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Title: Biology EOC Review


1
Biology EOC Review
2
Table of Contents
  • Goal 1 Scientific Method
  • Goal 2 The Chemistry of Life
  • Goal 3 Genetics Heredity
  • Goal 4 Unity Diversity of Life
  • Goal 5 Ecological Relationships

3
Goal 1 Experimental Design
  • Smithers thinks that a special juice will
    increase the productivity of workers. He creates
    two groups of 50 workers each and assigns each
    group the same task (in this case, they're
    supposed to staple a set of papers). Group A is
    given 1 cup of the special juice to drink while
    they work. Group B is given 1 cup of water. After
    an hour, Smithers counts how many stacks of
    papers each group has made. Group A made 2,113
    stacks, Group B made 1,587 stacks.

4
  • What is Smithers trying to find out?
  • Smithers is trying to find out if drinking the
    juice will increase the amount of stapling that
    can be accomplished.
  • List 3 variables that would have to be a constant
    in this experiment.
  • Type of juice, amount of juice, types of
    staplers, etc.

5
  • Which variable is the independent variable?
  • Juice is the independent variable.
  • Which variable is the dependent variable?
  • Amount of stacks of papers stapled is the
    dependent variable.
  • Is this experiment valid? Explain?
  • This appears to be a valid experiment. There is
    a good sample size, it is controlled and it tests
    a single variable.

6
Experimental Design
  • Lisa is working on a science project. Her task is
    to answer the question "Does Rogooti (which is a
    commercial hair product) affect the speed of hair
    growth". She uses her family members for this
    experiment and measures each persons hair growth
    each day for a week. Lisa has Bart use 10 mL of
    the product twice a day and his hair grows 9 cm.
    Lisa has Homer use 20 mL of the product once a
    day and his hair grows 2 cm. Lisa has her sister
    Maggy use 5 mL of the product 4 times a day and
    her hair grows 12 cm.
  • This is an example of an experiment that is not
    valid.

7
  • a. Describe 3 reasons why this experiment is not
    valid.
  • Different volumes used, sample size is small,
    amount of times used are all different.
  • b. Describe how you would change this experiment
    to make it valid.
  • Use the same amount of product on every subject.
    Increase the number of subjects. Give it the
    same number of times each day.

8
Experimental Design
  • An experiment was performed to determine how much
    fertilizer was needed to produce the most
    pumpkins on the vine.

Pumpkin A Pumpkin B Pumpkin C
Type of Pumpkin Seed Jack-O-Lantern Jack-O-Lantern Jack-O-Lantern
Amount of Water given daily (mL) 29.5 29.5 29.5
Amount of Sunlight Full sunlight Full sunlight Full sunlight
Temperature (C) 23.9 23.9 23.9
Amount of fertilizer (g) 0 200 300
Type of soil Organic Organic Organic
Day the seeds were planted 7/8/2007 7/8/2007 7/8/2007
Number of pumpkins that the vine produced 3 6 2
9
  • What is the problem?
  • Amount of fertilizer needed.
  • What is the independent variable?
  • Amount of fertilizer given.
  • What is/are the dependent variables?
  • Amount of pumpkins produced.
  • What were/are the constant(s)?
  • Type of seed, water, sun, soil type.

10
  • What is the control and why?
  • The plants that had no fertilizer because it
    would show the effect of fertilizer.
  • How much fertilizer would you use to grow the
    most pumpkins?
  • 200 grams

11
Experimental Design
  • A test was conducted to determine the highest
    possible soda geyser when placing Mentos into the
    soda.

Soda A Soda B Soda C Soda D
Type of Diet Soda Diet Coke Diet Coke Diet Coke Diet Coke
Amount of Soda in the container (L) 2 2 2 2
Temp of surroundings (C) 24 24 24 24
Temp of beverage (C) 23.9 23.9 23.9 23.9
Amount of Mentos given (g) 0 3 6 9
Day the Mentos were dropped 7/8/2007 7/8/2007 7/8/2007 7/8/2007
Est. height of soda geyser (cm) 0 250 300 300
12
  • What is the problem and the question in the above
    experiment?
  • Trying to determine the of Mentos it takes to
    create a geyser in diet soda. How many Mentos
    does it take to make the tallest geyser?
  • What is the independent variable?
  • Number of Mentos
  • What is/are the dependant variable(s)?
  • Height of geyser.
  • What were/are the constant(s)?
  • Type of soda, amount of soda, temperature of
    surroundings, temperature of beverage, day the
    Mentos were dropped.

13
  • What is the control and why?
  • No Mentos in Soda A. It would show that the
    geyser was the result of Mentos.
  • Using the information above, would you drop 9
    Mentos into the diet soda? Explain why or why
    not.
  • No..9 Mentos produced the same result as 6
    Mentos. It would not make a higher geyser.

14
Goal 2 Chemistry of Life
  • What is an organic compound?
  • An organic compound has carbon atoms bonded to
    hydrogen. Organic biomolecules are proteins,
    lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids.
  • What is an inorganic compound?
  • Any compound that does not contain carbon atoms
    bonded to hydrogen.

