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Title: Pregnancy%20and%20Child%20Birth


1
Pregnancy and Child Birth
  • Unit 2

2
Essential Question Journal Entry U-2
  • Keeping Fit and Healthy Write a journal entry
    about one of the topics below.
  • Why is it important to eat healthfully during all
    stages of life.
  • Why is exercise important to keep a body fit.
  • Where can you learn how to develop an exercise
    routine that is right for you?

3
Prenatal Development
  • Concept 4

4
Learning Targets
  • 20. List the methods of family planning.
  • 21. Outline what occurs during each stage of the
    three stages of prenatal development.
  • 22. Contrast miscarriage and stillbirth.
  • 23. Identify how ten major birth defects can be
    diagnosed.
  • 24. Summarize the hazards that alcohol and other
    drugs pose to prenatal development.
  • 25. Assess why environmental hazards must be
    avoided during pregnancy.
  • 26. Describe how a fetus can be affected by
    certain illnesses the mother may contract.

5
Essential Question Journal Entry C-4
  • Regular medical care during pregnancy increases
    the chances of having a healthy baby.
  • Why do you think doctors and other medical
    professionals want pregnant women to come in for
    regular checkups?

6
Why Plan a Family?
  • An essential first step in planning a family is
    choosing an emotionally mature and financially
    stable marriage partner.
  • Planning a family rather than leaving parenthood
    to chance, has several benefits
  • Planning helps ensure that children are truly
    wanted.
  • Couples who plan can take time to build a solid
    relationship before becoming parents.

7
Preparing for Healthy Parenthood
  • Parenthood involves many complex issues.
  • Couples who decide to start a family in the near
    future should prepare physically for a healthy
    pregnancy and parenthood by
  • Develop and maintain healthy habits.
  • Get a medical checkup.
  • Get vaccinated.
  • Get a dental checkup
  • Kick unhealthy habits.

8
The Reproductive Process
  • Human reproduction is a function of the male and
    female reproductive systems.
  • Knowing how the human reproductive process works
    will give you the terminology necessary to ask
    intelligent questions when talking with health
    care professionals about planning a family.

9
The Female Reproductive System
  • Females are born with thousands of reproductive
    cells, called ova, or eggs.
  • Ova are stored in a womans ovaries.
  • Ovaries
  • Two oval-shaped reproductive organs.
  • The two ovaries are located near the uterus.
  • Uterus
  • The organ in which an unborn baby develops.
  • The uterus is lined with thick muscles that can
    expand to hold a developing baby before it is
    born and contract to help push the baby out
    during labor.

10
The Female Reproductive System (continued)
  • When a female reaches puberty, an ovum matures in
    one of her ovaries about once each month.
  • The mature ovum is released by the ovary in a
    process called ovulation.
  • Ovulation
  • The process of an ovum being release by an ovary.
  • The ovum then travels through one of the two
    fallopian tubes that lie to the upper right and
    left of the uterus.
  • Fallopian Tube
  • Tubes through which eggs pass on their way from
    an ovary to the uterus.
  • Tiny hairs lining the passageway inside the
    fallopian tubes help push the ovum along to the
    uterus.

11
The Female Reproductive System (continued)
  • If the ovum is not fertilized by a male
    reproductive cell, it passes out of the uterus
    during menstruation, along with the ling of blood
    vessels and other tissue that forms each month.
  • This cycle repeats itself every 28 days for about
    40 years during a womans reproductive lifetime.

12
The Male Reproductive System
  • Sperm
  • The male reproductive cells.
  • Males begin producing these microscopic cells at
    puberty, and healthy males may produce sperm for
    the rest of their life.
  • Sperm are produced and stored in the two testes.
  • Testes
  • Organs that produce sperm.
  • The testes are oval shaped and grow to be about
    one inch long.
  • The testes also produce hormones that stimulate
    the production of sperm and cause males to become
    sexually mature.

13
The Male Reproductive System (continued)
  • During sexual intercourse, the male reproductive
    system releases sperm cells into the reproductive
    system of the female.
  • The sperm cells travel from the tests through the
    urethra, a narrow tube inside the penis.
  • Four to five hundred million sperm cells,
    surrounded by a protective milky fluid, are
    released at one time.
  • The combined substance of the sperm and the fluid
    is called semen.

14
Conception
  • Conception
  • Occurs when male and female reproductive cells
    unite after sexual intercourse.
  • During intercourse, sperm are deposited near the
    lower end of the female uterus.
  • The sperm that enter the uterus quickly swim into
    the fallopian tubes.
  • If an ovum is present, the sperm swarm the ovum
    and try to break through the surface.
  • Only one sperm is successful. At this moment of
    fertilization, the surface of the ovum seals out
    the remaining sperm, which eventually die.

15
Conception (continued)
  • Deposited sperm can live for four or five days
    inside the females body.
  • An ovum might typically survive for about 24 to
    48 hours in the females fallopian tubes.
  • Therefore, pregnancy can occur if intercourse
    takes place during the four to five days before
    the ovum is released and for about two days
    afterward.
  • Once an ovum has been fertilized, it attaches to
    the wall of the uterus.
  • There the lining of blood vessels and other
    tissue remains to nourish the developing baby
    until birth.
  • For almost all women, menstruation stops until
    the pregnancy is over.

16
Myths about Becoming Pregnant
  • Can pregnancy occur before a female has her first
    period? Yes.
  • Can pregnancy occur the first time a female has
    intercourse? Yes.
  • Can pregnancy occur during the menstrual period?
    Yes.
  • Can pregnancy occur even if intercourse is
    incomplete? Yes.

