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Title: LSP_MAIN


1
LSP_MAIN
Language Structure Practice
Introduction Activity
Main Teaching Points
Practice
Practice I
Practice II
Practice III
Practice IV
Practice V
2
LSP1_1
Language Structures Introduction
Activity
A Read the following text and try to answer the
following questions
Supposing you were making a trip in the
United States and wanted to go from the
Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. If you
wanted to go by plane, you would make the trip in
a few hours. If you wanted to go by train, you
would make the trip in two days. If you wanted to
go by car, you would make the trip in a week or
less. It would take much longer time if you had
to walk or go on horseback.
3
LSP1_2
Language Structures Introduction
Activity
a. Which way of traveling would you choose if you
were making a trip in the U.S.A and wanted to go
from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean?
If I were making a trip from the Mississippi
River to the Pacific Ocean, Id be traveling by
air because I could save much time.
b. How much time would it take if you wanted to
go by plane / train / car?
I think if I were to go by plane, it would take
me at least 3 hours.
4
LSP1_3
Language Structures Introduction
Activity
c. Would you like to go on foot / horseback?
No, I wouldnt, because that would be very tiring
and time-consuming.
d. What would you most likely to do if you were
in the U.S.A?
Well, that depends. If I were in the U.S.A, I
suppose I would most probably go hunting in the
Yellow Stone National Park.
5
LSP1_3
Language Structures Introduction
Activity
B What would you do / would you be doing / would
you have done in the following situations?
1. If it hadnt been for the language structure
practice, _________________. 2. If I were
watching TV now, _________________. 3. Supposing
spacemen came to the earth, _________________. 4.
_________________ unless I had been notified.
6
LSP1_3
Language Structures Introduction
Activity
5. If it hadnt been for the fog,
_________________. 6. Supposing someone were in
danger, _________________. 7. _________________
unless she had passed the final exams. 8.
_________________ unless they stopped quarrelling.
7
LSP2_1
Language Structures Main Teaching
Points
1. related to something being done at present
Making an assumption about something being done
under a condition contrary to the present fact
If you were taking a short course in computer
science, youd be learning computer programming
fast.
8
LSP2_5
Language Structures Main Teaching
Points
2. with the connective unless Making an
assumption about a future happening under a
condition contrary to the past fact
Lu wouldnt sing English songs unless she had
learned them properly.
3. with the connective supposing Making an
assumption about a future happening under a
condition contrary to the present fact
Supposing the price were lowered, then Sue would
certainly buy the fur coat.
9
LSP2_5
Language Structures Main Teaching
Points
4. with the connective otherwise Making an
assumption about a past happening under a
condition contrary to the past fact
Bob didnt work hard. Otherwise he wouldnt have
been sacked.
5. in the if it hadnt been for ... pattern
Making an assumption about a past happening under
a condition contrary to the past fact
If it hadnt been for the sports meeting, I would
have come to the video show.
10
LSP3_1
Practice
Practice I
Directions Listen to the recording and complete
the dialogues. Then make similar dialogues with
your partner by using the cues.
A
I havent been in touch with Tim for a long time.
Whats he doing now?
B Hes taking a short course in computer science.
Is he? Then he must be learning computer
programming fast.
A
B He is. If you were taking a short course in
computer science, youd be learning computer
programming fast, too.

11
LSP3_2
Practice
Practice I
?Cues of Practice I?
1. Tim is taking a short course in computer
science, and he is learning computer programming
fast. 2. Bill is giving a lecture on spacecraft
and he is busy making preparations for it. 3.
Mabel is studying Chinese Literature in Beijing
University and she has been speaking putonghua
since she entered the university. 4. Brian is
touring Hangzhou and he is having a wonderful
time. 5. Betty is attending a national conference
on ELT (English Language Teaching) and she is
getting a lot out of it. 6. Martin is conducting
the city symphony orchestra next month and he has
been rehearsing hard with the orchestra members
since last month.
12
LSP3_3
Practice
Practice II
A
Whats Lu going to do at the party?
B Shes going to sing English songs.
Has she learned them properly?
A
B She wouldnt sing them unless she had.
13
LSP3_4
Practice
Practice II
?Cues of Practice II?
1. Lu has learned to sing English songs properly
and she will sing them at the party. 2. Lin has
got a plane ticket to Xinjiang and he is taking a
trip there. 3. Zhang has written his thesis and
he is prepared to defend it before the academic
committee. 4. Wang has saved enough money and he
is buying a fridge. 5. Fan has collected the
necessary data and she is writing a research
paper. 6. Qiu really knows a lot about flying
saucers / UFOs (unidentified flying objects) and
he is going to speak on the subject.
14
LSP3_5
Practice
Practice III
A Will Sue buy the fur coat?
B
No. Its too dear / expensive.
A Supposing the price were lowered. B Then
shed certainly buy it.
15
LSP3_6
Practice
Practice III
?Cues of Practice III?
1. Sue wont buy the fur coat because its too
dear / expensive. 2. Lily wont pass her exam
because she hasnt worked hard enough. 3. Zhou
doesnt know much about applied linguistics
because he hasnt taken the course. 4. I didnt
go to the farewell party for Professor Brown
because I was not invited. 5. Jack wont be
competent for the job because he doesnt know
Arabic. 6. John wont win the race because Henry
is running too.
16
LSP3_7
Practice
Practice IV
A
I wonder why.
Bob was sacked.
B He wouldnt have been sacked if hed worked
hard.
Didnt he work hard?
A
B No, otherwise he wouldnt have been sacked.
17
LSP3_8
Practice
Practice IV
?Cues of Practice IV?
1. Bob was sacked because he didnt work hard. 2.
They didnt go to the football game because it
rained. 3. Sam was very angry because he was not
told the truth. 4. Toms mother was upset because
Tom failed in the entrance examination. 5. Paul
was late again this morning because he didnt
have an alarm clock. 6. They punished the child
again because he misbehaved.
18
LSP3_7
Practice
Practice V
A Why didnt you come to the video show with me?
1.
Because I went to the sports meeting.
