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Animal Health/Management

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Title: Animal Health/Management


1
Animal Health/Management
  • ANSC 3

2
Objectives
  • Define basic animal health terminology
  • Begin to Outline basic procedures for receiving
    and evaluating ill animals

3
Essential Question
  • What are the six areas that help evaluate animal
    health?

4
What is healthy?
  • HEALTHY Free of Disease
  • What affects health?
  • Environment
  • Diet
  • Age
  • What does healthy look like?

5
What do we look at?
  • Joints
  • Body Condition
  • Immune System Response
  • Dental Health
  • Healthy Skin and Coat
  • Digestion System

6
Joints
  • The points of connection between two bones or
    elements of a skeleton allowing for motion to
    occur
  • Joints should be limber
  • No clicking or locking
  • Can move from a sit to a stand easily
  • Gait has proper flow
  • Animal does not express pain during reflex and
    flexibility tests

7
Body Condition
  • An assessment of the animal's weight for age ,
    weight and height ratios, and its relative
    proportions of muscle and fat

8
Immune System Response
  • The body system, made up of many organs and
    cells, that defends the body against infection

9
How the Immune System Works
10
Dental/ Oral Health
  • Keeping the mouth, gums and teeth in good
    condition to prevent tooth decay and gum disease

11
Healthy Skin and Coat
  • Free of Dandruff
  • Even Shine Luster
  • Oil Concentration Normal
  • Hydrated!!
  • Pull Test
  • Taking the skin on the back of your hand pinch
    between your index and thumb and pull up. Upon
    release skin should snap back HYDRATED
  • Not loosing excess hair
  • No Bald spots

12
Digestion System
  • Food should pass within a reasonable amount of
    time
  • Show no pain or trouble passing urine and feces
  • Feces should be solid and brown-dark brown in
    color
  • NO BLOOD IN THE STOOL OR URINE

13
Vocabulary
  • Joints
  • Gait
  • Body Condition
  • Immune System
  • Antibody
  • Luster (referring to animal coats)

14
Activity
  • Draw a cat or a dog on a poster paper
  • Outline the important areas to check for animal
    health
  • Example

Clear Eyes
Cool Wet Nose
15
Work on your Projects!
  • Continue working on your projects.
  • Remember
  • How is your disease transferred?
  • What causes your disease?
  • Is your disease parasitic? Bacterial?
  • What can be done to prevent your disease?
  • What are the clinical signs of your disease?
  • How is your disease detected?

16
Animal Health/ManagementHealthy Dog
  • ANSC 3

17
Objectives
  • List and describe the characteristics of a
    healthy dog

18
Essential Question
  • What are 3 signs of a healthy dog?

19
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20
The Breakdown
  1. Visual
  2. Touch
  3. Vital Signs

21
Visual Inspection
  • Eyes should be clear
  • Nose should have no discharge
  • Dog should appear alert
  • Movement and Gait

22
Touch Inspection
  • Feeling along the spine , hips, legs, and around
    the stomach allows for any lesions to be noticed
    under fur

23
Vital Signs of the Dog
  • CRT Capillary Refill time
  • Heart Rate Beats per minute
  • Located femoral artery
  • Count number of pulses in a 15 second time span
  • Times this number by ______??
  • This will give you the heart rate or BPM
  • Normal Heart Rates
  • 60-160
  • 180 Small Breeds
  • 180 for Puppies

24
Vital Signs
  • Respiration Rate Breaths per minute
  • Have the dog lie on the floor
  • Count the number of times the chest rises within
    a 15 second window
  • Times this number by 4 to get
  • Respiration rate or breaths per minute
  • Normal Rates
  • 10 to 30 breaths per minute

25
Vital Signs
  • Temperature- core body temperature good indicator
    of illness
  • Lift the dogs tail
  • Apply Vaseline to the thermometer
  • Place thermometer in the rectum
  • Be sure not the touch the wall!!
  • Wait 1 to 2 minutes
  • Normal Temps
  • 100-102 F

26
LAST DAY WORK ON PROJECTS!!!!
  • Continue working on your projects.
  • Remember
  • How is your disease transferred?
  • What causes your disease?
  • Is your disease parasitic? Bacterial?
  • What can be done to prevent your disease?
  • What are the clinical signs of your disease?
  • How is your disease detected?
  • Define your vaccines and include photos of
    products used for treatment