17
Fertility Problems
  • Once couples decide to have a child, they are
    understandable eager for pregnancy.
  • Many couples are able to conceive within a few
    months.
  • Others take considerably longer, and some are
    unable to conceive.
  • Infertile
  • The inability to conceive a child.
  • Couples who are infertile are unable to conceive
    a child after trying for 12 months.
  • About 8-12 of couples worldwide are infertile.
  • The three most common causes of infertility in
    men are low production of sperm, impaired
    delivery of sperm, and low production of a male
    sex hormone.

18
Fertility Problems (continued)
  • About 40 of fertility problems among couples are
    the result of male infertility.
  • The three most common causes of infertility in
    men are
  • Low Production of Sperm
  • Impaired Delivery of Sperm
  • Low production of a male sex hormone.
  • Infertility in women can have a variety of
    causes
  • Hormone imbalance
  • Age
  • Blocked fallopian rubes
  • Endometriosis

19
Treatment for Infertility
  • Physicians who specialize in fertility problems
    can conduct tests to find out the cause of
    infertility, then offer treatment options
  • Depending on the cause of the infertility, one
    option might be artificial insemination.
  • The physician helps the couple determine exactly
    when the woman ovulates.
  • At that point, the physician uses a needle to
    implant sperm into the womans uterus.
  • The sperm may come from the husband or from a
    donor.
  • Another possible option is in vitro
    fertilization.
  • In this procedure, an ovum from the woman is
    surgically removed, then combined in a laboratory
    dish with her husbands sperm
  • If the egg becomes fertilized, it is placed back
    in the womans uterus.

20
Multiple Births
  • Many people wonder how twins occur, and why some
    twins look more alike than others.
  • Twins can be either fraternal or identical,
    depending on how conception occurs.
  • Fraternal Twins
  • Occur when the ovary releases two separate two
    separate eggs and each is fertilized by a
    different sperm cell.
  • May include a boy and a girl.
  • Even if they are both the same sex, they will
    look no more alike than any other pair of
    siblings.
  • The only thing that makes fraternal twins unusual
    is that they are born at the same time.
  • Identical Twins
  • Result when a single egg is fertilized, then
    split into two separate parts, each of which goes
    on to develop into a baby.
  • Because they develop from the same fertilized
    egg, identical twins are always both boys or both
    girls, and they look very much alike.
  • Identical twins are more rare than fraternal
    twins.

21
Multiple Births (continued)
  • Triplets, quadruplets, and other multiple births
    come about the same way as twins.
  • The babies can be identical, fraternal, or a
    combination.
  • You have probably read or seen reports about
    women giving birth to as many as eight babies at
    once.
  • Such occurrences are extremely rare.
  • Most result from fertility treatments.
  • Multiple births carry increased risks of
    complications for the mother and babies.
  • Mothers are more likely to deliver prematurely
    and to experience excessive bleeding after giving
    birth.
  • Babies who are multiples are at a higher risk for
    having low birth weight and other problems.
  • The greater the number of babies born at one
    time, the higher the risks.
  • Fortunately, thanks to modern science, the
    survival rate for babies born together is very
    high.

22
Contraception
  • Many couples choose to delay pregnancy until they
    are financially secure.
  • Others want to time pregnancy around their
    careers or family responsibilities.
  • They decide not to leave family planning to
    chance.
  • Instead, they rely on some form of contraception.
  • Contraception
  • The use of drugs, devices, or techniques to
    postpone pregnancy.
  • Another terms for contraception is birth
    control.
  • Decisions about contraception are extremely
    personal
  • Religious beliefs, personal values, age, health,
    and a couples economic situation all enter into
    their decision.
  • Other factors to consider include reliability,
    safety, and potential health risks.

23
Types of Contraception
  • The only completely effective method of
    contraception is abstinence.
  • Abstinence
  • Choosing not to engage in sexual activity.
  • Abstinence also prevents the spread of sexually
    transmitted diseases or infections.
  • Other methods have varying degrees of
    effectiveness.

24
Types of Contraception Match
  • Small Group Activity

25
Understanding Genetics
  • Heredity
  • The biological process by which certain traits
    are transmitted from parents to their children.
  • Genetics
  • The study of how traits are passed from parents
    to child through heredity.
  • How does this process occur?
  • It all starts with chromosomes, long, threadlike
    structures in the nucleus, or central portion, of
    each human cell.
  • On each chromosomes are hundred or thousands of
    genes.
  • A gene is a hereditary unit that determines a
    particular trait, such as eye color.

26
Understanding Genetics
  • Almost all cells in the human body contain 23
    pairs of chromosomes, or 46 in all.
  • Ova and sperm cells are the exception.
  • Each ovum or sperm contains only 23 chromosomes.
  • When an ovum and sperm unite at conception, they
    create a single cell with 46 chromosomes 23 from
    the sperm and 23 from the ovum.
  • Thus, for each inherited trait, the fertilized
    egg has two genes, one from each parent.
  • The number of possible combinations of genes is
    staggering.
  • According to one scientific estimate, as many as
    64 trillion different genetic combinations are
    possible.
  • Through the process of cell reproduction, the
    fertilized egg will multiply into the trillions
    of cells that make up the human body.
  • Every resulting cell contains copies of those 46
    chromosomes the genetic blueprint for a unique
    individual.