B
A
The video show was first-rate.
It a pity you missed it.
B If it hadnt been for the sports meeting, I
would have come to the video show with you.
19
LSP3_7
Practice
Practice V
A
Did it take you long to cross the busy street?
2.
B No. We took the footbridge and it only took us
a little while to cross the street.
You were quick.
A
Before the footbridge was built,
one might have to wait for a few minutes before
one could cross the street.
B If it hadnt been for the footbridge, it would
have taken us much longer.
20
LSP3_8
Practice
Practice V
?Cues of Practice V?
1. I didnt come to the video show with you
because I went to the sports meeting. 2. I was
late because there was a traffic jam on my way
here. 3. I didnt attend the symposium on
teaching English as a second language because I
went to a conference on English literature. 4. I
didnt go to the opera because there was a
lecture on curriculum planning. 5. I didnt
attend the short course offered by Professor
Thompson because it was too expensive.
21
LSP3_8
Practice
Practice V
1. It took us only ten minutes to do the
calculations because there was a computer in our
office. 2. It took the surgeon only half an hour
to perform the operation because he used the
laser. 3. It doesnt take Mr. Black long to
dictate his letter to Peggy because he has got a
dictaphone. 4. It takes us less than forty
minutes to get to the university because we take
the school bus. 5. It didnt take us long to
cross the street because there is a footbridge
across the street.
22
Dialogue_MAIN
Dialogue I
Pre-reading Questions
Dialogue
Comprehension Questions
Conversational Tips
Oral Practice
Dialogue II
Phrases, Sentences and Expressions
Dialogue
23
Reading 1_1
Dialogue I
Pre-reading Questions
What is Chinas cultural heritage in your
understanding? What are those things that are
closely related to Chinas cultural heritage and
keep reminding you of it? Can you find any
relevance from traditional things when trying to
solve the problems people are facing in a modern
time? If yes, say something about it. Do you
think we should sacrifice the traditional things
for modern ones? Why (not)?
?
?
?
?
24
Reading 1_1
Dialogue I
Pre-reading Questions
Do you think modern architecture can exist with
traditional architecture in harmony? Why
(not)? Have people done anything which are
destroying Chinas cultural heritage? Have people
done anything which help save Chinas cultural
heritage? How can we achieve a balance between
traditional architecture and modern architecture?
?
?
?
?
25
Dialogues1_1
Dialogue I
Dialogue
Save Our Heritage
A B A B
Finally were back from the field trip. Yes. But
our visit to that historic city couldve been
more exciting. I know. If it hadnt been for the
destruction of some of the ancient monuments, I
wouldve enjoyed the trip much more. Yes. If some
of the local officials had taken better care of
them, I wouldve enjoyed it much more too.
26
Dialogues1_2
Dialogue I
Dialogue
A B A
What shocked me most was the pulling down of the
stately Drum Tower. We can only see it in
pictures now. If it had been destroyed in a
battle or in an earthquake, I wouldve felt much
better. Oh, yes. How could they have had the
heart to pull it down just to straighten the road
for city traffic? Thats shocking! And the
legendary Buddhist Temple that was built fifteen
hundred years ago. There are so many beautiful
tales about it. But what did we see there?
Skyscrapers rising one after another.
27
Dialogues1_3
Dialogue I
Dialogue
B A B
Its a shame to see so many modern buildings
inside the temples precincts. The refined
elegance of the old is drowned by the crude
simplicity of the new. Just impossible! It makes
me sick to recall what we saw there. And what
about the thousand-year-old corridor? Its become
part of a tourist hotel just for money. More than
that, its being ravaged by kitchen smoke. Do you
remember the place where we had tea? What an
experience!
28
Dialogues1_4
Dialogue I
Dialogue
Just disgusting, turning a tombstone of an
imperial Tang court into a tea table. It I were
head of the local relics administration, I would
remove the management from their office. One
reason that they destroy historical monuments is
for money, but another is perhaps due to their
ignorance of the real value of our cultural
heritage. In that case, Im really for the saying
Ignorance is sin. While they are ruining those
priceless treasures, perhaps they dont know that
they are actually committing an inexcusable crime.
A B A B
29
Dialogues1_5
Dialogue I
Dialogue
Fortunately there are also people who recover
national treasures from piles of junk. I heard of
a broken bronze vessel cast in the eleventh
century B.C. which was picked out of a scrap
heap. Some workers there were certainly
antique-conscious. Yes, I hear people working in
the Administrative Bureau of Cultural Relics have
saved thousands of ancient craftworks from
construction sites. But their efforts are
counteracted by those of antique looters.
A B
30
Dialogues1_6
Dialogue I
Dialogue
Those people are vicious. Ive seen a film on
smugglers who tried to take antiques abroad so
that they could make a fortune. They ought to be
punished. Something must be done the sooner, the
better. I think they must have already been
punished by the law. The new law imposes
well-defined restrictions on the export of
valuable antiques. Five thousand years of
civilization have endowed our country with a
great store of historical and cultural treasure.
Its up to every citizen to see that they are
well preserved.
A B A
31
Tip1
Dialogue I
Conversational tips
To carry on conversation requires cooperation
between speakers, and making active and proper
response to other speakers contribution is
important to moving ahead the conversation in a
natural way.
Expressing strong feelings such as great surprise
and displeasure to something discussed
1) What shocked me most was the pulling down of
the stately Drum Tower. 2) If it had been
destroyed in a battle or in an earthquake, I
wouldve felt much better. 3) How could they have
had the heart to pull it down just to straighten
the road for city traffic?
32
Tip2
Dialogue I
Conversational tips
Expressing strong feelings such as great surprise
and displeasure to something discussed
4) Thats shocking! 5) Its a shame to see so
many modern buildings inside the temples
precincts. 6) Just impossible! It makes me sick
to recall what we saw there. 7) What an
experience! 8) Just disgusting, turning a
tombstone of an imperial Tang court into a tea
table.
33
LSP1_1
Dialogue I
Comprehension Questions
A. Briefly answer the following broad questions
after you read the dialogue.
