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Diabetes and Glucose Monitoring


Title: Diabetes and Glucose Monitoring Author: Kayla Last modified by: Kayla Created Date: 3/14/2010 4:36:21 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Diabetes and Glucose Monitoring

Diabetes and Glucose Monitoring
  • Kayla Walker

What is Diabetes?
  • a condition where the body is unable to regulate
    the amount of glucose in the blood due to lack of
    insulin or the bodys inability to produce
  • a condition where there is too much glucose in
    the blood.

Types 1 Diabetes
  • also known as juvenile diabetes or
    insulin-dependent diabetes
  • usually develops in children or young adults
  • an autoimmune disease where the immune system is
    destroying the cells of the pancreas
  • the body does not produce enough insulin to
    control the amount of glucose in the blood.
  • people with type 1 diabetes must take insulin

Type 2 Diabetes
  • also known as adult-onset diabetes or
    non-insulin dependent diabetes
  • usually an disease of adults however is becoming
    more common in obese children
  • a genetic disorder
  • a disorder where there is high blood glucose due
    to insulin resistance or deficiency
  • the body is not producing enough insulin to
    control the glucose in the blood
  • Based on diet, exercise and medicine type 2
    diabetics may not need to take insulin daily

What is glucose?
  • Glucose
  • a simple sugar that serves as the chief source of
    energy for the body.

Hypoglycemia vs. Hyperglycemia
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Low blood sugar
  • 60mg/dL or less
  • Occurs mostly in Type 1 diabetes or in elderly
  • Hyperglycemia
  • High blood sugar
  • 240mg/dL or higher
  • Can cause damage to eyes, kidneys, heart and

Blood Glucose Monitoring
  • What is it?
  • Blood Glucose Monitoring is a way of checking the
    concentration of glucose in the blood using a
  • What is the purpose?
  • Provides quick response to tell if the sugar is
    high or low indicating a change in diet, exercise
    or insulin.
  • Over time, it reveals individual of blood glucose

Why monitor blood glucose?
  • Reduces risk of developing complications with
  • Allows diabetics to see if the insulin and other
    medications they are taking are working.
  • Gives diabetics an idea as to how exercise and
    food affect their blood sugar.
  • May prevent hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia

When to check blood glucose?
  • When you wake up
  • Before meals
  • 1 to 2 hours after meals
  • Before physical activity
  • 15 minutes after physical activity
  • Before bed

Glucose in the Blood
Glucose Test Person without diabetes Person with diabetes
Fasting Test 70-110mg/dL gt 140mg/dL
2 hours after eating lt110mg/dL gt 200mg/dL
  • A glucometer is an electronic device used to test
    the amount of glucose in the blood.
  • New models are able to read and calculate the
    blood sugar within seconds.
  • Some models not only display the glucose reading
    but also say it.

How a Glucometer Works
  • Prick side of finger to get a small about of
  • Place a drop of blood on the test strip. This
    strip interfaces with a digital meter, enabling
    it to read the strip.
  • Within seconds, blood sugar will be displayed in
    the meter window.

Advances in Blood Glucose Monitoring
  • Alternate site-testing
  • Continuous glucose monitors
  • Non-Invasive
  • Semi-Invasive
  • Surgical
  • Laser

AtLast Blood Glucose Meter
  • What is it?
  • An alternate test site glucose monitor. Instead
    of pricking their finger, diabetics are able to
    draw blood from their thigh or forearm to test
    their blood sugar.
  • How does it work?
  • The AtLast Glucose Meter works just the same as
    any other meter, except blood is taken from
    alternate sites to relieve the pain of pricking
    fingertips. The blood drawn is then put onto a
    strip which the meter reads and displays the
    blood glucose level.
  • Why is it advanced?
  • Alternate site testing is less painful then the
    traditional finger testing
    because there are
    less nerve endings in the alternate sites
    then the finger tips.
  • Where can you test?
  • Upper arm, forearm, thigh, hand,
    palm calf

GlucoWatch Biographer
  • What is it?
  • Warn like a wristwatch, the GlucoWatch
    Biographer measures glucose
    ten minutes through the skin.
  • How does it work?
  • Using an AutoSensor, a replaceable
    pa that sticks to
    the back of the watch,
    that is adhesive to the skin which
    allows it to come into contact with an electrical
    charge. This electrical charge then brings the
    glucose to the skin surface where an enzyme
    reaction generates electrons in the glucose,
    similar to that of regular meters, allowing the
    glucose to be closely estimated.
  • Why is it advanced?
  • First noninvasive glucose monitor
  • Provides glucose readings every ten minutes
  • Very helpful at showing patterns of glucose