15
  • CARBOHYDRATES
  • Subunits
  • monosaccharides are the monomers
  • Function
  • energy storage source of quick energy
  • Contains which elements out of CHNOPS?
  • CHO
  • Examples
  • Glucose, Sucrose, Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose,
    Chitin

16
  • LIPIDS
  • Subunits
  • triglycerides contain 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acid
    chains unsaturated fats have CC double bonds
    saturated fats do not
  • Function
  • Energy storage insulation
  • Contains which elements out of CHNOPS?
  • CHO
  • Examples
  • Fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids

17
  • PROTEINS
  • Subunits
  • amino acids build polypeptide chains proteins
    are made of one or more polypeptide chains
  • Function
  • proteins form structure (hair, skin,nails,
    hemoglobin) and also function as enzymes
  • Contains which elements out of CHNOPS?
  • CHNOS
  • Examples
  • Enzymes such as amylase, sucrase, lactase
    Structure such as keratin, hemoglobin

18
  • NUCLEIC ACIDS
  • Subunits
  • nucleotides (sugar, phosphate and nitrogen base)
  • Function
  • carry instructions for the genetic code
  • Contains which elements out of CHNOPS?
  • CHNOP
  • Examples
  • DNA, RNA

19
  • Explain the function of the following
  • Starch
  • plant polysaccharide stored energy
  • Cellulose
  • plant polysaccharide that forms cell fibers
  • Insulin
  • hormone that changes blood glucose to glycogen to
    be stored in the liver
  • Glycogen
  • polysaccharide in animal cells
  • Enzymes
  • proteins which act as catalysts in living systems

20
  • Glucose
  • monosaccharide sugar reactant in cellular
    respiration to produce ATP product of
    photosynthesis
  • Hemoglobin
  • protein molecule in red blood cells that carries
    oxygen
  • Fats
  • stored form of energy in animals insulation
  • DNA
  • nucleic acid in chromatin contains hereditary
    info in the sequence of nucleotides
  • RNA
  • ribonucleic acid made as a transcript of DNA to
    code for a specific protein

21
  • Match the test with the organic molecule
  • Test for Lipids
  • translucent spot with oil on brown paper
  • Test for Simple Sugars
  • Benedicts test (turquoise blue solution turns
    orange when heated in the presence of glucose)
  • Test for Proteins
  • Biuret test turns purple in the presence of
    protein
  • Test for Starches
  • Starch turns blue-black with iodine

22
  • List the function and describe the structure of
    the following organelles
  • Nucleus
  • Spherical structure that contains chromatin
    (DNA) therefore the control center of the cell
  • Plasma membrane
  • Phospholipid bilayer that surrounds the cell it
    is selectively permeable
  • Cell wall
  • Rigid structure which surrounds a plant cell or
    bacteria or fungi cell (as well as some protists!)

23
  • Mitochondria
  • Oval structure with highly folded inner membrane
    cellular respiration occurs here to produce ATP
  • Vacuoles
  • Membrane bound organelles that act as storage for
    food or water. Water vacuoles in plant cells are
    large and maintain the turgor pressure for the
    cell.
  • Chloroplast
  • Membranous organelle where photosynthesis occurs.
  • Ribosomes
  • Nonmembranous organelle where protein synthesis
    occurs both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

24
  • Explain how a compound light microscope works.
  • Magnification through a series of lenses.
  • Draw the way a lowercase letter e would look
    under a microscope
  • Upside down and backwards.
  • How do you determine total magnification?
  • Ocular lens x Objective lens

e
25
  • List the hierarchy of cell organization from
    largest to smallest below
  • Organism, organ system, organ, tissue, cell,
    organelle.
  • How is the structure of the cell related to its
    function? Give 2 examples with drawings.
  • A nerve cell has long fibers to communicate with
    other nerve cells. A sperm cell has a tail to
    swim toward the egg.

26
  • What is the importance of chemical signals
    between cells? Give one example.
  • This allows cells to communicate with each other,
    cellular proteins control what enters and leaves
    the cell.
  • Example Carrier proteins, blood type proteins
    antigen-antibody reactions.

27
  • What is the purpose of receptor proteins?
  • Receptor proteins will receive a molecule and
    send a chemical message or allow the molecule to
    enter the cell.
  • What is the purpose of hormones?
  • Hormones are chemical signals that regulate
    certain pathways for maintenance of homeostasis.

28
  • Compare and contrast eukaryotic cells and
    prokaryotic cells.
  • Prokaryotic cells (Bacteria) have no organized
    nucleus or membrane bound organelles. Eukaryotic
    cells have a nucleus and membrane bound
    organelles.
  • Compare and contrast plant cells and animal
    cells.
  • Plant cells have a cell wall, large water
    vacuoles and chloroplasts. Animal cells do not
    have cell walls, their vacuoles are small and
    they do not have chloroplasts.

29
  • List 5 characteristics of living things.
  • Organization
  • Reproduction
  • Growth and Development
  • Respond to a Stimulus
  • Maintain Homeostasis

30
  • What is homeostasis?
  • Homeostasis is the ability to maintain a balance.
  • What 4 things need to be maintained when
    maintaining homeostasis?
  • Temperature, water, pH and nutrients.

31
  • What is salinity?
  • Measure of the salt concentration in water.
  • How do cells maintain homeostasis?
  • Cells maintain homeostasis with a selectively
    permeable membrane.

32
  • Explain why water is important to cells.
  • Water makes up about 75 to 90 of cell mass. It
    is a good solvent and a good temperature
    regulator as well as transport agent.