1. What is the central topic A and B are talking
about?
A and B are talking about saving Chinas cultural
heritage.
2. What happened to the Drum Tower and the
Buddhist Temple?
The Drum Tower had been pulled down and the
Buddhist Temple had been placed in such a
situation as being surrounded by many modern
buildings.
3. Whats the fate of the 1,000-year-old corridor
and the tombstone of a member of the Tang court?
The 1,000-year-old corridor had been turned into
a tourist hotel for making money and was being
ravaged by kitchen smoke, and the tombstone had
been turned into a tea table.
34
LSP1_1
Dialogue I
Comprehension Questions
4. Why are some people destroying our cultural
heritage according to A and B?
According to A and B, some people are destroying
our cultural heritage mainly because they want to
make more money. And it is also because some of
them are ignorant of the real value of our
cultural heritage, or antique-unconscious.
5. What do A and B think that the government
should do about the people who damage ancient
monuments?
They think the management should be removed from
their office and smugglers should be punished.
More effective measures should be taken to
protect and save our cultural heritage.
6. What is your opinion about the preservation of
historical monuments?
This is an open question.
35
LSP1_1
Dialogue I
Comprehension Questions
B. Decide whether the following statements are
true or false. Write T for True and F for
False.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
From A and Bs talk we know they had seen some
destruction of some ancient monuments in their
field trip. Neither A nor B had enjoyed their
field trip at all. According to A, he would
prefer that the Drum Tower be destroyed in a
battle or in an earthquake. It is clear that A
doesnt think that modern buildings should be
built inside the Buddhist Temple. B would like
to remove the people in charge of the relics
affairs from their office because those people
are destroying our cultural heritage.
T
___
F
___
F
___
F
___
F
___
36
LSP1_1
Dialogue I
Comprehension Questions
B. Decide whether the following statements are
true or false. Write T for True and F for
False.
6. 7. 8.
According to A, some antiques had been thrown
into the garbage dump. B believes that some
efforts made to save ancient craftworks had been
counteracted by those who are destroying our
cultural heritage. According to B, a new law had
been enforced to prevent the export of valuable
antiques.
T
___
T
___
T
___
37
Dialogue_Words 1_How could they have
How could they have had the heart to How
could they have been so hard-hearted as to pull
down
38
Dialogue_Words 1_It makes me sick to recall
It makes me sick to recall It makes me feel
angry and disgusted to recall
39
Dialogue_Words 1_What an experience
What an experience! This is an exclamation
expressing the speakers displeasure about
something.
40
Dialogue_Words 1_It I were head of
It I were head of the local relics
administration, I would remove the management
from their office. This is an unreal
conditional. The local relics administration
means ????????, and the management refers to
the people who are in charge of the related
affairs.
41
Dialogue_Words 1_the Administrative Bureau of
the Administrative Bureau of Cultural Relics
?????
42
Dialogue_Words 1_Its up to every citizen
Its up to every citizen to see that they are
well preserved. If you say that it is up to
someone to do something, you mean that it is
their responsibility to do it. To see
that-clause means to make sure that or to
take care that.
43
Dialogue_words 1_stately
stately Something or someone that is stately is
impressive and graceful or dignified
Instead of moving at his usual stately pace, he
was almost running.
e.g.
44
Dialogue_words 1_pull down
pull down ( demolish) To pull down a building
or statue means to deliberately destroy it
Plans have been put forward to pull down and
rebuild the area.
e.g.
45
Dialogue_words 1_legendary
legendary If you describe someone or something
as legendary, you mean that they are very famous
and that many stories are told about them
A legendary sea creature having the head and
upper body of a man and the tail of a fish.
e.g.
46
Dialogue_words 1_precincts
precincts The precincts of an institution are
its buildings and land
No one carrying arms is allowed within the
precincts of a temple.
e.g.
47
Dialogue_words 1_refined
refined If you describe a machine or a process
as refined, you mean that it has been carefully
developed and is therefore very efficient or
elegant, pleasing and graceful in appearance or
style
48
Dialogue_words 1_drown
drown When someone drowns or is drowned, they
die because they have gone or been pushed under
water and cannot breathe. And in this case, the
word metaphorically means ruin or destroy
49
Dialogue_words 1_crude simplicity
crude simplicity If you describe someone as
crude, you disapprove of them because they speak
or behave in a rude, offensive, or
unsophisticated way. The simplicity of something
is the fact that it is not complicated and can be
understood or done easily
50
Dialogue_words 1_ravage
ravage A town, country, or economy that has been
ravaged is one that has been damaged so much that
it is almost completely destroyed
For two decades the country has been ravaged by
civil war and foreign intervention.
e.g.
51
Dialogue_words 1_ignorance
ignorance Ignorance of something is lack of
knowledge about it
There is so much ignorance about mental illness.
e.g.
52
Dialogue_words 1_heritage
heritage A countrys heritage is all the
qualities, traditions, or features of life there
that have continued over many years and have been
passed on from one generation to another
The historic building is as much part of our
heritage as the paintings.
e.g.
53
Dialogue_words 1_priceless
priceless If you say that something is
priceless, you are emphasizing that it is worth a
very large amount of money, or you approve of it
because it is extremely useful
54
Dialogue_words 1_recover
recover If you recover something that has been
lost or stolen, you find it or get it back
Rescue teams recovered more bodies from the
rubble.
e.g.
55
Dialogue_words 1_scrap heap
scrap heap If things such as machines or weapons
are thrown on the scrapheap, they are thrown away
because they are no longer needed
56
Dialogue_words 1_antique-conscious
antique-conscious An antique is an old object
such as a piece of china or furniture which is
valuable because of its beauty or rarity. If you
are conscious of something, you think about it a
lot, especially because you think it is important
Im very conscious of my weight.
e.g.
57
Dialogue_words 1_counteract
counteract To counteract something means to
reduce its effect by doing something that
produces an opposite effect
My husband has to take several pills to
counteract high blood pressure.
e.g.
