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Myers PSYCHOLOGY Seventh Edition in Modules


Myers PSYCHOLOGY Seventh Edition in Modules Module 1 The History and Scope of Psychology James A. McCubbin, Ph.D. Clemson University Worth Publishers – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Myers PSYCHOLOGY Seventh Edition in Modules

Myers PSYCHOLOGY Seventh Edition in Modules
  • Module 1
  • The History and Scope of Psychology
  • James A. McCubbin, Ph.D.
  • Clemson University
  • Worth Publishers

Psychologys Roots
  • Prescientific Psychology
  • Is the mind connected to the body or distinct?
  • Are ideas inborn or is the mind a blank slate
    filled by experience?

Psychologys Roots
Psychologys Roots
  • Prescientific Psychology
  • Empiricism
  • knowledge comes from experience via the senses
  • science flourishes through observation and

  • Psychophysics refers to the interaction of the
    mind (psyche) and the physical world (physics)  

Psychologys Roots
  • Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology
    laboratory at the University of Leipzig (c. 1879)

Psychologys Roots
  • Structuralism used introspection (looking in) to
    explore the elemental structure of the human mind

Psychologys Roots
  • Functionalism focused on how behavioral processes
    functionhow they enable organism to adapt,
    survive, and flourish

Freud and Psychoanalysis
  • Sigmund Freud was a mid-century psychiatrist from
  • He believed that psychological problems could
    often be traced to childhood sexual conflicts
    over such issues as breastfeeding, toilet
    training, and sexual jealousy centered on the
  • In 1900 he introduced the first complete theory
    of personality, which he called psychoanalysis.
    It focused on abnormal behaviour and relied on
    personal observation and reflection instead of
    controlled laboratory experimentation.

Pavlov and Conditioning
  • The Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlovs classical
    studies of animal learning in 1906 fueled a move
    in psychology toward interest in observable
    behaviour and away from the self-examination of
    inner ideas and experiences.
  • His experiments with salivating dogs have become
    famous. His study of the conditioned reflex
    provided psychology with a model of learning that
    is called classical conditioning.

Watson and Behaviourism
  • Around 1900, the time was right for a new concept
    of psychology. The American psychologist John B.
    Watson believed that psychology should be defined
    as the study of behaviour. He called this
  • He would completely eliminate introspection
    (remember this is looking inside to gather data
    about the mind) from psychology and rely on
    scientific method.
  • This would mean studying only things that could
    be observed and measured. For Watson, studying
    the unconscious, or anything that you cant see,
    was of little value

Maslow, Rogers and Humanism
  • Humanistic psychology focuses on inner needs,
    fulfillment, the search for identity, and other
    distinctly human concerns. It is less concerned
    with doing research on human behaviour than with
    describing its meaning and purpose.
  • Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers emphasized
    conscious experience as the focus of psychology.
    They believed that humans have free will in their
    decision making, and that healthy people strive
    to reach their full potential.
  • They rejected the idea that humans are
    controlled by a series of rewards and

Modern Trends
  • Cognition emphasizes information processing
    within humans. It focuses on how people think
    how they take in, process, store, and retrieve
  • Neuroscience emphasizes the biology of the brain
    and nervous system. Neuroscientists use a
    variety of scanning techniques that reveal brain
    structures and activity.
  • The Sociocultural perspective examines how
    thinking and behaviour changes depending on the
    setting or situation.

New Areas of Interest
  • Those studying behaviour genetics focus on the
    relative effects of our genes and environment on
    our behaviour. It combines biology and
  •  Those studying evolutionary psychology focus on
    studying behaviours that helped our ancestors
    survive. This approach combines biological,
    psychological and social aspects of human
  • The positive psychology movement (Martin
    Seligman) focuses on making life more productive
    and fulfilling and identifying and nurturing
    talent and wisdom. It is like the humanistic
    perspective but there is a research.

Psychologys Roots
  • Definition of Psychology
  • The science of behavior (what we do) and mental
    processes (sensations, perceptions, dreams,
    thoughts, beliefs, and feelings)

Contemporary Psychology
  • Psychologys Big Issues
  • Nature-nurture controversy
  • the relative contribution that genes and
    experience make to development of psychological
    traits and behaviors

Contemporary Psychology
  • Natural selection
  • principle that those inherited trait variations
    contributing to survival will most likely be
    passed on to succeeding generations

Contemporary Psychology
Contemporary Psychology
  • Psychologys Perspectives
  • A lot depends on your point of view

Eclectic View
  • No one perspective can answer all of the
    questions that psychology addresses. Each
    examines behaviour and mental processes from a
    different viewpoint. Most psychologists today
    choose to view behaviour from more than one
    perspective because they know that this choice
    will increase their understanding of topics that
    interest them.

  • The handout is an example of how the different
    perspectives might explain whether or not a
    person helps a stranger pick up a spilled bag of
    groceries when given the opportunity.

Contemporary Psychology
  • Psychologys Subfields
  • Basic Research
  • biological psychologists explore the links
    between brain and mind
  • developmental psychologists study changing
    abilities from womb to tomb
  • cognitive psychologists study how we perceive,
    think, and solve problems

Contemporary Psychology
  • Psychologys Subfields
  • Basic Research
  • Personality psychologists investigate our
    persistent traits
  • Social psychologists explore how we view and
    affect one another

Contemporary Psychology
  • Psychologys Subfields
  • Applied Research
  • Industrial/organizational psychologists study and
    advise on behavior in the workplace
  • Clinical psychologists study, assess, and treat
    people with psychological disorders

Contemporary Psychology
  • Psychiatry
  • A branch of medicine dealing with psychological
  • Practiced by physicians who sometimes use medical
    (for example, drug) treatments as well as