33
  • Define
  • Active transport
  • Ability to move molecules against a concentration
    gradient
  • Passive transport
  • Simple diffusion movement of molecules with
    their concentration gradient (from high to low
    concentration)
  • Diffusion
  • Movement of molecules from areas of high
    concentration to areas of low concentration
  • Osmosis
  • Diffusion of water
  • Semi-permeable membranes
  • AKA plasma membranes do not allow everything to
    filter through

34
  • On the line above the arrow, label osmosis or
    diffusion. To the right of the arrow, draw the
    end result.

35
diffusion
osmosis
osmosis
36
  • Changes in osmotic pressure
  • Which direction will the water move?

37
  • The water will move to from the right side of the
    tube to the left side of the tube. Water
    diffuses from areas of high concentration of
    water to areas of low concentration of water.
    The water level on the left side of the u tube
    will go up.

38
  • What is the main source of energy for all cells?
  • Glucose produced during photosynthesis
  • How do cells store and use energy (hint-
    Adenosine.)
  • ATP (Adenosine triphosphate)

39
  • What organic molecule is an enzyme?
  • Enzymes are proteins
  • What is the function of an enzyme?
  • Acts as a catalyst in a biochemical reaction
  • Explain the process of an enzyme binding to the
    active site of a substrate molecule.
  • Enzyme Substrate ? Enzyme-Substrate Complex ?
    Enzyme Product(s)
  • The active site is specific for its substrate.
    There are two models (lock-and-key and induced
    fit). The active site puts the reactant(s) in
    formation for the proper chemical reaction.

40
  • How do temperature and pH affect enzymes?
  • Each enzyme has an optimum temperature and pH
    that allow it to be most active. Temperature
    will generally speed enzyme action until it
    denatures the enzyme protein. pH changes beyond
    optimum will modify bonding in the enzyme and
    cause it to change shape.
  • Can an enzyme be reused?
  • Yes! The enzyme can be used over and over again.

41
  • Is an enzyme specific to a particular job?
  • Yesi.e. sucrase works on sucrose
  • Draw an enzyme doing a general job and label the
    parts.
  • See enzyme-substrate complex in your book pg162

42
  • Define
  • aerobic respiration
  • aerobic respiration requires oxygen to be
    present it produces 36-38 molecules of ATP
    utilizing the mitochondria membrane system
  • anaerobic respiration
  • produces a very small amount of ATP (2) occurs
    in the absence of oxygen

43
  • Write the equation for aerobic respiration
  • C6 H12O6 6O2 ? 6CO2 6H2O 36-38 ATP
  • What are the reactants and what are the products
    of aerobic respiration?
  • Reactants C6H12O6 6O2
  • Products 6CO2 6H2O 36-38 ATP

44
  • Write the equation for anaerobic respiration
  • C6H12O6 ? 2C3H6O3 2 ATP
  • Glucose ? Lactic Acid Energy
  • What are the reactants and what are the products
    of anaerobic respiration?
  • Reactants C6H12O6
  • Products 2C3H6O3 2 ATP

45
  • What is the equation for photosynthesis?
  • 6CO2 6H2O ? C6H12O6 6O2
  • What are the reactants of photosynthesis?
  • 6CO2 6H2O
  • What are the products of photosynthesis?
  • C6H12O6 6O2

46
  • What organisms carry out aerobic respiration?
  • All living organisms carry out cellular
    respiration (even plants) with the exception of a
    few anaerobic bacteria.
  • What organisms carry out photosynthesis?
  • Plants that have chlorophyll pigment.

47
  • What factors affect the rate of photosynthesis?
  • Temperature
  • Light
  • Chlorophyll presence
  • Concentration of the substrate

48
  • What factors affect the rate of cellular
    respiration?
  • Temperature
  • Enzymes
  • Concentration of reactants

49
  • Which type of cellular respiration produces the
    most ATP?
  • Aerobic respiration produces about 36 more ATP
    than anaerobic respiration.

50
  • Name and explain the two types of anaerobic
    respiration.
  • Alcoholic fermentation produces a net of 2 ATP
    from the breakdown of glucose through glycolysis
    and then pyruvate forms alcohol.
  • Lactic acid fermentation occurs in muscle tissue
    when oxygen supply is low. It produces lactic
    acid and 2 ATP.

51
Goal 3 Genetics Heredity
  • Compare and contrast the structure of DNA with
    that of RNA.
  • DNA is double stranded and has deoxyribose and
    thymine
  • RNA is single stranded and has ribose sugar and
    uracil

52
  • Where is the DNA located within a prokaryotic
    cell?
  • Not within a nucleusexists as a nucleoid with
    chromosome and circular plasmids
  • Within a eukaryotic cell?
  • DNA is in chromosomes within the nucleus

53
  • Name the nitrogen bases found in DNA and what
    they bond to.
  • Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine
  • A-T G-C
  • Name the nitrogen bases found in RNA and what
    they bond to.
  • Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, and Cytosine
  • A-U G-C

54
  • Why is the sequence of nucleotides so important?
  • The sequence of bases determines the sequence
    that amino acids are placed in to make a specific
    type of polypeptide.

55
  • Describe the process of DNA replication.
  • DNA replication is semiconservative. The double
    helix unwinds and exposes nitrogen bases which
    complementary bases will come in and pair
    opposite the regular strand. Each new DNA
    molecule is half the original helix and half new
    helix.

56
  • What is a mutation?
  • A mutation occurs when there is a problem with
    the sequence of nitrogen bases to make any type
    of protein.
  • Point Mutations
  • Frame-shift Mutations

57
  • Where does DNA replication occur during the cell
    cycle?
  • During the S (synthesis) phase of the cell cycle.
  • Why are there hydrogen bonds between each
    nitrogen base?
  • These hydrogen bonds are weak. They are formed
    easily and given up easily. This allows base
    pairs to form during replication and
    transcription.

