed of wood but were later replaced by
    stone barricades.

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Growth of Cities
  • 3) A great example of this type of city with
    protection, is the historic city of Avila of
  • It was considered one of the most ambitious
    military constructions of the Middle Ages.
  • 4) Soon space within these cities became crowded
    so buildings were built higher and sometimes up
    to 7 stories!

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Romanesque Churches
  • ALL of these new cities had something in
    common At the center of EACH city was a church.
  • 1) The church increased its influence on the
    daily lives of people.
  • 2) During this period, the churches were richly
    decorated and this was because it was a testimony
    of the power of the church.

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Romanesque Churches
  • 3) Pilgrimages became huge during this time
  • a) Pilgrimage is a journey to a holy place.
  • b) These journeys were a visible sign of
    religious devotion.
  • 4) The pilgrimage route was/ran from southern
    France to northern Spain.
  • a) Along this route many churches were
  • 5) The traditional Roman Basilica plan was used
    BUT the churches were made larger to be able to
    hold great s of people/pilgrims.

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Romanesque Churches

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Romanesque Churches
  • 6) Modifications were made to these churches,
    primarily to increase the size of the church.
  • a) Both the Nave and Transept were extended and
    added 2 more aisles, one on each side.
  • 7) A new addition to these churches was an
    Ambulatory An aisle curving around behind the
    main altar.
  • a) This made it easier for pilgrims to process
    through the church.

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Romanesque Churches
  • 8) To accommodate the many priests who gave mass
    everyday at these churches, additional altars
    were also placed in small curved chapels along
    the transept and ambulatory.
  • 9) Using a series of round arches to construct a
    barrel vault, thick solid walls and pillars for
    support was the typical architecture of these

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • The Church of Saint Sernin in Toulouse
  • France was where the Romanesque style reached
    its peak and this church STRONGLY illustrates
  • Outside
  • 1) Appears Large 1) Spacious
  • 2) Solid 2) Dark, gloomy
  • 3) Reminds viewers 3) Has a
    wide Nave
  • of a castle

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • The Church of Saint Sernin in Toulouse
  • Outside Inside
  • 4) Massive walls 4) 2 aisles
  • 5) Small windows 5) Majestic arcade of arches
  • 6) Durable leading
    from the main entrance to the altar
  • 6) Rounded ceiling of the Barrel Vault
  • 7) The Layout of the church
  • creates a cross.
  • 8) The Nave, side aisles, transept, apse
    and Ambulatory is identifiable

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • The Church of Saint Sernin in Toulouse

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Sculptures
  • 1) Many of the churches located along the
    Pilgrimage routes used Relief Sculptures as a
    method to teach the faith.
  • This was because many people during this time
    were illiterate.
  • 2) Many of these relief sculptures were stories
    from Scripture.

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Sculptures
  • 3) 2 VERY important locations in and outside the
    church for these relief sculptures were
  • A) Tympanumthe ½ round panel that fills the
    space between the lintel and the arch over the
    doorway of the church.
  • 1) Most people when they entered the church
    naturally looked up, so this was a great location
    for relief sculptures.
  • 2) The Tympanum was set up in a manor where a
    major subject (Ex. Christ) was placed in the
    center and smaller subjects (apostles, etc.) on
    either side.
  • 3) Many Tympanums displayed the Last Judgement

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Tympanum

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Sculpture
  • 3) 2 VERY important locations in and outside the
    church for these relief sculptures were
  • B) The capitols of the columns inside the church
    contained relief sculptures as well.

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Sculpture
  • 4) It was very important to fit as many stories
    as possible into the spaces available on the
    front of these churches.
  • Ex. Santa Maria in Sanguesa, Spain
  • 5) Many of these scenes/stories were about
    saints, Mary, Christ, and angels.

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Sculpture
  • 6) Inside these churches and in the cloisters
    contained many of these relief sculptures as
  • Ex. The Capitols of the columns
  • a) Many of these sculptures included biblical
    scenes, human figures, birds and animals.
  • b) Many sculptors who were apprentices started
    with carving these columns and then eventually
    moved up to larger sculptures.
  • 7) They used creative ways on interpreting
    religious stories, etc. (pg.325)

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Paintings
  • 1) Large wall paintings were done during
    this time period along with the relief sculptures
  • 2) There were particular areas/spaces in
    which these paintings were placed.
  • 3) They resembled the manuscript
    Illumination style
  • a) Bold use of line
  • b) Brilliant colors
  • c) Sensitive feeling for pattern

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Paintings
  • 4) Many of these paintings shared similar
  • a) Artists were mostly concerned with easy to
    understand religious symbols.
  • b) Easy to read messages
  • c) Flat looking images
  • d) Colorful shapes
  • e) Bold use of lines

Medieval Art/Architecture
  • Paintings