  • What is it?
  • The HypoMon System noninvasively detects low
    blood sugar in diabetes throught skin contact.
    The HypoMon includes a battery power pack worn
    on the chest and a wireless receiver where the
    readings are sent to and can be read.
  • How does it work?
  • With the battery powered unit attached to the
    chest, the four skin sensors measure skin
    moisture and heart activity which are two known
    symptoms of hypoglycemia. The readings are then
    to the wireless receiver where they can be
    Alerts sound when the blood glucose level
    below 45mg/dL.
  • Why is it advanced?
  • Enables monitoring during the day and night.
  • Alters allow the diabetic to treat hypoglycemia

    at an earlier stage.

Silicon Micro Needle
  • What is it?
  • Silicon Micro Needle consists of a hand-held
    battery-powered electronic monitor which holds a
    cartridge loaded with 10 disposable sampling
    devices. Each disposable consists of the
    micro-needle and a receptacle into which the
    blood sample is drawn.
  • How does it work?
  • The cartridge is loaded into the monitor and
    pressed up to the skin. This penetrates the skin,
    drawing a very small amount of blood into the
    disposable needle. Chemicals in the microneedle
    react with the glucose to produce a color. The
    monitor then analyses this color using a laser
    light and displays the glucose level.
  • Why is it advanced?
  • Pain free testing and the amount of blood
    required is 1/100th of a drop of blood.

REAL-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring System
  • What is it?
  • An insulin pump integrated with REAL-Time
    continuous glucose monitoring that measures the
    glucose levels for up to 72 hours.
  • How does it work?
  • Diabetic must use MiniMed Paradigm insulin pump,
    a device that delivers insulin to the body though
    a small plastic catheter. They must also wear a
    sensor that monitors glucose for up to 3 days
    that is connected to the MiniLinkTM Transmitter.
    This transmitter sends the data from the sensor
    to the insulin pump through radio frequency
    wireless technology. The insulin pump with
    REAL-Time alarms diabetics when their glucose
    levels are high or low.
  • Why is this advanced?
  • Warns diabetics of glucose levels a finger stick
  • Helps take action and gain control sooner.
  • The REAL-Time trend graph shows how meals,

    exercise, insulin and medication affect glucose.

Cell Robotics' Lasette
  • What is it?
  • A laser lancing device that uses a laser beam to
    draw a drop of blood rather then using a steel
  • How does it work?
  • The fingertip is placed over the disposable lens
    cover where the laser beam comes out of. Water in
    the skin absorbs the energy from the laser beam,
    instantly vaporizing tissue which draws blood.
  • Why is it advanced?
  • Virtually painless
  • No more finger pricking

Glucose Control Benefits
  • Keeping blood glucose levels as close to normal
    as possible
  • Few or even no complications
  • Normal life span
  • Short term benefits of glucose control
  • Feel better
  • Stay healthy
  • Have more energy
  • Reduce risk of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia
  • Long term benefits of glucose control
  • Lower chances of having eye, heart and kidney
    disease and nerve damage
  • Enjoy a better quality of life

  • "Diabetes and Blood Sugar Testing." WebMD
    Diabetes Center Types, Causes, Symptoms, Tests,
    and Treatments. Web. 14 Mar. 2010.
  • "Blood Glucose Monitoring." Wikipedia. Web. 14
    Mar. 2010. http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_gluc
  • "Blood Glucose Monitoring The Importance of
    Self-Monitoring Your Blood Sugar." Diabetes Care,
    Information Support Changing Life With
    Diabetes. Web. 14 Mar. 2010. lthttp//www.changingd
  • "Latest Developments in Insulin Delivery
    Technology." Lifeclinic Blood Pressure Monitors
    and Personal Health Management. Web. 14 Mar.
    2010. lthttp//www.lifeclinic.com/focus/diabetes/ad
  • "Sensors for Medicine and Science Is Woking on
    Flourescent Trechnology for the Measurement of
    Blood Glucose." DiabetesNet.com. Web. 14 Mar.
    2010. lthttp//www.diabetesnet.com/diabetes_technol
  • "Children with DIABETES - Personal Lasette."
    Children with DIABETES Online Community. Web. 14
    Mar. 2010. lthttp//www.childrenwithdiabetes.com/d_
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