58
  • Describe the process of transcription and where
    it occurs.
  • Transcription occurs in the nucleus. The coding
    strand of DNA acts as a template for RNA
    synthesis.

59
  • Describe the process of translation and where it
    occurs.
  • Translation occurs at the ribosome of cells.
    mRNA moves from the nucleus to the ribosome.
    tRNA carries a specific amino acid to the mRNA on
    the ribosome. As the amino acids are put in
    place, they form peptide bonds with each other.
    The new protein strand leaves the nucleus.

60
  • Explain gene expression.
  • A gene is a portion of a DNA molecule that codes
    for one polypeptide chain or one protein.
  • Gene expression means that the protein is
    synthesized so that the character is evident.

61
  • Explain cell differentiation.
  • Even though all cells in an individual have the
    same DNA, only certain portions that the cell
    needs to function will be transcribed so that
    cells become different in appearance and function
    from cells of other tissue types.

62
  • What are the disadvantages to cell
    differentiation?
  • The advantage of cellular differentiation is that
    there are special cells for special functions.
    Nerve cells have long fibers for communication.
    Blood cells are specialized to carry oxygen.

63
  • Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.
  • Mitosis is the division of the replicated
    contents of the nucleus of somatic cells such
    that new cells formed will be exactly like the
    parent cell.
  • Meiosis is the formation of gametes (egg and
    sperm) with only half of the chromosome number.

64
  • Be able to put pictures of cells in various
    stages of the cell cycle in order.IPMATC

65
  • Define
  • Diploid
  • Complete set of chromosomes the number of
    chromosomes in all body cells with the exception
    of gametes. 2n
  • In humans, 46
  • Haploid
  • Half set of chromosomes the number of
    chromosomes in all mature sex cells. n
  • In humans, 23

66
  • What is crossing over?
  • Crossing over is the exchange of genetic
    information between homologous pairs of
    chromosomes.
  • When does crossing over occur?
  • Crossing over occurs during Prophase I of Meiosis
    I.

67
  • What is the benefit of crossing over?
  • The benefit of crossing over is to increase
    variation in the gametes. This helps survival in
    the population as multiple combinations of
    alleles occurs with a greater chance that one
    change in the environment will not eliminate the
    entire species.

68
  • What is the law of independent assortment?
  • The gametes will not always contain the same
    member of the homologous pair of chromosomes.
  • http//www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/co
    ntent/independentassortment.html
  • How does it increase variation?
  • All the gametes are going to be different from
    each other.

69
  • What is nondisjunction?
  • Nondisjunction is the failure of homologous
    chromosome pairs to separate during anaphase I of
    meiosis. This results in gametes having more or
    less chromosomes than they are supposed to have.

70
  • Draw nondisjunction.

71
  • How does nondisjunction result in variation?
  • http//www.biostudio.com/d_20Meiotic20Nondisjunc
    tion20Meiosis20I.htm

72
  • Define
  • Dominant
  • allele in a pair that is expressed
  • Recessive
  • allele in a pair that is not expressed unless
    both alleles are recessive
  • Homozygous
  • RR or rr, for example both alleles are the same
  • Heterozygous
  • Rr, for example alleles are different
  • Genotype
  • Representation of the genes.Rr is a genotype
  • Phenotype
  • The appearance of a genotype (round, green, etc.)

73
  • What 2 things is phenotype the result of?
  • The phenotype is the result of the genes and the
    environment.

74
  • In a genetics laboratory, two heterozygous tall
    plants were crossed. If tall is domiannt over
    short, what are the expected phenotypic results?
  • Tt x Tt
  • 75 tall and 25 short

75
  • If one homozygous short plant is crossed with a
    heterozygous tall plant, what percentage of the
    offspring will be short?
  • Tt x tt
  • 50

76
  • What are the genotypes of the parents that would
    produce 25 short and 75 tall plants?
  • Tt x Tt

77
  • What are the genotypes of the parents that would
    produce 50 short and 50 tall pea plants?
  • Tt x tt

78
  • Look at the karyotype pictured in your review
    packet, on question 79. What can you state
    about this individual?
  • This individual has trisomy-21 or Down Syndrome.

79
  • Explain the characteristics of the following
  • Colorblindness
  • sex-linked trait disorder is more common in
    males than in females.
  • Huntingtons disease
  • autosomal dominant trait which is not expressed
    until 40s to 50s.
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Autosomal recessive trait.
  • Sickle cell
  • Autosomal recessive trait Heterozygote has
    resistance to malaria.
  • Hemophilia
  • sex-linked trait with inability to clot blood
    properly.

80
Sample incomplete dominance question
  • When red and white flowers are crossed, pink
    flowers are produced. What is expected when two
    pink flowers cross?
  • The phenotypes of the offspring are expected to
    be 121 for redpinkwhite

81
Blood type (multiple allele, codominant)
  • Mr. Jones has blood type A and Mrs. Jones has
    blood type AB. What is the probability that they
    will have a child with blood type A if both of
    Mr. Jones parents were AB?
  • AA x AB
  • 50

82
  • Is it possible for a male with blood type A to
    have a child of blood type O with a female whose
    blood type is B?
  • Yes..if both parents are heterozygous
  • AO x BO

83
  • Why are males more likely to express a sex linked
    trait?
  • There is nothing on the y chromosome to be a
    dominant allele over the recessive allele on the
    x chromosome. Females have an opportunity to
    have a dominant trait on the other x chromosome.