58
Dialogue_words 1_looter
looter A looter is a person who steals things
from shops or houses, for example during a war or
riot
59
Dialogue_words 1_vicious
vicious A vicious person or a vicious is violent
and cruel
He suffered a vicious attack by a gang of white
youths.
e.g.
60
Dialogue_words 1_fortune
fortune You can refer to a large sum of money as
a fortune or a small fortune to emphasize how
large it is
He made a small fortune in the London property
boom.
e.g.
61
Dialogue_words 1_impose
impose If you impose something on people, you
use your authority to force them to accept it
Britain was the first country to impose fines on
airlines which bring passengers without proper
immigration papers.
e.g.
62
Dialogue_words 1_endow
endow You say that someone is endowed with a
particular desirable ability, characteristic, or
possession when they have it by chance or by birth
You are endowed with wealth, good health and a
lively intellect.
e.g.
63
Role-play1_1
Dialogue I
Oral Practice
Direction Hold a forum among students and ask
them to talk about the preservation or demolition
of Siheyuan in Beijing (Beijings courtyard
house). Encourage them to use expressions listed
above in their discussions.
Topic Shall we preserve those traditional
buildings or demolish them for long-term city
planning?
Pro Some people propose that Siheyuan should be
demolished so as to save space for city
construction, besides they hold that the
traditional buildings are too old to fit for
Beijings image as a modernized capital.
64
Role-play1_2
Dialogue I
Oral Practice
Con Some think that Siheyuan symbolizes the
traditional culture typical of Beijing, so it
should be kept and well preserved.
Actually in many cities there are
traditional architecture of historical or
cultural significance, and also more and more
land are utilized to meet the needs of housing
and city planning, so shall we preserve those
traditional buildings or demolish them for
long-term city planning?
Sample
65
Role_play1_6
Dialogue I
Oral Practice
(P Peng Hu C Cui Jian)
C P C
Long time no see, Peng Hu. How did you spend your
summer vacation? Oh, I went to Beijing to see
Beijings courtyard houses which are called
Siheyuan. According to the natives, these
traditional buildings will be demolished so as to
save space for city construction. Oh, my
Goodness! Thats shocking! How could they have
the heart to demolish these traditional buildings
just for the city construction! They are parts of
the countrys cultural heritage and they should
be well preserved, I think.
66
Role-play1_7
Dialogue I
Oral Practice
P C P C
Dont you think theyre too old to fit for
Beijings image as a metropolitan city of a big
country? Some people do think so, you
know. Maybe. But Siheyuan symbolizes the
traditional local culture typical of Beijing and
Manchu nationality, and its worth our special
care. Thats true. By the way, have you heard the
latest pulling down of the stately Drum Tower?
Yes, and I was shocked. Its definitely
incredible that these historical places should
have been pulled down for the construction of
skyscrapers! What a shame!
67
Role-play1_7
Dialogue I
Oral Practice
P C P
Absolutely! It is outrageous! And more and more
land is utilized to meet the needs of housing and
city planning. People just do that for
themselves! Seems human-beings are sometimes too
greedy. Five thousand years of civilization have
endowed China with a great store of historical
and cultural treasure. Its up to every citizen
to see that theyre well preserved. Yeah, I quite
agree with you. We should protect them rather
than demolish them.
68
Dialogues2_1
Dialogue II Phrases, sentences and
expressions
Admiration for things you see, e.g., viewing a piece of modern sculpture Admiration for things you see, e.g., viewing a piece of modern sculpture Admiration for things you see, e.g., viewing a piece of modern sculpture Admiration for things you see, e.g., viewing a piece of modern sculpture Admiration for things you see, e.g., viewing a piece of modern sculpture Admiration for things you see, e.g., viewing a piece of modern sculpture
Mild Mild Mild Strong Strong Strong
Oh look! That ones good! That ones good! Just look at that! Isnt it Just look at that! Isnt it beautiful?
Oh look! Superb! Superb! Just look at that! Isnt it Just look at that! Isnt it amazing?
Oh look! Ingenious! Ingenious! Just look at that! Isnt it Just look at that! Isnt it magnificent?
I think thats quite pretty, dont you? I do think Now thats absolutely brilliant!
I think thats quite nice, dont you? I do think Now thats superbly clever!
69
Dialogues2_2
Dialogue II Phrases, sentences and
expressions
Admiration for things you see, e.g., viewing a piece of modern sculpture Admiration for things you see, e.g., viewing a piece of modern sculpture Admiration for things you see, e.g., viewing a piece of modern sculpture Admiration for things you see, e.g., viewing a piece of modern sculpture Admiration for things you see, e.g., viewing a piece of modern sculpture Admiration for things you see, e.g., viewing a piece of modern sculpture Admiration for things you see, e.g., viewing a piece of modern sculpture
Mild Mild Mild Strong Strong Strong Strong
Thats rather a clever idea, nicely done, isnt it? Ive never seen seen such a gorgeous piece of art!
Thats rather a clever idea, nicely done, isnt it? Ive never encountered encountered such a gorgeous piece of art!
Mm ... I like that. I think its attractive. I like that. I think its attractive. My, look at that! What My, look at that! What art! craftsmanship! art! craftsmanship!
70
Dialogues2_3
Dialogue II Phrases, sentences and
expressions
Admiration for things people do Admiration for things people do Admiration for things people do Admiration for things people do
I wish I could How do you manage to I do admire the way people I wish I could How do you manage to I do admire the way people (keep looking so brisk and energetic). / ? (keep looking so brisk and energetic). / ?
Youre so good at capable in (keeping the house elegantly simple). (keeping the house elegantly simple).
I do envy you! (You seem to have time for everything.) I do envy you! (You seem to have time for everything.) I do envy you! (You seem to have time for everything.) I do envy you! (You seem to have time for everything.)
The way (you educate the young) is The way (you educate the young) is The way (you educate the young) is absolutely amazing. simply beyond me.
71
Dialogues2_2
Dialogue II Phrases, sentences and
expressions
Modest replies Modest replies Modest replies
Oh, Thank you, but theres nothing to it really. theres nothing to it really.