27
Dominant and Recessive Traits
  • A child receives two genes for each inherited
    trait.
  • In some cases, both genes are the same.
  • For example, it both the sperm and ovum carry a
    gene fro brown eyes, the child will have brown
    eyes.
  • In many cases, however, the genes are different.
  • One might be for brown eyes, and the other for
    blue eyes.
  • The dominant trait is expressed.
  • Dominant
  • The stronger gene.
  • Recessive
  • The weaker gene.
  • To be expressed, a recessive gene must be
    inherited from both the mother and the father.

28
Gender Determination
  • Of the 46 chromosomes in each cell, two are
    specialized chromosomes that determine gender.
  • In a female these are alike (XX).
  • In a male, they are different (XY).
  • Each reproductive cell receives only one gender
    chromosome, either an X or Y.
  • Since females have two X chromosomes, all ova
    will have an X.
  • Since males have an X and a Y, sperm can contain
    either one of these.
  • If the sperm that fertilizes the ovum carries an
    X chromosome, the chromosome pair will be XX and
    the baby will be female.
  • If the sperm carries a Y chromosome, the
    resulting pair will be XY and the baby will be
    male.

29
Heredity Activity
  • Pairs Activity

30
Genetic Disorders
  • Genes contain instructions that give nearly all
    the information necessary for a living organism
    to grow and function.
  • Most of the time, this mysterious process works
    amazingly well.
  • Sometimes, however, a problem occurs.
  • If genes carry the wrong instructions, body
    processes may not work as they should.
  • Genetic Disorders
  • Medical conditions caused by errors in genes and
    chromosomes.
  • The error might be a mutation, or change in the
    instructions encoded on a gene.
  • In other cases, genetic disorders result from
    missing, damaged, or extra chromosomes.

31
Genetic Disorders (continued)
  • Testing can identify most genetic disorders.
  • Early diagnosis allows parents and medical
    professionals to do as much as possible to
    improve or manage the childs condition.
  • Although many disorders cannot be cured at
    present, medical researchers continue to look for
    answers.
  • Nearly 4,000 genetic disorders can afflict
    humans
  • Down Syndrome
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Muscular Dystrophy
  • Sickle-Cell Anemia
  • Tay-Sachs Disease
  • Phenylketonuria (PKU)

32
Genetic Counseling
  • Many people who have a genetic disorder in their
    family want more information about how the
    disorder may affect their lives and the lives of
    any children they might have.
  • Genetic counselors are health specialists trained
    to provide information and support to families
    who are facing the possibility of genetic
    disorders.
  • Those who already have a child or children with a
    genetic disorder usually seek counseling before
    having more children.
  • Genetic counselors help provide families with the
    information they need to understand genetic
    disorders.
  • They begin by taking a detailed medical history
    of the families of both partners.
  • In some cases, they arrange for testing to detect
    defective genes.
  • They analyze the collected data and talk to
    prospective parents about their risk of having a
    child with a particular disease or disability.
  • They then help the couple understand how this
    potential disability is likely to affect the
    child and the family.

33
Choosing Adoption
  • Biological parenthood is not the only option for
    those who want children and are ready to become
    parents.
  • Many people begin or add to their family by
    adopting children.
  • Adoption
  • A legal process by which people acquire the
    rights an responsibilities of parenthood for
    children who are not biologically their own.
  • Some children are available for adoption because
    their birth parents have died.
  • In other cases, parental rights of the biological
    parents have been terminated by the court due to
    neglect or abuse.
  • Most of the time, however, the birth parents
    choose adoption because the realized that they
    were physically, emotionally, or financially
    unprepared to provide what a child needs.

34
Choosing Adoption (continued)
  • People adopt children for many reasons
  • Some people who receive genetic counseling decide
    to adopt after analyzing the risk factors.
  • Infertile couples may prefer to adopt rather than
    continuing to try to conceive.
  • People who are single and those for whom
    pregnancy poses health risks may also choose to
    become adoptive parents.

35
The Adoption Process
  • Most people who adopt do so through a public or
    private adoption agency.
  • These can be found in the telephone directory or
    through referrals from other social service
    agencies.
  • After filling out application forms, the
    applicants must undergo a series of meetings with
    a social worker.
  • The social worker will ask prospective parents
    about their income and the time demands of their
    jobs.
  • He or she will also visit their home to make sure
    it is clean and safe.
  • A police report will be run to make sure
    applicants have not committed any crimes.
  • Friends and business associates may be asked to
    write letters stating why applicants would be
    good parents.

36
The Adoption Process (continued)
  • There is a waiting period for all adoptions.
  • The wait for adopting a healthy infant is the
    longest, in some cases, between two to seven
    years.
  • If parents are willing to adopt a child who is
    older or has special needs, the process is much
    faster.
  • After the child is placed with the adoptive
    parents, the social worker visits the home
    several times to ensure that the child is
    receiving proper care.
  • The child lives with the adoptive parents for six
    months of more, as required by state law, before
    adoption becomes final.
  • Private, or independent, adoptions those in
    which an agency is not involved are handled
    differently.
  • The procedures for legal private adoption vary
    from state to state.
  • Sometimes the birth mothers lawyer simply draws
    up a legal agreement with the adoptive parents.
  • In other states, the process is more complicated.

37
International Adoptions
  • In some countries, there are many more children
    needing parents than there are parents seeking to
    adopt them.
  • Infants can be adopted from more than fifty
    countries in Latin America, Asia, Eastern Europe,
    and some African countries.
  • Most were born to poor mothers who cannot support
    another child.
  • Half of all children adopted internationally are
    under the age of one.
  • Nearly all are younger than four.
  • Procedures for foreign adoptions vary widely and
    are determined by the agencies within each
    country.
  • Many parents adopting foreign children will be
    required to make one or more trips overseas
    before they can bring the child home.
  • Others may be able to handle the paperwork
    long-distance, and their child may be brought to
    them.