84
Sample sex-linked trait
  • Colorblindness is a sex linked recessive trait.
    A mother with normal color vision and a color
    blind father have a color blind daughter. Which
    of the following statements is correct?
  • A. All of their daughters will be colorblind.
  • B. The mother is a carrier of the color
    blindness gene.
  • All of their sons will have normal color vision.
  • All of their sons will be color blind.

85
Sample test cross question
  • Black color is dominant over white in rats. In
    order to determine whether a black rat is
    homozygous or heterozygous for the color trait,
    the rat should go through a test or back cross.
    That means that the black rat would be mated to a
  • Heterozygous black rat
  • Hybrid white rate
  • C. White rat.
  • D. Homozygous black rat

86
  • In a pedigree, an open circle indicates that the
    person is a female and the solid square indicates
    that the person is male with the trait.

87
Look at pedigree on question 87.
  • What is the genotype of individual I-1?
  • Homozygous recessive
  • What is the genotype of II-4?
  • Heterozygous
  • If someone with the genotype similar to II-7 had
    children with someone with the same genotype as
    III-3, what are the chances that their children
    will be affected?
  • 100

88
  • What is a polygenic trait?
  • A polygenic trait is one where there are several
    genes for the trait, such as skin color where
    there is a range of color from very light to very
    dark.
  • aabbcc to AABBCC

89
  • What were the reasons for establishing the human
    genome project?
  • To determine the sequence of the human genometo
    possibly offer gene therapy for disease.

90
  • How has the human genome project benefited
    humans?
  • Determination of genetic markers for disease
    production of human insulin via recombinant DNA
    in bacteria.

91
  • How can DNA technology allow us to
  • A. Identify an individual?
  • DNA fingerprint
  • B. Identify a persons parents?
  • DNA fingerprint in comparison with parents.
  • C. Investigate a crime scene?
  • DNA fingerprint of suspect in comparison to
    sample left at crime scene.
  • What is an amniocentesis?
  • Puncture of the amniotic sac surrounding a fetus
    to obtain fetal cells in the amniotic fluid.
    Cells are cultured and a karyotype demonstrates
    the fetal chromosomes.

92
  • What is a transgenic organism and give an
    example.
  • A transgenic organism is created by recombination
    of DNA from two different species. An example
    would be a bacteria cell that has had human
    insulin DNA inserted into its plasmid.

93
  • What is cloning?
  • Cloning is making an exact copy of an organism
    using an insertion of a somatic cell nucleus into
    the egg cell of the surrogate mother. The
    resultant zygote will have the same exact genome
    as the donor of the somatic cell.

94
  • What is gel electrophoresis?
  • Protein or DNA samples are placed in wells and
    then subjected to an electric current. The
    molecules will separate according to their weight
    and leave characteristic fingerprints across a
    gel medium.

95
Question 95 in packet
  • Which suspect committed the crime?
  • Suspect 3 because the bands match the criminal
    blood found at the scene of the crime.

96
  • What are some ethical implications and dangers of
    biotechnology?
  • Dangers include the creation of organisms which
    have no natural predator and a potential
    imbalance in the ecosystem, moral implications of
    creating clones of humans, release of information
    about genetic markers for disease to employers or
    insurance companies.

97
  • Contrast abiogenesis and biogenesis with
    experiments to support both.
  • Abiogenesis is the same as spontaneous
    generation. There is really no experimental
    evidence to support spontaneous generation, or
    the formation of life from something that is
    nonliving, other than early observations before
    technology was available to demonstrate
    otherwise.
  • Biogenesis means life coming from something that
    is alive. Redi and Pasteur proved biogenesis
    with the fly experiment with the jars of rotting
    meat. No flies appeared on the meat that had
    been covered with net. Air was able to get in
    but not the flies and no eggs were laid on the
    meat and no maggots appeared on the meat.
    Pasteurs crooked necked flasks demonstrated that
    microbes in the air were trapped in the curve of
    the neck of the flask. When the broth came in
    contact with this area, the broth became cloudy,
    demonstrating that the microbes had the nutrients
    to be able to grow and reproduce in the broth.

98
  • What did Louis Pasteur contribute to our
    understanding of the origins of life?
  • See previous answer regarding the crooked neck
    flasks.

99
  • What can we infer from the fossil record?
  • Gradual evolution of new species forms.
    Extinction of some forms. Similarities and
    differences of ancestral species to recent forms.
  • Where do you find the oldest/youngest fossils?
  • Oldest forms are going to be in the lowest rock
    layers of sedimentary rock and the youngest
    fossils are going to be in the top layers.

100
  • What was the Earths early atmosphere made up of?
  • Water vapor, ammonia, methane and hydrogen gases.

101
  • What were the first living organisms to live on
    earth?
  • Anaerobic bacteria
  • How did they obtain energy?
  • They were heterotrophs.they fed on organic
    molecules in the ocean.

102
  • How did the first living organisms evolve?
  • The first life forms may have been prokaryotes
    that evolved from protocells (large organized
    structures surrounded by a membrane).

103
  • Explain how biochemical similarities support
    evolution.
  • If DNA is the only molecule that passes from
    generation to generation, the products of DNA
    (proteins) are going to be similar in organisms
    that have a common ancestor.