27
Vocabulary
  • CRT
  • BPM
  • Heart Rate
  • Temperature
  • Vital Sign
  • Respiration Rate

28
Animal Health/ManagementHealthy Cat
  • ANSC 3

29
Objectives
  • Define healthy characteristics in the domestic
    cat
  • Identify safety handling equipment for cat
    restraint

30
Essential Question
  • What is the main goal of animal restraint?

31
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32
Remember the 3 Steps for Exams
  • 1. Visual Inspection
  • 2. Touch Inspection
  • 3. Vital Signs

33
Steps 1 and 2
  • Same as the dog
  • Visually observe for abnormal behavior and
    external injuries
  • Rub hands along spin and down legs, check in the
    ears, look at the eyes to assess any unseen
    injuries

34
Animal Restraints
  • All to prevent injury to the animal and others!

35
Cat Vital Signs
  • CRT
  • 1.5 seconds or less
  • Heart Rate / BPM
  • 240 BPM maximum
  • Respiration Rate
  • 20-30 breaths per minute
  • Temperature
  • 100-102 F

36
VOCABULARY YOU SHOULD KNOW!
  • ANSC 3

37
Objectives
  • Review vocabulary commonly used in animal health

38
KOCHS POSTULATES
  • Determine and define an infectious disease
  • 1. The infectious disease should be detectable in
    sick animals not healthy animals
  • 2. It should be possible to isolate and culture
    the organism
  • 3.Organisms taken from the culture and introduced
    into a healthy animal cause disease in the
    healthy animal
  • 4. The same organism should be isolated from this
    second animal.

39
Vaccines
  • How are they made?
  • Take a weaken strain of the infectious agent and
    inject it into a healthy animal
  • Healthy animals immune system will react
    creating antibodies against the agent
  • Vaccines may need to be administered
    periodically
  • WHY DO YOU THINK THIS?

40
How Virus Work
41
Common Diseases
  • Strangles- Bacterial, usually affects young
    horses, anorexia, fever, nasal discharge, swollen
    lymph nodes
  • Kennel Cough- Viral, dry hacking cough, fever Can
    lead to secondary infections
  • E. coli- Bacterial, usually among young animals
    less than 2 weeks old severe diarrhea,
    dehydration, anorexia, may cause death !
  • Valley Fever- Fungal, most prevalent in the
    Southwest US, may infect the skin with lumps and
    abscesses
  • Roundworm- Parasites, Diarrhea, vomiting,
    potbellied appearance, dull coat, poor weight gain

42
Vocab- Health and Safety
  • Can you define these words? Please give brief
    definitions of the ones you know in your notes!
  • Fomite, Vector, Anemia, Systemic, Antimicrobial,
    Antiseptic, Disinfectants, Ventilation,
    Biosecurity, Quarantine, Virion, Virus, Host,
    Vaccine, Immunization, Contagious, Pandemic,
    Epidemic

43
Animal Health/ManagementCommon Aliments
  • ANSC 3

44
Objectives
  • Explore and identify common aliments among
    domestic animals

45
Animal Health/ManagementCommon AlimentsSmall
Animals
46
Rabbits
  • DENTAL DISEASE
  • Causes
  • Genetic malformation of the jaw
  • Inappropriate diet (inadequate amounts of
    abrasive materials)
  • Trauma to the jaw
  • Infection
  • Cancer
  • Signs
  • Inability to eat or dropping food out of the
    mouth
  • Stops eating hard food items like carrots,
    pellets
  • Drooling (caused by pain from ulcerations on the
    inside of the mouth)
  • Visible overgrown teeth
  • Face wet from tears spilling onto face (elongated
    tooth roots can block tear ducts)
  • Gradual weight loss/small stool production

47
Rabbits
  • Diagnosis
  • Thorough examination of the mouth (anesthesia may
    be needed)
  • X-rays of the head (anesthesia required)
  • Treatment
  • Correct the diet
  • Grind down overgrown teeth (anesthesia usually
    required)
  • Permanent removal of abnormal teeth
  • Medical therapy as needed to treat infected teeth
    or to control pain during healing

48
Hampsters
  • WET TAIL
  • Causes
  • Stress induced
  • Susceptibility is genetically inherited
  • Bacterial infection or an imbalance of the
    natural bacteria in the hamster's stomach
  • Signs
  • Take 7 days to appear
  • Severe diarrhea
  • Unpleasant smell
  • Walk hunched up, weak and lethargic and may
    squeal in pain

49
Hampsters
  • Diagnosis
  • Droppings are pale in color and extremely soft
    and may contain mucus
  • Treatment
  • Antibiotics, anti-diarrheal medication
  • Water through a dropper
  • Keep warm and quiet
  • Keep cage clean