38
Adjustments After Adoption
  • Adoption, like all major family events, requires
    some emotional adjustments.
  • The nature of those adjustments depends on the
    situation.
  • If parents adopt an infant, they must adapt to
    the new arrival just as they would to the birth
    of a biological child.
  • An infant usually adjusts easily to a new
    environment.
  • When an older child is adopted, the transition
    for the child may be more difficult.
  • Whatever the childs previous situation was, he
    or she is leaving behind familiar people and
    places.
  • The adoptive parents should expect some ups and
    downs as the child adjusts.
  • The best approach is to be patient,
    understanding, and supportive.
  • It takes time, but the bonds that eventually form
    will as strong as those between any other parent
    and child.

39
Adjustments After Adoption
  • Children who were adopted before the age of two
    usually dont remember their previous home or
    family.
  • Eventually, they must be told that they were
    adopted.
  • There is no one best age at which to do this.
  • Adoption experts offer suggestions ranging from
    age two to age eight, depending on the situation.
  • Whatever the childs age, parents should discuss
    the adoption in a matter-of-fact, positive way.

40
Becoming a Foster Parent
  • Foster Parents
  • Adults who provide temporary care for children
    who have been removed from their homes.
  • The removal may have been due to child abuse or
    neglect, or the parents may be facing problems
    that make it difficult for them to fulfill their
    responsibilities.
  • Foster parents provide a temporary home until a
    permanent one can be found.
  • This might take days, weeks, months, or even
    years.
  • Some children in foster care will return to their
    own homes when their parents become able to take
    up their responsibilities again.
  • Others will eventually be placed with relatives
    or an adoptive family.

41
Becoming a Foster Parent
  • Foster parents must be approved and licensed by
    the state.
  • They receive a small monthly payment to help
    cover the cost of the childs food, clothing, and
    other basic needs.
  • As with adoption, the arrival of a foster child
    requires emotional adjustments for everyone
    involved.
  • Children in foster care have been through
    stressful of rejection, insecurity, and guilt.
  • Some have emotional, behavioral, developmental,
    or physical problems.
  • Despite the challenges, foster parenthood is
    rewarding and fills a great need.
  • People who are interested in becoming foster
    parents should contact their local child welfare
    agency or state foster parent association.

42
Development Before Birth
  • Prenatal Development
  • The process by which the baby-to-be grows inside
    the mother.
  • This process normally takes about nine months for
    a full-term pregnancy, one that goes to
    completion.
  • A full-term pregnancy typically lasts about 280
    days (40 weeks), counting from the first day of
    the last menstrual period.
  • However, it can be a little shorter or longer
    than this.
  • The timeline of pregnancy can be divided into
    three trimesters, or three-month time periods.
  • Each is a time of remarkable growth and
    development.

43
First Trimester
  • During the first trimester the first three
    months of pregnancy an amazingly rapid sequence
    of prenatal development occurs.
  • It begins at the moment of conception.
  • Conception takes place when an ovum, or egg, is
    fertilized by a sperm.

44
The Zygote
  • At this very early stage, the developing life is
    called a zygote.
  • Zygote
  • The fertilized egg is a single cell.
  • After a few days, the zygote has grown to about
    500 living cells that form a tiny, fluid-filled
    ball.
  • This ball of cells travels through the woman's
    fallopian tube into her uterus, then implants
    itself in the lining of that organ.
  • The ball of cells is still a tiny speck, barely
    big enough to be seen without a microscope, yet
    ready to grow into a fully developed human being.

45
The Embryo
  • From the time of implantation into the uterine
    wall through about the eighth week of pregnancy,
    the developing baby is called an embryo.
  • Embryo
  • What the developing baby is called from
    implantation until the eighth week of pregnancy.
  • During this time, cells continue to multiple
    rapidly.
  • In a few weeks the embryo is the size of the head
    of a pin.

46
The Embryo (continued)
  • Not only do new cells continue to form, but in
    addition, the cells begin to take on different
    functions.
  • Three layers of cells form that eventually will
    develop into all the structures of the human
    body
  • The Ectoderm
  • Becomes skin, hair, and nails.
  • The Mesoderm
  • Bones, muscles, blood vessels, and some internal
    organs, such as the heart, kidneys, and
    reproductive organs.
  • The Endoderm
  • Other internal organs such as the stomach, liver,
    and lungs.

47
The Embryo (continued)
  • Midway through the first trimester, the embryo
    has grown to the size of a small raisin. In two
    weeks, it is about the size of a grape.
  • The eyes and inner ears begin to form on the
    sides of the embryos head, and the mouth, and
    nostrils begin as small openings.
  • The eyelids begin to form and the nose, upper
    lip, and outer ears begin to take shape.
  • The heart begins to pump blood cells, although a
    heartbeat cant be heard.
  • The digestive and respiratory systems start to
    form, and buds that will become arms and legs
    emerge.

48
The Fetus
  • Fetus
  • What the developing baby is called from the
    beginning of the ninth week until birth.
  • At the beginning of the fetal stage, the major
    organs are present but are still forming.
  • The heartbeat of the fetus flutters rapidly and
    can be heard using a special instrument.
  • The bones begin to form, taking a skeletal shape,
    and the skull, and jaws begin to harden.
  • The muscles start to develop, as do the tissues
    that connect the muscles to the bones.
  • The arms and legs lengthen.
  • By now, a very thin skin covers the fetus.