104
  • Explain how anatomical similarities support
    evolution.
  • Similarly, common anatomy is coded for by similar
    sequences of DNA from common ancestors.

105
  • Define natural selection.
  • This is the theory developed by Darwin and
    Wallace. Organisms will produce more organisms
    than can possibly survive, there is a struggle
    for existence with those organisms best adapted
    for survival able to survive and reproduce more
    like themselves. Survival of the Fittest

106
  • How are variation and natural selection related?
  • Variation in the gene pool allows us to
    understand that within any population some will
    be better adapted for survival and some less
    better adapted. The frequency of the genes that
    code for traits that have a selective advantage
    will increase in the population.

107
  • Describe coevolution and give an example.
  • Coevolution is when two different and unrelated
    organisms both evolve structures which allow them
    to be mutually successful. An example is insect
    pollinators and flowers. The insects have
    mouthparts to collect nectar and carry pollen on
    their bodies and the flowers produce nectar for
    the insects.

108
  • What is geographic isolation?
  • Geographic isolation is when portions of
    populations become separated via some geographic
    barrier (river, ocean, canyon, etc.). The
    separated populations will create independent
    gene pools and may eventually become different
    enough genetically that even if reunited with the
    original population, mating will not occur and a
    new species has been formed.

109
  • What is reproductive isolation?
  • Reproductive isolation occurs when populations
    become increasingly different from each other
    such that even if organisms previously mated with
    each other and produced fertile offspring, they
    are no longer able to do so. Geographic
    isolation leads to reproductive isolation.

110
  • Describe Charles Darwins theory of natural
    selection.
  • Organisms produce more than can possibly survive.
  • Populations tend to be stable.
  • There is a struggle for existence. There is
    variation within populations.
  • Survival of the fittest.
  • Survivors will reproduce more like themselves and
    the frequency of the other variants decreases.

111
  • Describe how the following are related to natural
    selection.
  • 1. pesticide resistance
  • 2. antibiotic resistance
  • In both cases, initial use of a pesticide or an
    antibiotic will kill the weakest in the
    population. The stronger organisms will survive
    to reproduce. Eventually the population will be
    made up of the strongest or most resistant
    organisms. This is natural selection.

112
Goal 4 Unity Diversity
  • How does our modern classification system show
    the evolutionary relationship among organisms?
  • Taxonomists consider the genetic makeup of
    organisms to reveal their evolutionary
    relationships to other organisms.

113
  • Originally, how many kingdoms were there? Why?
  • Originally there were two kingdoms.plant and
    animal..Organisms were placed in either of these
    two kingdoms based on general differences.

114
  • List the 7 levels of classification from largest
    to smallest.
  • KPCOFGS
  • Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus,
    Species

115
  • Bacteria
  • pro/eu auto/hetero uni/multi
  • Protists
  • pro/eu auto/hetero uni/multi
  • Plants
  • pro/eu auto/hetero uni/multi
  • Animals
  • pro/eu auto/hetero uni/multi

116
Dichotomous Key See question 116
  • 1a the animal has 8 legs..Arachnida
  • b the animals has 6 legs.Go to 2
  • 2a the animal has spots..Coleoptera
  • b the animal has stripes..Lepisiota
  • A Arachnida B Coleoptera C Lepisiota

117
Question 117
  • Which would be the most primitive organism on the
    cladogram?
  • The most primitive organism on the cladogram
    would be the one ray-finned fish.

118
  • What two organisms would have the most similar
    DNA?
  • Crocodiles and birds
  • Why did you choose these two organisms?
  • They have the most common ancestral branches.
    On the EOC this would be a multiple choice
    question.

119
BACTERIA
  • Reproduction
  • Usually asexual (binary fission), however may
    reproduce sexually by exchange of DNA.
  • How they Eat
  • Varies with the species.Some are decomposers,
    some are autotrophic (make their own food), some
    are heterotrophic (rely on others for food).
  • How they regulate their internal environment
  • Bacteria are single celled organisms and are
    subject to environmental conditions. They do
    produce endospores when environmental conditions
    are poor (temperature, chemicals, water) that
    allow them to survive until the environmental
    conditions improve. Metabolism is controlled by
    enzymes. Most bacteria are aerobic but some are
    anaerobic.

120
PROTISTS (protozoans like amoeba and paramecium,
sporozoans like Malaria, plant-like protists like
algae and Euglena)
  • Reproduction
  • May reproduce both asexually and sexually. Algae
    demonstrate alternation of generations between
    sporophyte and gametophyte generations.
    Parasitic protists (like malaria Plasmodium) have
    advanced reproductive capabilities within their
    host.
  • How they eat
  • Some are heterotrophic, some are autotrophic and
    some are parasitic. They are also some protists
    that act as decomposers (slime molds, water
    molds, downy mildews).
  • How they regulate their internal environment
  • Protists are more advanced than bacteria in this
    regard.Paramecia have mechanisms to balance
    water (contractile vacuole). Photosynthetic
    protists need to be able to seek light.

121
NONVASCULAR PLANTS (MOSSES)
  • Reproduction
  • Moss plants reproduce in an alternation of
    generations. The sporophyte generation produces
    spores which germinate to produce gametophytes
    which then produce gametes. Fertilization of a
    gamete produces a zygote which will develop into
    a sporophyte.
  • How they eat
  • Moss plants are nonvascular plants and obtain
    water by diffusion. This also limits their size.
    Moss plants are photosynthetic and therefore
    they make their own food.
  • HOW THEY REGULATE THEIR INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
  • Moss plants do have stomates to regulate water
    loss and gas exchange.