50
Vocabulary
  • Malocclusion
  • Wet Tail

51
Animal Health/ManagementCommon AlimentsReptiles
  • ANSC 3

52
Reptiles
  • MITES
  • Cause
  • Ophionyssus natricis
  • Signs
  • Spend much more time soaking in their water bowl
  • Dysecdysis (difficulty shedding)
  • Mites can be seen floating in the water source

53
Reptiles
  • Diagnosis
  • Mites are often most visible around the eyes,
    around the cloaca
  • Treatment
  • Keep environment clean to prevent egg laying
  • Medicated soaks

54
Reptile
  • Fibrous Osteodystrophy-
  • Metabolic Bone Disease
  • Causes
  • Improper diet
  • Reptiles require a calciumphosphorus ratio of
    11 to 21
  • Signs
  • Tremors and twitches in the muscles of the legs
    and toes
  • Jerky gait when walking and moving around
  • Shaking while being held
  • Constipation , Anorexia , Lethargy ,Weakness
    ,Partial paralysis, Fractured bones

55
Reptiles
  • Diagnosis
  • X-rays may be used to determine the amount of
    damage to the bones.
  • Physical exam
  • Treatment
  • Mild cases are usually treated by a change in
    diet and husbandry
  • Moderate to severe cases may require prescription
    strength calcium and phosphorus and
    hospitalization
  • Deformities are normally permanent

56
Vocabulary
  • Mites
  • Metabolic Bone Disease

57
Animal Health/ManagementCommon AlimentsLarge
Animals
  • ANSC 3

58
Horses
  • STRANGLES Equine Distemper
  • Causes
  • Respiratory infection of horses, donkeys and
    ponies caused by Streptococcus equi
  • Spread when the nasal discharge or material from
    the draining abscess contaminates fomites
  • Fomite- inanimate object capable of carrying
    disease

59
Horse
  • Signs
  • Fever
  • Heavy nasal discharge
  • Swollen or enlarged lymph nodes in the neck
  • Dull ( lethargic)
  • Decreased appetite
  • Diagnosis
  • Throat swabs
  • Cultures of discharges
  • Treatment
  • Keep common areas clean
  • Quarantine animals
  • Penicillin

60
Cattle
  • Bovine Spongiforum encephalopathy
  • Mad Cow Disease
  • Causes
  • Neurodegenerative disease
  • Spread by ingestion of infected animal parts
  • Signs
  • Inability to stand, or walk

61
Cattle
  • Diagnosis
  • Clinical signs
  • Brain biopsy after death
  • Treatment
  • Euthanasia
  • Prevention tightly regulated feeding of animal
    parts. No ruminants fed to ruminants

62
Vocabulary
  • Strangles
  • Fomite
  • BSE ( Mad Cow Disease )

63
Animal Health/ManagementCommon AlimentsDogs /
Cats
  • ANSC 3

64
Dogs
  • Distemper
  • Causes
  • Viral
  • Signs
  • Gooey eye and nose discharge
  • Fever (which often comes and goes unnoticed)
  • Poor Appetite
  • Coughing and the development of pneumonia
  • Vomiting
  • Seizures

65
Dogs
  • Diagnosis
  • Distemper Titers
  • Checks the level of antibodies
  • Treatment
  • Vaccines are available
  • Prevention is best treatment
  • Pneumonia can be treated with antibiotics

66
Cats
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Causes
  • Obesity
  • Genetic predisposition (diabetes is more
    prevalent in males)
  • Poor nutrition
  • Hormonal abnormalities
  • Stress
  • Signs
  • weakness, increased thirst, frequent urination,
    rapid weight loss, depression and abdominal pain
  • blindness due to cataract formation

67
Cats
  • Diagnosis
  • Animals will fast and urine and blood tests will
    be taken to test blood sugar levels
  • Treatment
  • Insulin injections
  • Diet management
  • Exercise

68
Cats and Dogs
  • Hepatitis
  • Causes
  • Inflammation of the liver
  • Signs
  • lethargy, loss of appetite and diarrhea
  • Bloating of the abdomen
  • Jaundice
  • Diagnosis
  • Level of liver enzymes in the blood