49
The Fetus(continued)
  • At the end of the first trimester, the fetus is
    about 3 inches long and typically weighs about 1
    ounce.
  • All of the fetuss major organs are growing and
    developing.
  • The intestines, which began forming in the
    umbilical cord, move to the fetuss abdomen.
  • The ears and tightly-shut eyes move closer to
    their final positions.
  • The liver begins to produce bile, which later
    aids digestion, and the kidneys produce urine.
  • The fetus can open and close its mouth and tiny
    fists, but the pregnant woman cannot feel those
    movements.

50
The Support System
  • During the first trimester, as the zygote becomes
    an embryo and then a fetus, the structures that
    will protect and nourish the developing baby also
    form.
  • One of these structures is a protective sac that
    surrounds and encases the developing baby.
  • Amniotic Fluid
  • Fluid within the amniotic sac that cushions the
    developing baby from outside pressures.
  • Placenta
  • A tissue that is shaped like a pancake, is
    attached to the uterine wall and contains a rich
    network of blood vessels.
  • Umbilical Cord
  • The connection between the baby and the placenta
    which carries nutrients and oxygen to the
    developing baby.

51
Second Trimester
  • During the second trimester the fourth, fifth,
    and sixth months of pregnancy the fetus grows
    dramatically.
  • By the end of this period, the fetus will
    typically weigh nearly 2 pounds.
  • Also during this time, the eyebrows and lashes
    appear, and fine hair called lanugo, begins to
    cover the fetuss skin.
  • Fat tissue, which later will keep the newborn
    warm, begins to form under the skin.
  • At this stage, the fetus can move around and
    kick.
  • The pregnant woman usually feels these movements,
    a milestone that is often called quickening.
  • Other muscle movements, such as prenatal
    thumb-sucking, also begins during the second
    trimester.
  • The lungs strengthen and the fetus breathes
    amniotic fluid in and out.
  • The fetus also swallows amniotic fluid and
    nutrients in the fluid pass through the digestive
    system.
  • However, most of the fetuss nourishment is still
    received from the mothers body through the
    placenta and umbilical cord.

52
Second Trimester (continued)
  • In the second trimester, the sense taste, touch,
    smell, sight, and hearing steadily develop as
    nerve cells form more connections with the brain.
  • The eyes, which had been sealed such, now open
    and close.
  • The fetus begins to hear sounds, including the
    mothers heartbeat and even some loud noises from
    outside the mother's body.

53
Third Trimester
  • During the third trimester the seventh, eighth,
    and ninth months of pregnancy the brain and
    other parts of the nervous system continue to
    develop.
  • Brain scans by researchers have show that the
    fetus sleep and may dream.
  • The heart and other parts of the circulatory
    system also continue to mature in preparation for
    the newborns independence from the womans body.
  • The lungs are almost fully developed by the ninth
    month, so they are ready to fill with air for the
    first time at birth.

54
Third Trimester (continued)
  • The fetus steadily grows and gains weight until
    birth.
  • The amount of vital fat tissue increases all over
    the fetuss body.
  • During the third trimester, the fetus typically
    triples its weight.
  • In the last few weeks before birth, the fetus
    gains around half a pound each week.
  • A birth weight of 7.5 pounds is average.
  • The head is the largest part, accounting for
    one-fourth of the newborns weight.
  • The bones of the skull are still somewhat soft
    and pliable, allowing the fetus to pass through
    the birth canal.
  • During the eighth month, the fetus has less
    freedom and of movement as it grows and fills the
    uterus.
  • The fetus usually turns head downward during this
    month in preparation for a typical headfirst
    birth.
  • In the ninth month, the still-growing fetus
    settles further down into the womans pelvis.

55
Problems in Prenatal Development
  • Most of the time prenatal development proceeds
    smoothly and results in the birth of a healthy
    baby.
  • However, serious problems sometimes develop for
    various reasons.
  • Sometimes a pregnancy ends unexpectedly.

56
Miscarriage
  • Miscarriage
  • The spontaneous loss of the pregnancy after less
    than 20 week of fetal development.
  • The zygote, embryo, or fetus dies and is expelled
    from the mothers body.
  • Miscarriage is not uncommon.
  • According to researchers, between 15 to 20 of
    known pregnancies end in miscarriage.
  • Many other pregnancies end before the woman ever
    knows she is pregnant.
  • Risk of miscarriage is increased by factors such
    as
  • Age
  • Previous Miscarriage
  • Family History
  • Certain diseases or infections
  • Exposure to hazards during pregnancy

57
Stillbirth
  • Stillbirth
  • If the fetus dies after the 20th week of
    pregnancy.
  • This occurs in approximately one out of every 200
    pregnancies.
  • The death can occur during labor and delivery,
    but more often it occurs before labor.
  • Causes vary, and sometimes no cause can be found.

58
Ectopic Pregnancy
  • Sometimes a fertilized egg never reaches the
    uterus.
  • Ectopic Pregnancy
  • A fertilized egg implants outside the uterus.
  • In most cases, implantation occurs in the
    fallopian tube.
  • Without the nourishment and protection of the
    uterus, the embryo cannot survive.
  • In addition, ectopic pregnancy causes a serous
    risk to the mothers health.
  • As the embryo grows, it may eventually burst the
    fallopian tube, which can cause life-threatening
    bleeding.
  • A physician must end the pregnancy.
  • In some cases, miscarriage occurs before the
    ectopic pregnancy is discovered.