Thank you. Im flattered. Well, I love being busy, being active, to be like that, you know.
Please dont exaggerate, it cant be that good. isnt like what you said at all. cant be that good. isnt like what you said at all.
72
Dialogues2_4
Dialogue II
Dialogue
Two students are reading an illustrated pamphlet
on the Taj Mahal, the tomb of the Indian Shah
Jehan and his wife. They are admiring its
magnificent structure.
Im quite struck by such a magnificent piece of
architecture. Its brilliantly white under the
sun. My Uncle Bill has been there. He told me
something about this unique ancient structure.
Its made of fine white marble.
A B
73
Dialogues2_5
Dialogue II
Dialogue
A B A B
Not entirely of white marble. See the colored
inlays here? Such beautiful colors and tastefully
matched too! Are they also marble? Theyre
colored marble, I believe. The platform under the
structure was made of red sandstone. Look at the
four elegant towers on the corners of the
platform! Arent they exquisite! And what a
beautiful garden surrounding the Taj Mahal! The
green trees seem to make the marble even whiter.
74
Dialogues2_6
Dialogue II
Dialogue
And the pool in front of the main entrance to the
building. What a brilliant design! See the
reflection in the water? Just beautiful! My uncle
told me that the Taj Mahal is most beautiful at
sunset. Then the marble picks up the color of the
sunset, and the building and its reflection in
the pool gleam like pink jewels. The sight is
simply overwhelming! I heard that people prefer
admiring it in moonlight. Then its really out of
this world.
A B A
75
Dialogues2_7
Dialogue II
Dialogue
And when morning comes, the Taj Mahal turns from
silver to gold. It must be gorgeous! I wish I
could go to India and see it for myself. Its
unbelievable how Nature can give a human
structure such mystic enchantment.
B A B
76
Dialogues_Notes 1_the Taj Mahal ...
the Taj Mahal, the tomb of the Indian Shah Jehan
and his wife
77
Dialogues_Notes 1_inlay
inlay An inlay is a design or pattern on an
object which is made by putting materials such as
wood, gold, or silver into the surface of the
object. In other words, inlay is a decorative
technique of inserting pieces of colored
materials into depressions in a base object to
form patterns or pictures.
78
Dialogues_Notes 1_its really out of this world
its really out of this world If you say that
something is out of this world, you are
emphasizing that it is extremely good or
impressive
These new trains are out of this world.
e.g.
79
Dialogues_Notes 1_illustrate
illustrate If you illustrate a book, you put
pictures, photographs or diagrams into it
He has illustrated the book with black-and-white
photographs.
e.g.
80
Dialogues_Notes 1_pamphlet
pamphlet A pamphlet is a very thin book, with a
paper cover, which gives information about
something
81
Dialogues_Notes 1_strike
strike v. If you are struck by something, you
think it is very impressive, noticeable, or
interesting
What struck me about the firm is how genuinely
friendly and informal it is.
e.g.
82
Dialogues_Notes 1_match
match v. If something of a particular color or
design matches another thing, they have the same
color or design, or have a pleasing appearance
when they are used together
You dont have to match your lipstick exactly to
your outfit.
e.g.
83
Dialogues_Notes 1_platform
platform A platform is a flat raised structure
or area, usually one which something can stand on
or land on
They found a spot on a rocky platform where they
could pitch their tents.
e.g.
84
Dialogues_Notes 1_pick up
pick up If you pick up something such as a
skill, feature or an idea, you acquire it without
effort over a period of time
Young people are picking up ideas about good
drugs and bad drugs.
e.g.
85
Dialogues_Notes 1_gleam
gleam If an object or a surface gleams, it
reflects light because it is shiny and clean
His black hair gleamed in the sun.
e.g.
86
Dialogues_Notes 1_overwhelming
overwhelming If something is overwhelming, it
affects you very strongly, and you do not know
how to deal with it
She felt an overwhelming desire to have another
child.
e.g.
87
Dialogues_Notes 1_gorgeous
gorgeous If you say that something is gorgeous,
you mean that it gives you a lot of pleasure or
is very attractive
Some of the Renaissance buildings are gorgeous.
e.g.
88
Dialogues_Notes 1_mystic enchantment
mystic enchantment Mystic means the same as
mystical. If you say that something has
enchantment, you mean that it makes you feel
great delight or pleasure
The wilderness campsite had its own peculiar
enchantment.
e.g.
89
Oral practice 2_1
Dialogue II
Oral practice
1. Work in pairs. Bring to class some pictures.
Take turns to admire the pictures strongly and
mildly. Some ideas
1) The terracotta warriors in Xian 2)
Shanhaiguan 3) The Chinese and American Womens
Volleyball Teams vying for the Olympic
championship in 2004 4) A modern iron and steel
works.
90
Oral practice 2_2
Dialogue II
Oral practice
2. Work in pairs. Admire what your partner is
doing or has done. When its your turn to be
admired, make suitable replies. Here are some
ideas
1) English studies 2) sports 3) typing
91
Oral practice 2_2
Dialogue II
Oral practice
3. Suggest situations in which the following
remarks are appropriate.
1) You were wonderful! We were all so proud of
you! 2) Its lovely. It must have taken you
hours. 3) Exceptionally well expressed! You have
interesting ideas.
92
Oral practice 2_2
Dialogue II
Oral practice
4. Give assignments beforehand. Ask students to
bring his or her favorite thing to class, such as
a beautiful dress, a classical CD, a rare stamp,
etc, anything you are sure of gaining admiration
from others. Then ask them to work in pairs show
to each other your favorite things and express
admiration.
Sample
93
Oral practice 2_2
Dialogue II
Oral practice
5. Think out something your classmates have done
which you really appreciate. Show him or her your
admiration, and some modest replies are expected.
94
Sample 1_1
Dialogue II
Oral practice
Sample
A B A B
Wonderful day today, isnt it? Yes, marvelous!
Just look at my dress! Isnt it also
marvelous? Wow, what a beautiful dress! I havent
seen you have it on before. My mother gave it to
me as my birthday present last week. And its my
favorite dress.