69
Dogs and Cats
  • Treatment
  • supportive care, antibiotics, low-protein diets
    and sometimes immunosuppressants

70
Vocabulary
  • Distemper
  • Hepatitis

71
Final Vocabulary
Malocclusion Wet Tail Mites Metabolic Bone
Disease Strangles Fomite BSE ( Mad Cow Disease
) Distemper Hepatitis
  • Joints
  • Gait
  • Body Condition
  • Immune System
  • Antibody
  • Luster (referring to animal coats)
  • CRT
  • BPM
  • Heart Rate
  • Temperature
  • Vital Sign
  • Respiration Rate

72
Test Review
  • Define your Vocab
  • Explain/Know these diseases
  • Strangles_______
  • Kennel Cough_______
  • E. coli_______
  • Valley Fever_______
  • Roundworm _______
  • Briefly describe the procedure a vet tech would
    perform when a client (pet) enters the office
    showing signs of illness. How would the animal be
    inspected for illness?
  •  
  • 2. If an animal within a herd is showing signs
    of illness, what steps including prevention and
    eradication should the farmer and surround
    agricultural community perform?
  •  
  • 3. What is a vaccine made of? How does the body
    react to a vaccine? How does this result in
    immunity?
  • . What are the general signs of a healthy
    animal?
  • Know one disease and its symptoms for a small
    mammal, reptile, large animal, dog, and cat

73
Animal Health and Management
  • Managing Diseases and Parasites

74
Warm Up
  • When was the last time that you were sick?
  • How and why did you get infected?

75
Student Learning Objectives
  • Discuss signs of good and bad animal health.
  • Identify diseases transmissible from animals to
    humans and humans to animals.
  • Describe common animal parasites and diseases.
  • List ways to prevent and treat diseases and
    parasites.

76
Terms
  • Vaccinating
  • Ventilation
  • Zoonoses

77
How do I know if my animal is sick or not?
  • I. Being able to recognize when your animals need
    medical attention is important to the business.
  • Many diseases and parasites are treatable if
    caught early
  • Keep the sickness from spreading act quickly at
    the first signs.

78
How do I know if my animal is sick or not?
  • A. Signs of good health include
  • Contented animals look free from all anxiety.
  • Some animals have specific signs
  • Pigs will curl their tails when they are content
    and sheep will stay quiet.

79
How do I know if my animal is sick or not?
  • A. Signs of good health include
  • 2. Normal feces and urine should be seen.
  • This will vary with diet and type of species
  • 3. Body temperature, respiration, and pulse rate
    should be monitored because unusual highs and
    lows can be symptoms.
  • 4. Alertness can be judged by checking if an
    animal perks its ears when you draw near.
  • 5. The skin and coat of most animals should be
    oily and elastic like.

80
How do I know if my animal is sick or not?
  • A. Signs of good health include
  • 6. The animals eyes should be bright and their
    membranes pinkish.
  • 7. One of the easiest things to notice is when an
    animal goes off feed.
  • All healthy animals should eat eagerly when fed
    and ruminants should be seen chewing their cud.

81
Signs of Poor Health
  • 1. When animals stray off by themselves and hold
    their head down it is a good sign that they are
    not well.
  • 2. Lower production of milk is also not good.

82
Signs of Poor Health
  • 3. A rough-looking dull hair coat or skin that
    stays up when pinched are signs of poor health.
  • 4. Discolored feces or urine can be obvious signs
    of trouble.

83
Signs of Poor Health
  • 5. Glassy eyes are sometimes a sign of poor
    health.
  • 6. An animal that is difficult to get up and
    walks slowly may also indicate that something is
    wrong.

84
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85
Disease Behavior
  • II. Many diseases are passed between animals and
    humans.
  • Modes of Transference
  • They are usually transferred by way of meat,
    milk, or eggs.
  • close contact is made
  • insects carrying them from animal to animal.

86
Zoonosis
  • Zoonoses are diseases that animals can transmit
    to humans.
  • Some of the diseases include
  • 1. Tuberculosis
  • 2. Anthrax
  • 3. Rabies
  • 4. Brucellosis (Bangs)
  • 5. Nine Mile Fever (Q Fever)
  • 6. Parasites like Ringworm

87
Types of Zoonotic Diseases
  • B. Three kinds of diseases are transferred from
    humans to animals.
  • Protozoa, bacterial, and viral infections are the
    three.

88
Types of Zoonotic Diseases
  • Protozoa infections like the animal parasite that
    causes amoebic dysentery can be shared.
  • Bacterial infections like the streptococcus that
    causes scarlet fever in humans can be passed to
    an animal and then produce large problems when
    humans consume milk or other products.