59
Birth Defects
  • The complex structures and systems of the human
    body dont always develop a expected.
  • Sometimes a birth defect is present.
  • Birth Defect
  • An abnormality that is present at or before birth
    and results in mental or physical disability.
  • Birth defects may be cause by genetic factors,
    environmental factors, or a combination.
  • Often the cause is unknown.

60
Genetic Causes
  • Errors in genes or chromosomes can result in
    genetic defects.
  • Some are inherited.
  • Genetic defects can also occur when specific
    genes or chromosomes are missing, damaged, or
    duplicated.
  • Example
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Downs Syndrome

61
Environmental Causes
  • Factors in the environment can also cause birth
    defects.
  • What a pregnant woman eats, drinks, breathes in,
    or is otherwise exposed to has the potential to
    either help or harm her developing baby.
  • Among the environmental factors that increase the
    risk of birth defects are
  • Poor nutrition
  • Use of tobacco, alcohol, or other drugs
  • Certain prescription and over-the-counter
    medications
  • Certain illnesses
  • Sexually transmitted diseases

62
Prevention and Treatment
  • Good health habits during pregnancy can help
    prevent birth defects.
  • Pregnant women should get proper medical care and
    take steps to avoid prenatal health hazards.
  • Medical advances have made it possible to
    identify many types of birth defects before the
    baby is born.
  • Some can be corrected before or soon after birth,
    through surgery or other means.
  • Even if a cure is not possible, early diagnosis
    and intervention can help the child reach his or
    her full potential.

63
Premature Labor and Birth
  • For various reasons, a pregnant woman will
    sometimes begin to go into labor sooner than
    expected.
  • If this occurs before the 37th week of pregnancy,
    it is called premature labor.
  • Sometimes doctors can delay premature labor by
    giving the woman medication.
  • Premature Birth
  • Labor that cant be stopped and the baby is born
    before the 37th week of pregnancy.
  • About 1 out of every 10 babies are premature.
  • Premature babies have less time to develop in the
    uterus, which increases their risk of health
    problems.
  • The risk decreases as the time spent growing in
    the uterus increases.
  • Babies born before the 26th week of pregnancy and
    weighing less than 2 pounds usually have serious
    health problems.
  • Many premature infants survive and thrive with
    good medical care.

64
Prenatal Testing
  • Often doctors look in on a developing fetus to
    find out whether all is well.
  • Various types of prenatal testing may be used to
    find out whether the fetus has a birth defect or
    other health problem.
  • Some of these tests can also reveal other
    information, such as whether the new arrival will
    be a boy or girl. ?
  • Some tests, such as various types of blood tests,
    are routinely given to almost all pregnant women.
  • Others are warranted only when there is a reason
    to suspect a problem.
  • Even when a doctor recommends prenatal testing,
    the mother-to-be chooses whether or not to
    undergo the procedure.
  • Most prenatal tests involve some risks.
  • Parents-to-be should discuss the risks and
    benefits with their health care providers so the
    can make informed decisions.

65
Prenatal Testing(continued)
  • Ultrasound Imaging
  • A process that uses sound waves to create a video
    and still images of the fetus inside the uterus.
  • Amniocentesis
  • Prenatal test that involves removing a small
    amount of the amniotic fluid that surrounds the
    developing fetus.
  • Chorionic Villi Sampling
  • A prenatal test that involves taking a sample of
    cells from the placenta

66
Preparing for Birth
  • Concept 5

67
Learning Targets
  • 27. Identify the early signs of pregnancy.
  • 28. Explain the importance of proper nutrition
    during pregnancy.
  • 29. List six categories of basic baby supplies.
  • 30. Describe why parents need to develop a
    budget.
  • 31. Identify ways expectant parents can prepare
    for the birth of a child.
  • 32. Compare and contrast the options for the
    delivery of a baby.

68
Essential Question Journal Entry C-5
  • A pregnancy affects all members of the family,
    not just the mother. How do you think the father
    is affected by pregnancy?

69
Detecting Pregnancy
  • A woman doesnt know right after conception that
    she is pregnant.
  • Within a few weeks, however, her body gives
    several signs that might make her wonder.
  • These signs include
  • A missed menstrual period
  • Nausea
  • Fatigue
  • Breast Tenderness
  • Frequent Urination

70
Prenatal Medical Care
  • Prenatal Care
  • Health care during pregnancy.
  • Is essential for the health of both the expectant
    mother and her developing baby.
  • A woman who does not receive proper prenatal care
    places herself and her baby at risk.
  • Health insurance covers many or all of the costs
    of prenatal care.

71
Health Care Providers
  • A physician or other health care provider is a
    key partner in a healthy pregnancy.
  • Some women obtain prenatal care from their
    primary care physicians.
  • Most women choose an obstetrician.
  • Obstetrician
  • A medical doctor who specializes in pregnancy and
    delivery.
  • Another option is a Certified Nurse-Midwife
  • A professional trained to care for women with
    low-risk pregnancies and to deliver their babies.

72
Prenatal Examinations
  • The first visit to a womans health care provider
    takes longer than the other visits because there
    are many things to do
  • The health care provider confirms the pregnancy,
    it this was not already done in a medical office.
  • The pregnant womans height, weight, and blood
    pressure are measured.
  • The health care provider asks questions about the
    expectant parents health habits and medical
    history.
  • The expectant parents may also have questions
    they want to ask.
  • Next, the health care provider performs a
    complete physical exam.
  • This includes an internal, or pelvic exam to
    determine the size and position of the uterus.
  • In addition, a Pap test is done by gently
    scraping cells from the cervix, the narrow lower
    end of the uterus
  • Samples of the womans urine and blood are taken
    for testing.
  • Tests can reveal the presence of infections and
    other health conditions that might affect the
    pregnancy.

