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MATTER: Physical and Chemical Properties

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Title: MATTER: Physical and Chemical Properties


1
MATTER Physical and Chemical Properties
2
Properties of matter
  • When you choose your clothes, your lunch, your
    shampoo, you make your choices based on the
    properties of matter.
  • Properties are characteristics that describe
    matter.
  • Two types of properties used to describe matter
    are physical properties and chemical properties

3
1. Physical Properties
  • Physical properties are characteristics or
    descriptions that may help to identify a
    substance.
  • Physical properties do not involve a substance
    becoming a new substance.
  • Many physical properties can be observed by our
    senses, for example colour, texture, odour,
    lustre, clarity, taste.

4
Describe this liquid!
5
Important Physical Properties
  • State of matter
  • ? Solid (coins), liquid (water), gas (air)
  • Hardness
  • -A measure of the resistance of a solid to being
    scratched or dented.
  • - Chalk, steel nails, diamond, glass
  • Malleability The ability of matter to be
    hammered or bent into different shapes. For
    example, most metals are malleable, glass is not
    malleable because it shatters to pieces when you
    hammer it.

6
Describe the state of matter, hardness and
malleability of Playdoo.
7
Other Physical Properties
  • Melting Boiling Points temperatures at which
    substances change state.
  • ? solid to liquid melting point
  • ? liquid to gas boiling point
  • Crystal Form many solid minerals have repeating
    patterns in them. For example, salt crystals have
    tiny cubes.

8
Which substance is crystalline? Which one has a
lower melting point?
Diamonds
Copper Pipes
9
More Physical Properties
  • Solubility ability of a substance to dissolve
    in water. For example, salt is soluble in water,
    sand is not soluble in water.
  • Viscosity refers to how a liquid resists
    flowing. Molasses is more viscous than water.
  • Describe the viscosity of shampoo compared to
    water.
  • How soluble is oil in water?

10
2. Chemical Properties
  • Chemical properties are defined as characteristic
    behaviour that occurs when one substance reacts
    with another to form new substances.
  • For example, oxygen reacts with hydrogen to form
    water.

11
Chemical Properties - Combustibility
  • There are 3 chemical properties to know
  • 1. Combustibility The ability of a substance to
    react with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide. For
    example, when gas is brought close to a flame, it
    ignites and burns forming new substances.

12
Chemical Properties Reaction with Acids
  • 2. Reaction with acid The ability of a
    substance to react with acid.
  • For example, limestone reacts with acid to
    produce bubbles of gas which are a new substance.
  • Here is a video of an egg cooked with acid!
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v-8PFb9dOR8cfeature
    related

13
Chemical Properties Corrosion
  • 3. Corrosion is a slow chemical change that
    occurs when metal reacts with oxygen to form
    oxides.

For example, iron reacts with oxygen to form
iron oxide. This is also called rusting or
tarnishing.
14
How can physical chemical properties be used to
identify substances?
  • An unknown substance can be identified by testing
    its physical and chemical properties and
    comparing them to the properties of a known
    substance.
  • When could this be useful?

15
Summary
  • Physical properties are observed with your senses
    or simple measurements that do not change the
    substance. For example, colour, texture,
    crystallinity, state, melting point
  • Chemical properties are characteristic behaviour
    when one substance reacts to produce a new
    substance. The 3 chemical properties are
    combustibility, reaction with acid and corrosion.
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