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Introduction to Data, Information and Knowledge Management

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Title: Introduction to Data, Information and Knowledge Management


1
Introduction to Data, Information and Knowledge
Management
  • Dr. Bhavani Thuraisingham
  • The University of Texas at Dallas
  • Data, Information and Knowledge Management
  • January 2014

2
Data Management
  • Concepts in database systems
  • Types of database systems
  • Distributed Data Management
  • Heterogeneous database integration
  • Federated data management

3
An Example Database System
Adapted from C. J. Date, Addison Wesley, 1990
4
Metadata
  • Metadata describes the data in the database
  • Example Database D consists of a relation EMP
    with attributes SS, Name, and Salary
  • Metadatabase stores the metadata
  • Could be physically stored with the database
  • Metadatabase may also store constraints and
    administrative information
  • Metadata is also referred to as the schema or
    data dictionary

5
Functional Architecture
Data Management
User Interface Manager
Schema (Data Dictionary) Manager (metadata)
Security/ Integrity Manager
Query Manager
Transaction Manager
Storage Management
File Manager
Disk Manager
6
DBMS Design Issues
  • Query Processing
  • Optimization techniques
  • Transaction Management
  • Techniques for concurrency control and recovery
  • Metadata Management
  • Techniques for querying and updating the
    metadatabase
  • Security/Integrity Maintenance
  • Techniques for processing integrity constraints
    and enforcing access control rules
  • Storage management
  • Access methods and index strategies for efficient
    access to the database

7
Types of Database Systems
  • Relational Database Systems
  • Object Database Systems
  • Deductive Database Systems
  • Other
  • Real-time, Secure, Parallel, Scientific,
    Temporal, Wireless, Functional,
    Entity-Relationship, Sensor/Stream Database
    Systems, etc.

8
Relational Database Example
Relation S S SNAME STATUS CITY S1 Smith
20 London S2 Jones 10
Paris S3 Blake 30
Paris S4 Clark 20 London S5
Adams 30 Athens Relation P P
PNAME COLOR WEIGHT CITY P1 Nut
Red 12 London P2 Bolt
Green 17 Paris P3 Screw
Blue 17 Rome P4 Screw
Red 14 London P5 Cam
Blue 12 Paris P6 Cog
Red 19 London
Relation SP S P QTY S1 P1
300 S1 P2 200 S1 P3 400 S1 P4
200 S1 P5 100 S1 P6 100 S2
P1 300 S2 P2 400 S3 P2
200 S4 P2 200 S4 P4 300 S4 P5
400
9
Example Class Hierarchy
ID Name Author Publisher
Document Class
Method2
Method1
Print-doc(ID)
Print-doc-att(ID)
Journal Subclass
Book Subclass
of Chapters
Volume
B1
10
Example Composite Object
Composite Document Object
Section 2 Object
Section 1 Object
Paragraph 1 Object
Paragraph 2 Object
11
Distributed Database System
12
Data Distribution
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13
Interoperability of Heterogeneous Database Systems
Database System A
Database System B
(Relational)
(Object- Oriented)
Network
Transparent access to heterogeneous databases -
both users and application programs Query,
Transaction processing
Database System C (Legacy)
14
Different Data Models
Network
Node A
Node B
Node C
Node D
Database
Database
Database
Database
Network Model
Object- Oriented Model
Relational Model
Hierarchical Model
Developments Tools for interoperability
commercial products Challenges Global data
model
15
Federated Database Management
Database System A
Database System B
Federation F1
Cooperating database systems yet maintaining some
degree of autonomy
Federation F2
Database System C
16
Federated Data and Policy Management
Data/Policy for Federation
Export
Export
Data/Policy
Data/Policy
Export
Data/Policy
Component
Component
Data/Policy for
Data/Policy for
Agency A
Agency C
Component
Data/Policy for
Agency B
17
Outline of Part I Information Management
  • Information Management Framework
  • Information Management Overview
  • Some Information Management Technologies
  • Knowledge Management

18
What is Information Management?
  • Information management essentially analyzes the
    data and makes sense out of the data
  • Several technologies have to work together for
    effective information management
  • Data Warehousing Extracting relevant data and
    putting this data into a repository for analysis
  • Data Mining Extracting information from the data
    previously unknown
  • Multimedia managing different media including
    text, images, video and audio
  • Web managing the databases and libraries on the
    web

19
Data Warehouse
Data Warehouse Data correlating Employees
With Medical Benefits and Projects
Could be any DBMS Usually based on the
relational data model
Users Query the Warehouse
Oracle DBMS for Employees
Sybase DBMS for Projects
Informix DBMS for Medical
20
Data Mining
21
Multimedia Information Management
Broadcast News Editor (BNE)
Video Source
Broadcast News Navigator (BNN)
Correlation
Scene Change Detection
Story GIST Theme
Broadcast Detection
Frame Classifier
Key Frame Selection
Commercial Detection
Imagery
Silence Detection
Story Segmentation
Multimedia Database Management System
Audio
Speaker Change Detection
Closed Caption Text
Token Detection
Named Entity Tagging
Closed Caption Preprocess
Web-based Search/Browse by Program, Person,
Location, ...
Segregate Video Streams
Analyze and Store Video and Metadata
22
Image Processing Example Change Detection
  • Trained Neural Network to predict new pixel
    from old pixel
  • Neural Networks good for multidimensional
    continuous data
  • Multiple nets gives range of expected values
  • Identified pixels where actual value
    substantially outside range of expected values
  • Anomaly if three or more bands (of seven) out of
    range
  • Identified groups of anomalous pixels

23
Semantic Web
  • Adapted from Tim Berners Lees description of the
    Semantic Web
  • Some Challenges Security and Privacy cut across
    all layers

24
Knowledge Management Components
Knowledge
Components of
Management
Components,
Cycle and
Technologies
Cycle
Technologies
Components
Knowledge, Creation
Expert systems
Strategies
Sharing, Measurement
Collaboration
Processes
And Improvement
Training
Metrics
Web
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