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Duane Hanson

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Title: Duane Hanson


1
Realistic Representation
  • Duane Hanson

2
"I'm not duplicating life. I'm making a statement
about human values," - Duane Hanson
3
Enduring Understanding
  • Through the study of these artworks,
  • students discover
  • 1.Why naturalism is selected as a means of
    expression.
  • 2.How artists use the mechanism of realistic
    representation to realise its purpose and
    function.

4
Essential Questions
  • Overarching Questions
  • 1. What are the criteria for a realistic artwork?
  • 2. How do artists use realistic representation to
    express their artistic intentions?
  • 3. How do artists use realistic representation as
    a mechanism to express social issues?
  • Topical Questions
  • 1. How is the subject matter in the artwork being
    represented?
  • 2. Which artist is more successful in using
    realistic representation to express social
    issues?
  • 3. Which artist is more successful in depicting a
    high level of technical skill?

5
5W1H
6
Keywords/phrases
  • Hyperrealism
  • Social Realism
  • Sculpture
  • Life-like
  • Blur boundary between art and life
  • Mundane everyday life
  • Life casting

7
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8
Key Dates
  • 1925 Born in Minnesota, America Midwest.
  • 1944 Enrolled into the University of Washington
    in Seattle but never graduated from there.
  • 1946 B.F.A. from Macalester College in Saint
    Paul.
  • 1951 M.F.A. from Cranbrook Academy of Art in
    Bloomfield Hills, Michigan.
  • 1952 First solo exhibition at Wilton Gallery.
  • 1961 Returned to US and taught at Oglethorpe
    College.
  • 1996 Died of cancer due to over-exposure to his
    media.

9
When
  • The social and cultural happenings which affects
    the artist and his works

10
When
  • 1939-45 World War II.
  • 1950s Abstract Expressionism
  • indicated a shift away from naturalism toward
    abstraction
  • 1955-69s Civil Rights Movement
  • Racial Riots
  • made his sculptures in the spirit of
    contemporaneous social protest and political
    agitation movements
  • 1960s Pop Art
  • encouraged Hanson to yield to his naturalistic
    inclinations

11
When
  • 1957-73 Vietnam War.
  • 1971 High Unemployment
  • Social Discontent
  • 1980 Ronald Reagan (surge of confidence in
    the society but US became the worlds
    greatest debtor in economy)

12
Where
  • America, Florida
  • Germany

13
Where
  • Germany (1953 to 1960 )
  • began to experiment with synthetic media, in
    particular polyester resin and fiberglass
  • America, NY (1960s)
  • Social and political unrest

14
His artworks
15
Abortion, 1965 Clay, fibreglass and polyester
resin, 60 cm long
16
War, 1967
17
Race Riot, 1967
18
  • Housewife, 1970
  • Polyester and fiberglass, polychromed in
    oil, with accessories Life-size

19
Young Shopper, 1973 Polyester resin and
fibreglass, polychromed in oil with accessories,
life size
20
Queenie II,1988 Polychromed bronze, with
accessories, life size
21
Tourists II, 1988 Autobody filler, fibreglass
and mixed media, with accessories life size
22
Drug Addict, 1974
23
  • Museum Guard,
  • mixed media,
  • 1975

24
Man on a bench, 1977 Polyvinyl polychromed in oil
and mixed media with accessories,
25
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26
Which
  • Photorealism
  • Social Realism

27
Which
  • Photorealism (late 1960s to early 1970s)
  • America witnessed a return to figurative painting
    in the 1960s as a challenge against Abstract
    Expressionism.
  • A reaction against Minimalism.
  • Realistic, detailed paintings and sculptures.
  • Naturalistic form and illusionistic space-
    presented like flat snapshots, colour slides with
    photographic excellence.
  • - Hugh Honour
  • Copied from photographs
  • Appear photographic
  • Started from the States and spread to Europe.
  • - Artlex-

28
Abstract Expressionism
  • A Brief Overview
  • Technique
  • Paint is applied rapidly, and with force to the
    huge canvases to show feelings and emotions.
  • Artists paint gesturally, applying paint with
    large brushes, dripping or even throwing it onto
    canvas
  • Subject Matter
  • Usually no effort to represent subject matter.

29
Abstract Expressionism
  • A Brief Overview
  • Philosophy
  • Works depend on supposed accident and chance, but
    which is actually highly planned
  • The spontaneity of the artists' approach to their
    work draws from and release the creativity of
    their unconscious minds.
  • The expressive method of painting was often
    considered as important as the painting itself.

30
Social Realism
  • Also Realism with a capital R.
  • Denotes a mid-19th century art movement of the
    realist school.
  • Concerned with social realities.
  • Showed facts rather than ideals.
  • Rejected Academic Art (see next slide) and
    Romanticism.
  • Dealt with the harshness of life- poverty, human
    degradation.

31
Academic Art
  • Art based on academic principles.
  • Art academies originated from late 16th century
    Italy.
  • These academies raised the social status of
    artists from that of an apprentice under the
    medieval system.
  • Examples are Royal Academy of Art in London, and
    Académie des Beaux-Arts.
  • These institutions stressed a system of art
    training that is strictly confined to a hierarchy
    of subjects.
  • They are classified in ranking order according to
    historic painting first, then portraits and
    landscapes, and finally still-life and scenes of
    everyday life (ideals).
  • It is this system and the system of official
    support that led to its demise- rejected by the
    modern artists.

