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Medical Terminology Anatomical Position, Directional Terms and Movements

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Title: Medical Terminology Anatomical Position, Directional Terms and Movements


1
MedicalTerminologyAnatomical Position,
Directional Terms and Movements
2
What we will cover...
  • Content Objectives
  • Students will be able to gain a better
    understanding and application of medical
    terminology in relation to Anatomical Planes,
    Directions and Movements.
  • Language Objectives
  • Students will be able to define basic anatomical
    terms and apply those terms when dissecting.
  • Students will be able to compare and contrast the
    differences between directional terms and terms
    associated with movement.

3
Anatomical Terms Worksheet
4
History
  • During the Renaissance (Rebirth) the study of
    human life and medicine began to flourish.
  • Scientist, Doctors and Artist would experiment
    and practice on the dead and incarcerated.
  • Cadavers were positioned flat on their backs,
    thus making it easier to draw and reference from
    that position.
  • Many artist such as
    Leonardo da Vinci began to
    study,
    draw and diagram the human body.

5
Anatomical Position
  • Standing erect, with palms and feet facing
    forward
  • Is the standard reference point in which all
    positions, movements, and planes are described

6
Positions and Directions
  • Terms of position and direction describe the
    position of one body part relative to another,
    usually along one of the three major body planes

7
Positions and Directions
  • Superior
  • Refers to a structure being closer to the head or
    higher than another structure in the body
  • Inferior
  • Refers to a structure being closer to the feet or
    lower than another structure in the body

8
Positions and Directions
  • Anterior
  • Refers to a structure being more in front than
    another structure in the body
  • Posterior
  • Refers to a structure being more in back than
    another structure in the body

9
Positions and Directions
  • Medial
  • Refers to a structure being closer to the midline
    or median plane of the body than another
    structure of the body
  • Lateral
  • Refers to a structure being farther away from the
    midline than another structure of the body

10
Positions and Directions
Root
  • Distal
  • (Reference to the extremities only)
  • Refers to a structure being further away from the
    root of the limb than another structure in the
    limb
  • Proximal
  • (Reference to the extremities only)
  • Refers to a structure being closer to the root of
    the limb than another structure in that limb

Root
11
Distal / Proximal Cont.
  • When you divide the skeleton into Axial (Blue)
    and Appendicular (Yellow) you can better
    understand the extremities and their roots.
  • Proximal
  • Distal

Root
12
Positions and Directions
  • Superficial
  • Refers to a structure being closer to the surface
    of the body than another structure
  • Deep
  • Refers to a structure being closer to the core of
    the body than another structure

13
Positions and Directions
  • Ventral
  • Towards the front or belly
  • You Vent out or your nose and mouth.
  • Dorsal
  • Towards the back
  • Like the Dorsal fin of a dolphin.

14
Positions and Directions
  • Prone
  • Lying face down
  • Like a Pro Baseball player sliding into Home.
  • Supine
  • Lying face up
  • Lying on your spine and you can have soup poured
    into your mouth.
  • Unilateral
  • Pertaining to one side of the body
  • Bilateral
  • Pertaining to both sides of the body

15
Anatomical Planes
  • Fixed lines of reference along which the body is
    often divided or sectioned to facilitate viewing
    of its structures
  • Allow one to obtain a three-dimensional
    perspective by studying the body from different
    views

16
Anatomical Planes
  • Sagittal plane
  • The plane dividing the body into right and left
    portions
  • Midsagittal or median are names for the plane
    dividing the body into equal right and left halves

17
Anatomical Planes
  • Frontal plane
  • The plane dividing the body into front and back
    portions
  • Also called the Coronal plane

18
Anatomical Planes
  • Transverse plane
  • The horizontal plane dividing the body into upper
    and lower portions
  • Also called the Horizontal plane

19
Gummy Bear DissectionLAB
  1. Cadaver Bear
  2. Dissecting Tray
  3. Scalpel

20
Movements
  • Flexion
  • Extension
  • Hyperextension
  • Adduction
  • Abduction
  • Prontaion
  • Supination
  • Retraction
  • Protraction
  • Elevation
  • Depression
  • Rotation
  • Circumduction
  • External Rotation
  • Internal Rotation
  • Inversion
  • Eversion
  • Dorsiflexion
  • Plantarflexion

21
Movements
  • Flexion
  • Bending a joint or decreasing the angle between
    two bones
  • In the Fetal Position we are flexing our joints
  • Extension
  • Straightening a joint or increasing the angle
    between two bones
  • In the Anatomical Position we are extending our
    joints
  • Hyperextension
  • Excessive extension of the parts at a joint
    beyond anatomical position.

22
Flexion / Extension / Hyperextension
23
Movements
  • Adduction
  • Moving a body part towards the midline of the
    body
  • Abduction
  • Moving a body part away from the midline of the
    body

24
Movements
  • Pronation
  • Turning the arm or foot downward
  • (palm or sole of the foot - down)
  • Prone
  • Supination
  • Turning the arm or foot upward
  • (palm or sole of the foot - up)
  • Supine

25
Movements
  • Retraction
  • Moving a part backward
  • Protraction
  • Moving a part forward
  • Elevation
  • Raising a part
  • Depression
  • Lowering a part

26
Movements
  • Rotation
  • Turning on a single axis
  • Circumduction
  • Tri-planar, circular motion at the hip or
    shoulder
  • Internal rotation
  • Rotation of the hip or shoulder toward the
    midline
  • External rotation
  • Rotation of the hip or shoulder away from the
    midline

27
Movements
  • Lateral Flexion
  • Side-bending left or right

28
Movements of the Foot
  • Inversion
  • Turning the sole of the foot inward
  • Eversion
  • Turning the sole of the foot outward
  • Dorsiflexion
  • Ankle movement bringing the foot towards the shin
  • Plantarflexion
  • Ankle movement pointing the foot downward

29
Movements of the Wrist Thumb
  • Radial Deviation
  • Movement of the wrist towards the radius or
    lateral side.
  • Ulnar Deviation
  • Movement of the wrist towards the ulna or medial
    side.
  • Opposition
  • Movement of the thumb across the palm of the hand.

30
Additional Range of Motion
31
QUIZ
32
Range of Motion
  • Hip __________________________
  • Hip __________________________
  • Hip __________________________
  • Knee ________________________
  • Ankle ________________________
  • Wrist _________________________
  • (a) __________________________
  • (b) __________________________
  • Hip __________________________
  • Knee ________________________
  • Ankle ________________________
  • Forearm (a) ___________________
  • Forearm (b) ___________________
  • Shoulder ______________________
  • Shoulder ______________________
  • Jaw __________________________
  • Shoulder ______________________
  • Hip _Abduction_________________
  • Hip _Adduction_________________
  • Hip _Flexion___________________
  • Knee _Extension________________
  • Ankle _Plantarflexion____________
  • Wrist _Extension________________
  • (a) _Hyperextension_____________
  • (b) _Flexion____________________
  • Hip _Flexion___________________
  • Knee _Flexion__________________
  • Ankle _Dorsiflexion______________
  • Forearm (a) _Supination__________
  • Forearm (b) _Pronation__________
  • Shoulder _Circumduction_________
  • Shoulder _Elevation_____________
  • Jaw _Protraction________________
  • Shoulder _Rotation______________

33
Regional Terms
34
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36
Word Association Activity
37
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38
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