122
GYMNOSPERMS (pine trees, juniper trees)
  • HOW THEY REPRODUCE
  • Pine trees have male pollen cones and female
    cones. The pollen is airborne and will stick on
    the sticky female cones. Seeds of conifers
    develop at the base of each woody scale of female
    cones and have wings to drift away from the
    parent plant once the cone opens. There is no
    fruit covering the seed and thus gymnosperms are
    naked seed plants.
  • HOW THEY EAT
  • Gymnosperms are photosynthetic plants and thus
    they make their own food.
  • HOW THEY REGULATE THEIR INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
  • The shape of the tree helps the tree to shed
    snow. The leaves are needle-shaped and waxy so
    that they do not lose water from winter drying.
    The leaves are evergreen so that they can carry
    on photosynthesis whenever possible during the
    year...

123
ANGIOSPERMS
  • REPRODUCTION
  • Produce flowers and fruits. Angiosperms have
    seeds covered with some type of fleshy ovary.
    Double fertilization produces an embryo plus a
    food source within the seed. Pollination
    strategies attract insect/bird pollinators.
    Seed dispersal techniques spread seeds for
    germination away from the parent plant.
  • HOW THEY EAT
  • Angiosperms are plants and therefore obtain their
    food via photosynthesis. They are vascular
    plants and therefore can absorb water and
    nutrients via roots in the soil.
  • REGULATION OF INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
  • Stomates control water loss from the leaves via
    transpiration. Plant hormones control flowering
    response and bending of stems towards light by
    differential growth of the stem.

124
  • Explain the feeding adaptations of animals.
  • Animals are adapted to be herbivores, carnivores
    or omnivores. Teeth structure, mouth parts,
    digestive enzymes and perhaps symbiotic gut
    organisms to aid in digestion will be a part of
    adaptations to be successful feeders.

125
  • What are the reproductive adaptations that
    offered the most success to animals?
  • Behavioral adaptations for mate recognition,
    increased parental care for young, balance of
    amount of eggs/sperm produced with success of
    fertilization. Greater protection and
    nutrition of developing egg.amniote egg.

126
  • What are the reproductive adaptations that offer
    the most success to plants?
  • Pollination coevolution, protected seed in
    angiosperms, techniques for seed dispersal,
    evolution of flowering plants. Pollen tube
    fertilization process in angiosperms.

127
  • Are viruses living or nonliving? Explain.
  • As humans, we like to classify things because it
    helps us understand the physical world. Viruses
    must have a host cell to live and reproduce.
    Outside of the host cell, viruses are pieces of
    genetic molecules that can do nothing by
    themselves. Viruses are right on the border
    between living and nonliving. Some biologists
    currently see the virus as a nonliving infectious
    particle. Other biologists disagree and suggest
    they are alive because of what happens inside the
    host cell.

128
  • Compare and contrast viruses and bacteria in
    regard to their structure.

129
  • How can someone get
  • Influenza virus/bacteria?
  • HIV virus/bacteria?
  • Streptococcus virus/bacteria?
  • Small Pox virus/bacteria?

Virus
Virus
Bacteria
Virus
130
  • Compare and contrast mimicry and camouflage.
  • Camouflage and mimicry are adaptations some
    animals use as protection from predators. An
    animal that uses camouflage looks like things in
    its environment. It might look like a leaf, a
    twig, or a rock. Animals that use mimicry use
    colors and markings to look like another animal.

131
  • How do each of the following help plants to
    survive?
  • Phototropism
  • allows plants to grow towards light to capture
    sunlight for photosynthesis.
  • Gravitropism
  • allows plants to have roots growing downward to
    seek water.
  • Thigmotropism
  • allows plants to grow attached to something they
    contact for support of stems to seek sunlight for
    photosynthesis.

132
  • What are some adaptations that allow plants to
    survive on land as compared to water?
  • Angiosperms have fertilization via pollen tubes
    to reach ovum and so sperm do not need to have
    water to swim in. Plants also have vascular
    tissues which transport water from one part of
    the plant to another. Plants also have a waxy
    cuticle on leaves to prevent drying out.

133
  • What are some adaptations that allow animals to
    survive on land as compared to water?
  • Amniote egg with a shell protects developing
    embryo with a food source and fluid. Lung
    structures for gas exchange as opposed to gills.
    Protective keratin on skin to prevent drying out.

134
  • Describe how genetics and environment affect
  • Malnutrition (both obesity and undernourishment)
  • Genetics may determine metabolism tendency.
    Level of absorption of nutrients may be
    genetically determined. Free will and behavior
    may control eating tendencies.
  • Diabetes
  • Genetics may increase tendency toward inability
    of cells to recognize or produce insulin.
    Dietary behavior may influence metabolism.
    Pancreatic viruses may decrease ability of the
    pancreas to produce insulin.
  • Lung cancer
  • May inherit tendency toward lung cancer.
    Environmental influence may be tars from
    cigarette smoking, exposure to secondary smoke,
    exposure to asbestos.

135
  • Skin cancer
  • Decreased melanin production is genetically
    determined. Environmental would be exposure of
    skin to UV light which would act as a mutagen.
  • PKU
  • Patients inherit recessive gene for PKU.
    Exposure to phenylalanine in diet is
    environmental.
  • Vitamin D
  • Skin will produce vitamin D with exposure to
    sunlight. A decreased exposure to sunlight will
    decrease level of vitamin D produced.
  • Folic Acid
  • Helps prevent neural tube defects in embryos.