89
What diseases can I give to or get from my
animals?
  • Viral infections are being researched closely for
    more shared ailments between humans and animals
    but we know that chimps can get common colds and
    dogs can get the mumps virus.

90
Common Parasites and Diseases
  • III. There are some common diseases and parasites
    with specific symptoms.
  • Diseases can be contagious or non-contagious.
  • Contagious diseases are diseases that can be
    passed from one animal to another.
  • Non-contagious diseases are diseases that cannot
    be transferred from one animal to another.

91
  • Important to determine what kind because
    contagious animals need to be separated to
    prevent spreading the disease.

92
Contagious
  • Contagious diseases are usually caused by
    bacteria or viruses.
  • They spread from animal to animal by simple
    contact or shared facilities.

93
Noncontagious
  • Diseases that are not contagious, like scurvy,
    are sometimes caused by a vitamin or mineral
    deficiency.
  • They may also be caused by ingestion of metal,
    poisonous plants or animals, or open wounds the
    animal may have.

94
General Symptoms
  • General symptoms specific to disease include
  • 1. Animal losing fetus
  • 2. Shaking
  • 3. Coughing
  • 4. Poor growth or decrease in production
  • 5. Rough coat

95
Parasites
  • Parasites can be internal or external.
  • Internal parasites are ones that live inside the
    animal like flukes and roundworms.
  • External parasites are ones that live outside the
    animal like fleas and flies.

96
Parasite Symptoms
  • Symptoms of parasites may include
  • 1. Observing the parasite on an animal.
  • 2. Diarrhea, worms in feces, or bloody feces.
  • 3. Loss of weight.
  • 4. Decreased production, growth, and reproduction.

97
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98
Ways to prevent / treat diseases and parasites
  • IV. Whenever possible prevention of disease
    should be done.
  • Ways to prevent diseases and parasites
  • Natural immunity- immunity to a specific disease
    is inherited from parent to offspring
  • Species immunity- a disease that affects one
    species does not affect other species

99
Prevention
  • 2. Vaccinating is injecting a disease organism
    that has been modified into an animal to prevent
    the animal from getting the disease later.
  • Biologics are the medical preparations made from
    microorganisms and their products, like
    vaccinations and serums.

100
Prevention
  • 3. Sanitation management is important to
    preventing diseases and parasites.
  • Sanitation is the act of cleaning or sterilizing
    an area.

101
Prevention
  • 4. Ventilation is also important to manage.
  • Ventilation is causing air to move through a
    building.
  • 5. Keep all housing facilities clean and use dry
    bedding.

102
Prevention
  • 6. Disposal of manure is very important. If
    animals are made to live in their manure it will
    surely cause diseases to transfer rapidly because
    it is the optimal environment for diseases and
    parasites to thrive in.

103
Prevention
  • 7. Using the same pasture for the same species
    over and over could be dangerous. Try to rotate
    animals to break a parasitic life cycle.
  • 8. Always dispose of carcasses in a sanitary way.

104
Treatment
  • Drugs for treatment come in many forms like
    pills, powders, and liquids.
  • Before giving any medication, be sure to check if
    there is a milk or meat hold associated with the
    drug.

105
Treatment
  • 2. There are many ways to inject drugs.
  • They are all named according to how they are
    injected.
  • Intravenous means injected into the vein.
  • Intramuscular means injected into a muscle.
  • Subcutaneous means injected under the animals
    skin.

106
Treatment Methods
  • Intradermal means injected between layers of
    skin.
  • Injections into an animals rumen are called
    intraruminal.
  • Injections given in the abdominal cavity are
    called intraperitoneal.

107
Signs
  • 4. Checking respiration and pulse can be done
    without any expensive equipment.
  • For respiration, simply watch how many times the
    animal breathes in 1 minute.
  • For pulse you can often hold your ear against the
    animal and listen for the heartbeat.

108
What are some ways to prevent and treat diseases
and parasites?
  • 5. Always restrain animals properly to prevent
    hurting the animal or yourself.
  • 6. Certain ailments can be treated with little
    knowledge, but other problems require the
    expertise of a veterinarian.
  • A good management practice is to know your own
    limitations.

109
Vocabulary
  • Biologics
  • Contagious
  • External parasites
  • Internal parasites
  • Intradermal
  • Intramuscular
  • Intraperitoneal
  • Intraruminal
  • Intravenous
  • Natural immunity
  • Non-contagious
  • Sanitation
  • Species immunity
  • Subcutaneous

110
ACTIVITIES
  • Review Quiz 1
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