73
What is the Rh Factor?
  • Among other tests, doctors check the pregnant
    womans blood type and Rh factor.
  • Rh factor
  • A protein found in the blood of some people.
  • If the blood has this factor, the person has a
    positive blood type.
  • If not, the person has a negative blood type.
  • Problems can arise if the mothers Rh factor is
    negative and the babys is positive.
  • As the baby is born, the mothers immune system
    may produce antibodies against the babys blood
    cells.
  • The antibodies usually do not harm a womans
    first baby, but they can create risks for the
    fetus in any future pregnancies.
  • If the womans blood is not compatible with the
    fetuss blood, two injections are given to the
    woman to prevent problems in future pregnancies.

74
Calculating the Due Date
  • During the first visit, the health care provider
    will estimate when the baby will be born.
  • For women with regular cycles, the due date is
    calculated from the first day of the last
    menstrual period.
  • Other methods are used for women with irregular
    menstrual cycles.
  • The due date is only an estimate, since a normal
    pregnancy can last anywhere from 38 to 42 weeks.
  • Only about 4 of pregnant women deliver on their
    due dates.

75
Regular Check-Ups
  • All health car providers establish their own
    schedules for prenatal checkups.
  • After the initial consultation, visits are
    typically scheduled monthly for the first 28
    weeks and every two weeks from 28 to 36 weeks.
  • During the last month, visits are usually
    scheduled weekly to monitor the upcoming birth
    even more closely.
  • At each visit, the health care provider performs
    a physical exam.
  • Some of the test done at the first visit may be
    repeated, and additional tests may be performed
    as needed.
  • Expectant parents are encouraged to bring up any
    question or concern when they see the health care
    provider.
  • The can also phone the office if they have
    questions between visits.

76
Possible Complications
  • Most pregnancies are healthy, but various medical
    problems are possible.
  • During prenatal checkups, pregnant women are
    monitored for signs of complications such as
  • Preeclampsia
  • A disorder that involves high blood pressure,
    protein in the urine, and fluid retention.
  • Gestational Diabetes
  • A disease that causes poor processing of sugars
    in a persons body.

77
Physical and Emotional Changes
  • Pregnancy is a time of great change not only for
    the developing baby, but for both expectant
    parents.
  • Everyone recognizes the enlarging abdomen of
    pregnancy, yet thats just one of the physical
    changes the mother-to-be experiences.
  • Fewer people are familiar with the emotional
    changes that take place during pregnancy.
  • Understanding the various physical and emotional
    changes makes it easier for expectant mothers and
    fathers to cope with them.

78
Weight Gain
  • During the first trimester of pregnancy, weight
    gain is usually minimal, although most women
    experience swelling of the breasts and abdomen.
  • During the second trimester, women gain more
    weight and the pregnancy becomes apparent.
  • Most health care providers advise a healthy woman
    of normal weight to gain between 25 and 35 pounds
    during pregnancy.
  • This allows the 6 to 8 pounds for the baby and 14
    to 24 pounds for the placenta, fluids, and other
    maternal weight.
  • Adequate weight gain is important for the health
    of the baby.
  • If a pregnant woman gains too little weight, her
    baby may have low birth weight, which increase
    the risk of serious health problems.

79
Discomforts ofPregnancy
  • Many women feel fine throughout pregnancy.
  • It is not uncommon, however, for pregnant women
    to experience various types of discomfort.
  • Some of these discomforts are caused by hormonal
    changes.
  • Others result from the increasing size of the
    uterus.
  • Mild discomforts are usually nothing to be
    concerned about, and simple self-care measures
    can help bring relief.
  • A pregnant woman should immediately report any
    unusual or extreme symptoms to her health care
    provider.

80
Pregnancy Profile
  • Simulation Activity

81
Emotional Changes
  • Pregnancy is an emotional time for many women.
  • A pregnant woman may worry about the unborn
    babys health or be apprehensive about labor and
    delivery.
  • During the final weeks of pregnancy, anxieties
    and fears may increase.
  • Mood swings are common during pregnancy.
  • Some of these feelings are caused by her hormones
  • However, researchers are not yet sure of the
    exact relationship between hormonal changes and
    emotional changes.

82
Managing Stress
  • The emotional upheaval of pregnancy can be
    worsened by stress.
  • Stress is physical and mental tension that people
    experience as a result of changes and events in
    their lives.
  • Since pregnancy is certainly a life-changing
    event, stress is to be expected.
  • The key is taking steps to reduce stress to that
    is doesnt create problems.
  • Stress-reducing strategies include
  • Getting plenty of sleep each night.
  • Taking breaks to rest and relax throughout the
    day.
  • Exercising regularly.
  • Enjoying the company of family and friends.
  • Making time for fun activities.

83
Emotional Difficulties
  • Some women experience serious emotional
    difficulties, such as depression, during and
    after pregnancy.
  • Isolation, rejection, and lack of support can
    compound these problems.
  • A womans health care provider can refer her to
    sources of help.
  • The sooner aid is sought, the better it is for
    the woman, her child, and those who are
    concerned about her well-being.