95
Sample 1_2
Dialogue II
Oral practice
A B A B
No wonder you like it so much. Its so
brilliantly designed. Yes, the collar is so
uniquely designed that I appreciate it
immensely. Mm...I like that, too. Whats more,
this is the most fantastic decorative pattern I
have ever seen. Really? I didnt expect such a
high praise.
96
Sample 1_2
Dialogue II
Oral practice
A B A B
The decorative pattern is so nice. Dont you
think so? Im sure you will be the most beautiful
girl in the class when you put it on. Thank you.
Im flattered. Well, I love being beautiful, you
know. I do envy you! How I wish I could have a
dress like that too! Come on! Surely you will.
97
Reading_MAIN
Reading I
Pre-reading Questions
Background Knowledge
Text
Comprehension Questions
Translation
Reading II
Text
Comprehension Questions
Text Analysis
98
Reading 1_1
Reading I
Pre-reading Questions
Do you know any well-known architecture both at
home and abroad? If yes, say something about
it. Do you know any touching story that is
closely related to a building? If yes, say
something about it. How much do you know about
India? Say something about it.
?
?
?
99
Reading 1_2
Reading I
Background Knowledge
Taj Mahal, Agra, India
Taj Mahal is regarded as one of the eight wonders
of the world, and some Western historians have
noted that its architectural beauty has never
been surpassed. The Taj is the most beautiful
monument built by the Mughals, the Muslim rulers
of India. Taj Mahal is built entirely of white
marble. Its stunning architectural beauty is
beyond adequate description, particularly at dawn
and sunset. The Taj seems to glow in the light of
the full moon. On a foggy morning, the visitors
experience the Taj as if suspended when viewed
from across the Jamuna river. Taj Mahal was built
by a Muslim, Emperor Shah Jahan (died 1666 C.E.)
in the memory of his dear wife and queen Mumtaz
Mahal at Agra, India. It is an elegy in marble
or some say an expression of a dream.
100
Reading 1_3
Reading I
Background Knowledge
Taj Mahal (meaning Crown Palace) is a Mausoleum
that houses the grave of Queen Mumtaz Mahal at
the lower chamber. The grave of Shah Jahan was
added to it later. The queens real name was
Arjumand Banu. In the tradition of the Mughals,
important ladies of the royal family were given
another name at their marriage or at some other
significant event in their lives, and that new
name was commonly used by the public. Shah
Jahans real name was Shahab-ud-din, and he was
known as Prince Khurram before ascending to the
throne in 1628.
Taj Mahal was constructed over a period of
twenty-two years, employing twenty thousand
workers. It was completed in 1648 C.E. at a cost
of 32 Million Rupees. The construction documents
show that its master architect was Ustad Isa,
the renowned Islamic architect of his time. The
documents contain names of those employed and the
inventory of
101
Reading 1_4
Reading I
Background Knowledge
construction materials and their origin. Expert
craftsmen from Delhi, Qannauj, Lahore, and Multan
were employed. In addition, many renowned Muslim
craftsmen from Baghdad, Shiraz and Bukhara worked
on many specialized tasks.
The Taj stands on a raised, square platform
(186186 feet) with its four corners truncated,
forming an unequal octagon. The architectural
design uses the interlocking arabesque concept,
in which each element stands on its own and
perfectly integrates with the main structure. It
uses the principles of self-replicating geometry
and a symmetry of architectural elements. Its
central dome is fifty-eight feet in diameter and
rises to a height of 213 feet. It is flanked by
four subsidiary domed chambers. The four
102
Reading 1_4
Reading I
Background Knowledge
graceful, slender minarets are 162.5 feet each.
The entire mausoleum (inside as well as outside)
is decorated with inlaid design of flowers and
calligraphy using precious gems such as agate and
jasper. The main archways, chiseled with passages
from the Holy Quran and the bold scroll work of
flowery pattern, give a captivating charm to its
beauty. The central domed chamber and four
adjoining chambers include many walls and panels
of Islamic decoration.
The mausoleum is a part of a vast complex
comprising of a main gateway, an elaborate
garden, a mosque (to the left), a guest house (to
the right), and several other palatial buildings.
The Taj is at the farthest end of this complex,
with the river Jamuna behind it. The large garden
contains four reflecting pools dividing it at the
center. Each of these four sections is
103
Reading 1_4
Reading I
Background Knowledge
further subdivided into four sections and then
each into yet another four sections. Like the
Taj, the garden elements serve like Arabesque,
standing on their own and also constituting the
whole.
104
Reading 1_5
Reading I
Text
The Taj Mahal
Everyone who has seen the Taj Mahal in India
would probably agree that it is indeed a thing of
beauty. And it has certainly given joy to
millions of people since its completion in the
middle of the seventeenth century. It is doubtful
that any other structure has ever been modelled,
painted, photographed, or described as often as
the Taj Mahal. India is a land of architectural
magnificence, having many ornate and exquisite
temples, monuments, and palaces. The best-known
of all these is the beautiful Taj Mahal, a tomb
built by an emperor in honour of his beloved
wife. It has been called a poem in marble and
is said to be the most expensive compliment paid
to a woman. Perfect in symmetry, its beauty has
never been surpassed.
105
Reading 1_6
Reading I
Text
The history connected with the Taj Mahal is a
very poignant one. When the emperors wife was
about to die, she made two requests of him
first, that he would never marry again and
second, that he would build her a tomb that would
make her name remembered forever. These wishes
the grief-stricken emperor readily promised to
fulfill. And in the palace during the long,
lonely nights that followed her death, he
considered how he could best express in a
monument his tender feelings for his wife. He
wanted the monument to be as lovely as she was.
At last the idea for the memorial came to him in
a dream, and the great work was begun.
106
Reading 1_7
Reading I
Text
Built of white marble that shimmers in
both sunlight and moonlight, the Taj Mahal stands
on an eighteen-foot-high marble platform which
has a delicate minaret on each corner. In the
centre of the platform stands the tomb itself,
octagonal in shape, crowned with a graceful dome
rising high above it. There are four smaller
domes around the central dome which duplicate it
in design, as do the domes on top of the four
dainty minarets. In the moonlight, these lovely
domes seem to float like clouds in a deep-blue
sea.