136
  • Describe what causes
  • Mercury poisoning
  • Mercury poisoning can be caused by any number of
    methods of exposure. Amalgam dental fillings are
    a main cause, other causes are eating fish that
    have been exposed to mercury in the environment,
    industrial and work place exposures such as those
    in the paint industry, even in the hospital (and
    home) setting poses a potential threat to mercury
    poisoning because of the mercury in thermometers,
    dropping or somehow breaking a single thermometer
    is a very hazardous situation even without
    touching the mercury because of the vapors
    produced by the mercury. Some other sources of
    mercury are cosmetics. There have been several
    cases of mercury poisoning in the south western
    states by a company that sold a beauty cream with
    "calomel" listed as an ingredient. Calomel is
    mercurous chloride (HgCl2). This product had
    mercury levels around 10.
  • Lead poisoning
  • Lead poisoning is usually caused by months or
    years of exposure to small amounts of lead at
    home, work, or day care. It can also happen very
    quickly with exposure to high concentrations. The
    most common source of lead exposure for children
    is lead-based paint and dust and soil that are
    contaminated by it.

137
  • Describe the general life cycle of a parasite.

138
  • What are T cells?
  • The T cells are specialized white blood cells
    (lymphocytes) who act like soldiers to search out
    and destroy the targeted invaders (viruses and
    bacteria)

139
  • What are B cells?
  • B cells are a type of white blood cell (called a
    b-lymphocyte) that produce antibodies.
    Antibodies react with antigens (virus particles
    or bacterial cells).

140
  • How are vaccines used to keep people healthy?
  • A vaccine is a substance consisting of weakened,
    dead or incomplete portions of pathogens or
    antigens that when injected into the body cause
    an immune response. Vaccines produce immunity
    because they prompt the body to react as if it
    were naturally infected.

141
  • Define the following innate behaviors
  • Phototaxis
  • Movement of a cell or organism towards (positive
    phototaxis) or away from a source of light
    (negative phototaxis).
  • Migration
  • Seasonal movement to an area for breeding.
  • Hibernation
  • Hibernation is a state of inactivity and
    metabolic depression in animals, characterized by
    lower body temperature, slower breathing, and
    lower metabolic rate. Hibernating animals
    conserve energy, especially during winter when
    food is short, tapping energy reserves, body fat,
    at a slow rate.
  • Estivation
  • A temporary state of inactivity during a time
    that the animal is usually active. An example of
    estivation may be snails that go into a dormant
    state in summer months if it is too hot or too
    dry.
  • Instinct (suckling)
  • An instinct is a complex pattern of innate
    behavior. Instinctive behavior begins when the
    animal recognizes a stimulus and continues until
    all parts of the behavior have been performed.

142
  • Define the following learned behaviors
  • Imprinting
  • An animal learns the characteristics of its
    parent. Lorenz demonstrated how
    incubator-hatched geese would imprint on the
    first suitable moving stimulus they saw within
    what he called a "critical period" between 13-16
    hours shortly after hatching.
  • Conditioning
  • Classical Conditioning is the type of learning
    made famous by Pavlov's experiments with dogs.
    The gist of the experiment is this Pavlov
    presented dogs with food, and measured their
    salivary response (how much they drooled). Then
    he began ringing a bell just before presenting
    the food. At first, the dogs did not begin
    salivating until the food was presented. After a
    while, however, the dogs began to salivate when
    the sound of the bell was presented. They learned
    to associate the sound of the bell with the
    presentation of the food. As far as their
    immediate physiological responses were concerned,
    the sound of the bell became equivalent to the
    presentation of the food.
  • Habituation
  • a reduction in a previously-displayed response
    when no reward or punishment follows
  • Trial and error
  • A person learns by trial and error if he
    occasionally tries out new strategies, rejecting
    choices that are erroneous in the sense that they
    do not lead to higher payoffs.

143
  • Define the following social behaviors
  • Courtship
  • Animal activity that results in mating and
    reproduction. Courtship may simply involve a few
    chemical, visual, or auditory stimuli, or it may
    be a highly complex series of acts by two or more
    individuals using several modes of communication.
  • Communication
  • responding to a stimulus via sight, smell,
    hearing, electrocommunication.
  • Territoriality
  • Territoriality is a type of intraspecific or
    interspecific competition that results from the
    behavioral exclusion of others from a specific
    space that is defended as territory. This
    well-defined behavior is exhibited through songs
    and calls, intimidation behavior, attack and
    chase, and marking with scents. The benefits
    would be nutritional or reproductive.

144
  • Explain how certain animal behaviors such as
    courtship and other behaviors may have evolved.
  • Evolution of animal behaviors was probably
    because the behavior gave a selective advantage
    for the animal to survive.

145
Goal 5 Ecological Relationships
  • Explain the difference between biotic and abiotic
    factors.
  • Biotic factors are the living factors in the
    ecosystem (predators, prey, all organisms of the
    food chain or web).

146
  • How do limiting factors affect carrying capacity?
  • A population will continue to grow until the
    limiting factor in the lowest amount runs out.
    (space, food supply, etc.)

147
  • Define these types of symbiotic relationships
  • Mutualism
  • Both organisms benefit
  • Commensalism
  • One benefits and t
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