32
What
  • Subject matter
  • working-class Americans
  • Themes
  • Socio-Political Criticism
  • Comical Caricature
  • The Downtrodden

33
What
  • Subject Matter
  • People of the middle or lower class.
  • "slice-of-life" figures in their ordinary
    activities
  • Stereotypes.
  • Everyday heroes (those that work the nuts and
    bolts of the economy).
  • Victims (eg. of racism)
  • .

34
What
  • Socio-Political Criticism
  • Ruling against abortion like Abortion, 1965.
  • The lack of welfare like Welfare, 1967.
  • Discrimination like Race Riot, 1967.
  • Organized crime like Gangland Victim, 1967.
  • Americas intervention in Vietnam like War, 1967

35
What
  • Comical Caricatures
  • Satirical pieces on the society.
  • Some examples- Tourists, 1970. Supermarket
    Shopper, 1970. Housewife, 1970. Sunbather, 1971.
    Lady with Shopping Bags, 1972.
  • The Downtrodden
  • People who fall behind in a rapidly evolving
    society.
  • The mundane and banal side of America.
  • Working class- those who work with their hands.

36
What
  • Showing reality of life using art
  • Confusion between reality and fiction.
  • Creating non-verbal communication between viewer
    and sculpture.

37
What
  • Paradox
  • His lifelike figures seem incapable of escaping
    their situations.
  • Yet
  • the courage they show in enduring this fate
    expresses the dignity and nobility that Hanson
    found in the common American.

38
Why
  • Artist Intention/Philosophy
  • Influences

39
Why
  • His philosophy
  • Art is life and life is realistic.
  • Farming environment shaped his moral character-
    respected those earning a living doing manual
    labour.
  • "I'm mostly interested in the human form as
    subject matter and means of expression for my
    sculpture. What can generate more interest,
    fascination, beauty, ugliness, joy, shock or
    contempt than a human being."
  • - Duane Hanson

40
Why
  • His Intention
  • To express his critical view of life/reality
    through art
  • To create public awareness.
  • To show the mundane everyday lives of Americans
    by capturing hidden sentiment such as emptiness.
  • to represent a cross-section of American society
    by focusing on the singularities of individuals

41
Why
  • His Intention
  • to evoke emotional responses from the audience by
    communicating the internal attitudes and
    experiences of his subjects
  • audience forced to face challenging issues
    without the psychic distancing inherent to
    television and newspaper reports
  • invade reality in an urgent and physical way
    as three-dimensional forms, usually life-size,
    sharing viewers' space and incorporating real
    objects

42
Why
  • Influences
  • He met Alonzo Hauser and John Rood (sculptors) in
    Minnesota (see next slide).
  • He was impressed with Roods figural works.
  • He went to Munich to teach at schools affiliated
    with the American army for a period of four
    years.
  • He met George Gryo, a sculptor who worked with
    polyester resin and fiberglass
  • He returned to US in 1961 and taught at
    Oglethorpe College, and began experimenting with
    polyester resin. (No one at that time was using
    the medium).

43
Samples by Hauser and Rood
Female Figure, 1939 by John Rood Wood , 43.2 x
30.5 cm
"Buckminster" Fuller, 1953 by Alonzo Hauser
Bronze, 14"
44
Why
  • Influences
  • He moved to Miami in 1965 and began a new
    teaching career with Miami Dade College. This is
    where he became interested in George Segal and
    Jasper Johns.
  • These artists viewed the banality and triviality
    of everyday life as iconographic material.
  • He was later impressed by the two-dimensional
    works of the Photorealists.

45
Influence from George Segal
Street Crossing, 1992 Bronze with white patina,
Depression Bread Line, 1999 cast bronze 2/7, 108"
x 148" x 36"
46
How
  • Techniques/Medium

47
How
  • He began to cast from live models in 1967.
  • He had to exaggerate the light and shade,
    particularly around the eyes to achieve a
    realistic effect.
  • Sculptures have blank look like robots,
    introspective, emotional indifference, depression
  • He usually chose poses that are in a state of
    repose or static in between activities

48
How
  • Process of his sculpture
  • Tried to determine pose (usually typical of
    character) by taking photos of live models until
    satisfied with figures position.
  • Formed molds of each part of the subjects body.
  • Dried molds were cut off from the model.
  • Molds filled with flesh coloured polyester resin
    reinforced with fibreglass.

49
How
  • Process of his sculpture
  • Working from feet up, body parts re-assembled to
    create figure that looks natural.
  • Painted cast sculptures with acrylic first, then
    oil paint.
  • Added materials- nail polish applied on
    fingernails, wigs for hair, aging clothes with
    dirt, bleach or paint.

50
How (Summary)
  • Medium
  • polyester resin and fibreglass
  • Acrylic
  • Oil paint
  • Readymades (eg. Nail polish, wig)

What are readymades? Go and research on it.
51
How (Summary)
  • Technique
  • Take photos of model
  • Form and fill molds
  • Reassemble different parts of body
  • Paint the sculpture
  • Accessorise with readymades

52
Reference
  • Buchsteiner, T and Letze, O. (Ed). (2007)
  • Duane Hanson Sculptures of the American
  • Dream. Germany Hatje Cantz
  • http//www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/hanson_duane.
    html
  • http//www.designboom.com/eng/funclub/duanehanson.
    html
  • Video links
  • Hyper-Realist Sculpture (John De Andrea and Duane
    Hanson)
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v-vP_2NT8IJQ
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