Surrounding the Taj Mahal are beautiful formal
gardens, and leading up to the main entrance are
cypress-lined reflecting pools where sparkling
fountains play. Also on the grounds are a mosque
and a guesthouse. Each structure adds to the
beauty of the others, and together they all make
up a whole whose charm has never been matched.
107
Reading 1_7
Reading I
Text
It is reported that it took twenty thousand men
working for almost twenty years to complete this
unique and delicately feminine memorial. Most of
the workers were from India, but others were
brought from Persia, Iraq, Turkey, and
Afghanistan. Artists were brought from as far
away as Italy and Portugal to help decorate the
walls, both inside and outside, with inlays of
precious and semiprecious stones, and to create
mosaic designs of great intricacy. One of the
mosaic flowers they created may have as many as
three hundred pieces of stone in it. The walls
inside the tomb were originally covered with
gold, and there was a canopy with ten thousand
pearls on it. Many of the jewels and other
valuable materials were later taken from the Taj
Mahal by vandals, but the white marble with its
soft warm glow still remains.
108
Reading 1_7
Reading I
Text
The emperor planned that when the Taj Mahal was
completed he would build a similar tomb of black
marble for his own burial place. It was to be
built on the opposite side of the nearby river
and was to be connected to the Taj Mahal by a
silver bridge, which would symbolize his happy
marriage with his wife. But the second tomb was
never built. By the time the Taj Mahal was
finished, the emperors sons had grown to manhood
and were quarrelling with each other over which
one should be the next emperor. Finally the
second son succeeded in banishing one brother and
killing the other two. He then seized the throne
and imprisoned his father in a fort about a mile
away, where he was forced to spend the last eight
years of his life out of sight of the lovely
Taj Mahal.
109
Reading 1_8
Reading I
Text
One day, however, the old emperor happened to
notice a tiny mirror embedded in one of the
pillars of the balcony where he was allowed to
walk. Upon closer examination, he discovered that
the little mirror, which was no more than an inch
across, reflected the entire Taj Mahal. From that
time until his death, he spent many hours
enjoying the miniature reflection of the
beautiful monument he had built for his wife and
when he died, he was buried there beside her.
110
Dialogues_Notes 1_minaret
minaret A minaret is a tall thin tower which is
part of a mosque
111
Dialogues_Notes 1_octagonal
octagonal Something that is octagonal has eight
straight sides
112
Dialogues_Notes 1_dome
dome A dome is a round roof
113
Dialogues_Notes 1_formal
formal (garden) A formal garden or room is
arranged in a very regular and controlled way,
especially according to certain rules of design
e.g.
The Coronata wallpaper lends a formal air to the
dining room.
114
Dialogues_Notes 1_reflecting
reflecting (pools) When something is reflected
in a mirror or in water, you can see its image in
the mirror or in the water
e.g.
His image seemed to be reflected many times in
the mirror.
115
Dialogues_Notes 1_sparkling
sparkling (fountains play) If something
sparkles, it is clear and bright and shines with
a lot of very small points of light. The
sentences mean sparkling fountains shoot up
lightly and continuously
116
Dialogues_Notes 1_mosque
mosque A mosque is a building where Muslims go
to worship
117
Dialogues_Notes 1_feminine
feminine (memorial) Someone or something that is
feminine has qualities that are considered
typical of women, especially being pretty or
gentle
118
Dialogues_Notes 1_precious
precious and semi-precious stones A precious
stone is a valuable stone, such as a diamond or a
ruby, that is used for making jewellery.
Semi-precious stones are stones such as
turquoises and amethysts that are used in
jewellery but are less valuable than precious
stones such as diamonds and rubies
119
Dialogues_Notes 1_mosaic
mosaic A mosaic is a design which consists of
small pieces of colored glass, pottery, or stone
set in concrete or plaster
120
Dialogues_Notes 1_canopy
canopy A canopy is a decorated cover, often made
of cloth, which spreads out and is placed above
something such as a bed or a seat
121
Dialogues_Notes 1_fort
fort A fort is a strong building or a place with
a wall or fence around it where soldiers can stay
and be safe from the enemy
122
Dialogues_Notes 1_pillar
pillar balcony A pillar is a tall solid
structure, which is usually used to support part
of a building. A balcony is a platform on the
outside of a building, above ground level, with a
wall or railing around it
123
Reading_Words 1_doubtful
doubtful If it is doubtful that something will
happen, it seems unlikely to happen or you are
uncertain whether it will happen
e.g.
It is doubtful whether Tweed, even with his
fluent French, passed for one of the locals.
124
Reading_Words 1_model
model v. If one thing is modeled on another, the
first thing is made so that it is like the second
thing in some way
e.g.
She asked the author if she had modeled her hero
on anybody in particular.
125
Reading_Words 1_ornate
ornate An ornate building, piece of furniture,
or object is decorated with complicated patterns
or shapes
126
Reading_Words 1_exquisite
exquisite Something that is exquisite is
extremely beautiful or pleasant, especially in a
delicate way
127
Reading_Words 1_in honour of
in honor of If something is arranged in honor of
a particular event, it is arranged in order to
celebrate that event. If something is arranged or
happens in someones honor, it is done specially
to show appreciation of them
e.g.
The United Nations has issued a stamp in honor of
Captain Alfred Dreyfus.
128
Reading_Words 1_compliment
compliment n. A compliment is a polite remark
that you say to someone to show that you like
their appearance, appreciate their qualities, or
approve of what they have done
e.g.
You can do no harm by paying a woman compliments.
129
Reading_Words 1_surpass
surpass If one person or thing surpasses
another, the first is better than, or has more of
a particular quality than, the second
e.g.
He was determined to surpass the achievements of
his older brothers.
130
Reading_Words 1_poignant
poignant Something that is poignant affects you
deeply and makes you feel sadness or regret
e.g.
Harry thought the sight of her was inexpressibly
poignant.