84
The Expectant Fathers Emotions
  • Women and men share not just the joys of
    parenthood, but also the worries.
  • A father-to-be may feel left out because so much
    attention is directed at the pregnant woman.
  • He may also be worried about the womans and the
    babys health.
  • Some men experience sympathy symptoms, such as
    nausea, appetite changes, weight gain, fatigue,
    and mood swings.
  • Health care providers can help expectant parents
    with these other concerns.

85
Daily Activities During Pregnancy
  • Many expectant couples wonder how pregnancy will
    affect the womans daily routines.
  • In general, a normal pregnancy requires few
    restrictions on activities.
  • Most pregnant women can continue working
    throughout their pregnancy, unless their job
    poses physical risks.
  • Although most pregnant women need not restrict
    their activities, their daily routines do deserve
    thought and planning.
  • Pregnancy is a time to pay special attention to
    healthful habits, including, setting enough rest
    and exercise.

86
Rest
  • Pregnant women need plenty of rest.
  • In addition to sleeping at least 8 hours a night,
    pregnant women should plan rest periods during
    the day.
  • Rest can include whatever the pregnant woman
    finds effective, such as taking a nap, reading a
    book, listening to music, writing in a journal,
    or sitting outdoors enjoying nature.
  • At times, pregnant women may have difficulty
    sleeping, perhaps due to hormonal changes.
  • Engaging in relaxing activities in the evening
    and having a warm beverage or light snack before
    bed can make it easier to fall asleep.
  • In late pregnancy, it may be difficult to find a
    comfortable sleeping position.
  • Many pregnant women find that lying on the side
    with a pillow between the knees works well.

87
Exercise
  • Exercise is beneficial before, during, and after
    pregnancy.
  • Pregnant women who are physically fit feel better
    and will have the strength they need for labor
    and delivery.
  • Regular exercise can boost energy, combating the
    fatigue that some pregnant women experience.
  • Exercise also reduces stress and helps relieve
    many of the discomforts of pregnancy.
  • Health experts recommend pregnant women get 30
    minutes or more of physical activity each day.
  • Types of Activities
  • Walking
  • Swimming
  • Stretching

88
Precautions
  • Consult with a healthcare provider before
    beginning or changing an exercise routine.
  • Drink plenty of fluids before, during, and after
    exercise.
  • Take frequent breaks while exercising.
  • Avoid exercising in very hot or humid conditions.
  • Slow down or stop if she feels short of breath or
    uncomfortable.
  • Never exercise to the point of exhaustion.
  • Stop exercising immediately if she feels dizzy,
    has pain, or starts bleeding vaginally.

89
Personal Care and Hygiene
  • Most pregnant womens personal care and hygiene
    routines dont change.

90
Nutrition During Pregnancy
  • Good nutrition is an important part of prenatal
    care and a key to a healthy pregnancy.
  • If a pregnant woman does not get enough
    nourishment, her baby has an increased risk of
    long-term health problems.
  • By eating right, a pregnant woman nourishes the
    fetus and keeps her own body strong and healthy,
    too.

91
Calorie Needs
  • Calories measure the energy provided by food or
    used in activities.
  • A pregnant woman needs energy for her own bodys
    needs and the needs of the growing fetus, too.
  • Getting enough calories helps them both gain the
    right amount of weight.
  • A pregnant woman usually needs an extra 300
    calories per day during the last six months of
    pregnancy.
  • However, energy needs vary, so she should follow
    the advice of her health care provider.

92
Nutrient Needs
  • Along with extra calories, a pregnant woman needs
    added nutrients for herself and her developing
    baby.
  • The main nutrient groups include carbohydrates,
    proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water.
  • Each nutrient plays a different special role in
    promoting health before, during, and after
    pregnancy.

93
Healthful Eating Habits
  • A woman who is healthy and well nourished before
    she becomes pregnant has a head start on a
    healthy pregnancy.
  • Even when thats not the case, she can develop
    new eating habits by making simple changes, one
    step at a time.
  • Pregnancy is definitely not the time to skip
    meals.
  • One of the keys to good nutrition is choosing
    foods that are nutrient dense.
  • Nutrient Dense
  • The calories are packed with plenty of important
    nutrients.

94
Nutrition and Teen Pregnancy
  • A pregnant teen needs extra nutrients not only
    because of her developing fetus, but also because
    she is still growing and developing herself.
  • Therefore, her nutritional needs are greater than
    those of an adult pregnant woman.
  • To be sure she gets enough calcium, a pregnant
    teen may need extra amounts of dairy foods each
    day.
  • She should also pay special attention to getting
    enough iron and protein.

95
Are Supplements Needed
  • Although nutritious foods are the best source of
    nutrients, a womans health care provider may
    recommend a vitamin or mineral supplement before,
    during, or after pregnancy.
  • Pregnant women should not take supplements unless
    recommended by their health care provider.
  • Herbal supplements are also a cause for concern.

96
Common Nutrition Concerns
  • Food Cravings and Dislikes
  • Changing hormone levels are partly responsible
    for these.
  • A pregnant woman may find that she can longer
    stand the smell or taste of certain foods she
    previously enjoyed.
  • As long as she is eating a balanced, nutritious
    diet, these changes are nothing to worry about.
  • Caffeine
  • Limit their caffeine intake.
  • Salt and Sodium
  • Sodium needs increase during pregnancy, cutting
    back could cause problems.

97
Food Safety During Pregnancy
  • Pregnant women are at high risk for foodborne
    illness, which can cause symptoms such as
    diarrhea.
  • To reduce the risk of foodborne illness, pregnant
    women sh
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