131
Reading_Words 1_fulfill
fulfill If you fulfill something such as a
promise, dream, or hope, you do what you said or
hoped you would do
e.g.
President Kaunda fulfilled his promise of
announcing a date for the referendum.
132
Reading_Words 1_shimmer
shimmer If something shimmers, it shines with a
faint, unsteady light or has an unclear, unsteady
appearance
e.g.
The trees shimmered in the afternoon heat.
133
Reading_Words 1_delicate
delicate Something that is delicate is small and
beautifully shaped
134
Reading_Words 1_crown
crown v. If one thing crowns another, it is on
top of it
e.g.
Trees crowned the hill.
135
Reading_Words 1_duplicate
duplicate v. If you duplicate something that has
already been done, you repeat or copy it
e.g.
This research merely duplicates work already done
elsewhere.
136
Reading_Words 1_dainty
dainty If you describe a movement, person, or
object as dainty, you mean that they are small,
delicate, and pretty
137
Reading_Words 1_add to
add to If one thing adds to another, it makes
the other thing greater in degree or amount
e.g.
Overnight bed-rest in a clinic adds substantially
to the cost of cosmetic surgery.
138
Reading_Words 1_match
match v. If you match something, you are as good
as it or equal to it, for example in speed, size,
or quality
e.g.
His record has never been matched.
139
Reading_Words 1_intricacy
intricacy Intricacy is the state of being made
up of many small parts or details
e.g.
Garments are priced from 100 to several thousand
dollars, depending on the intricacy of the work.
140
Reading_Words 1_vandal
vandal A vandal is someone who deliberately
damages things, especially public property
141
Reading_Words 1_symbolize
symbolize If one thing symbolizes another, it is
used or regarded as a symbol of it
e.g.
The fall of the Berlin Wall symbolized the end of
the Cold War between East and West.
142
Reading_Words 1_banish
banish If someone or something is banished from
a place or area of activity, they are sent away
from it and prevented from entering it
e.g.
They tried to banish him from politics.
143
Reading_Words 1_seize
seize If you seize something, you take hold of
it quickly, firmly, and forcefully
e.g.
Seize the chance, otherwise youll regret it.
144
Reading_Words 1_happen to
happen to (notice) If you happen to do
something, you do it by chance. If it happens
that something is the case, it occurs by chance
e.g.
I happen to have the official statistics with me.
145
Reading_Words 1_embed
embed If an object embeds itself in a substance
or thing, it becomes fixed there firmly and deeply
e.g.
The harpoon struck but did not embed.
146
Reading_Words 1_close
close adj. Close inspection or observation of
something is careful and thorough
e.g.
He discovered, on closer inspection, that the
rocks contained gold.
147
Reading_Words 1_miniature
miniature Miniature is used to describe
something which is very small, especially a
smaller version of something which is normally
much bigger
e.g.
He looked like a miniature version of his
handsome and elegant big brother.
148
Questions1_1
Reading I
Comprehension Questions
Find the right answer from the following choices
based on your reading.
C
___
1. The Taj Mahal is .
A. a poem C. a monument
B. a temple D. a palace
A
___
2. The Taj Mahal is the most expensive compliment
that .
A. a woman gets C. an emperor offers
B. a woman gives D. an emperor builds
149
Questions1_2
Reading I
Comprehension Questions
3. Which two groups of words have something to do
with the Taj Mahal?
BD
_____
A. emperor, wife, prince C. treasure, guard,
flower
B. death, memorial, dream D. marble, platform,
minaret
D
___
4. The tomb was built by .
A. Indians only B. workers from West Asia C.
workers from some European countries D. Indians
as well as foreigners
150
Questions1_3
Reading I
Comprehension Questions
A
___
5. A similar tomb of black marble .
A. was planned to be built B. was built when the
Taj Mahal was completed C. had been built before
the Taj Mahal was completed D. will be built
151
Questions1_3
Reading I
Comprehension Questions
Briefly answer the following questions
1. When and in which country was the Taj Mahal
built?
The Taj Mahal was built by an Indian king in
memory of his dead queen.
2. What is the Taj Mahal and why was it built?
The Taj Mahal was a tomb or a monument for his
beloved wife after her death.
3. What is the Taj Mahal built of?
The Taj Mahal was built of white marble.
152
Questions1_3
Reading I
Comprehension Questions
4. Where were the workers from?
Most of the workers were from India, but others
were brought from Persia, Iraq, Turkey, and
Afghanistan. And artists from Italy and Portugal
were brought in.
5. Was a tomb of black marble built when the Taj
Mahal was completed? Why or why not?
No. The tomb had been planned, but it was
suspended due to internal disorder of the royal
family.
6. Where did the Emperor spend his last years?
The Emperor spent his last years in a fort about
one mile away from the Taj Mahal.
153
Questions1_3
Reading I
Comprehension Questions
7. Where was he buried?
The Emperor was buried there beside his wife.
154
Text Analysis1_1
Reading I
Translation
1. ???????????(make request for)
Theyve made an urgent request for international
aid.
2. ???????????????(make up)
Farm workers make up only a small section of the
population.
3. ????????,??????????(readily)
Upon hearing our request, he readily promised to
help.
4. ??????????????(stand v.)
His house stands right on the hill.
5. ????????, ????????(add to)
I have nothing to add to my earlier statement.
155
Text Analysis1_2
Reading I
Text Analysis
6. ??????, ?????????(close, adj.)
On closer examination the painting proved to be a
fake.
7. ????????????????????(in honor of)
The monument was erected in honor of the soldiers
who died for the country.
156
Reading2_1
Reading II
Text
The Mosques of Istanbul
Anyone who has been in Turkey will remember the
day when he first saw the skyline of Istanbul.
There are many interesting buildings in the city,
but those that stand out most in ones memory are
the mosques, with their many domes and delicate
minarets. These beautiful structures are where
the Moslems go to worship. Istanbul has about a
million inhabitants, and most of them are
Moslems. For this reason, one sees mosques in
almost every direction. No wonder the skyline of
this Turkish
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