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Introduction%20to%20Archaeology

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Title: Introduction%20to%20Archaeology


1
Introduction to Archaeology
  • The Beginnings of Scientific Archaeology
  • Theories and More

2
So what is Archaeology?
3
Goals of Archaeology
  • Conserving and managing the worlds archaeological
    sites for the future
  • Studying sites and their contents in a context of
    time and space to reconstruct human culture.
  • Reconstructing past lifeways or the ways in which
    people made their living in the changing
    environments of the past which has developed into
    a major goal of archaeology.
  • Explaining why cultures change (or stay the
    same).
  • Understanding sites, artifacts, remains and other
    aspects of the archaeological record.

4
Theories
5
Creationism
  • What is Creationism? Creationism is the idea
    that a higher power, in many cases God, created
    man and placed them here on earth along with the
    animals and plants and everything that is present
    today. It argues that all life on earth was been
    created exactly as it is in the present, and any
    alterations would run counter to Gods plan.
  • Fixity of species.
  • Great Chain of Being
  • Essentialism
  • Grand Design.

6
Evolution
  • What is Evolution? Evolution is the theory in
    which humans evolved, or changed over time, from
    a common ancestor.

7
Evolutionary Theories
  • John Ray (1627-1705), an ordained minister, was
    the first to identify species.
  • In 1735 a Swedish botanist named Carolus
    Linneaus (1707-1778) wrote a book called systema
    Naturae or System of Nature, where he classified
    all animals.

8
Key Contributors to the Theory of Evolution Contd
  • Comte de Buffon (1707-1788), in 1749, developed
    the theory of degeneration
  • Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) (Charles grandfather)
    also began to express ideas of natural selection
    and evolutionary thought.

9
Key Contributors to the Theory of Evolution Contd
  • Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) was the
    first European to come up with an organic
    theory of evolution
  • Thomas Malthus (1766-1834), in 1798, argued
    that human populations double every 25 years, it
    increases exponentially while food production
    remains stable, thereby creating a struggle for
    existence

10
Key Contributors to the Theory of Evolution Contd
  • James Hutton, a geologist, argued in his work
    Theory of Earth in 1784, that the earth was
    formed entirely by natural processes not by a
    divine flood of global proportions.
  • His work was later refined by Charles Lyll in
    1833. There view that the earth had been formed
    completely from natural processes that are still
    in operation today became known as
    Uniformitarianism.

11
Key Contributors to the Theory of Evolution Contd
  • George Cuvier (1769-1832), developed the
    theory of catastrophism in 1830
  • Russell Wallace developed the theory of
    evolution based on natural selection
    simultaneous to Darwin.

12
Darwins Theory
  • Species produce offspring faster than the food
    supply increases
  • No two individuals of a species are exactly alike
  • Because there are so many individuals in a
    species there is a struggle for existence,
    favorable characteristics will survive
  • Those favorable characteristics are inherited and
    passed on
  • Over long periods of time those successful
    variations will produce new species

13
From Biological Theory to Social Theory
  •  
  • Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) argued that human
    progress is not an accident, that social
    institutions progress from a simple form to a
    complex form and that each culture passes through
    these same phases.
  • This idea fine tuned by Spencer, Edward B Tylor
    (1832-1917) and Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881)
    was known as Unilinear Cultural Evolution .
  • Unilinear Cultural Evolution Stage
  • savage stage as hunters and gathers
  • barbaric stage of farming
  • civilized stage of modern western culture.

14
Diffusionist Theory
  • Suggests that culture change and human origin was
    based on population movement.
  • This idea was in direct reaction against the
    unilinear models.

15
Historical Particularism
  • Historical Particularism, a widespread reaction
    against sweeping generalizations about culture
    change brought on by the Unilinear Cultural
    Evolutionists ( Herbert Spencer, Edward Tylor,
    and Lewis Henry Morgan).
  • In the United States this movement, known as
    Historical Particularism, was led by the
    anthropologist Franz Boas.
  • Historical Particularism carefully and
    scientifically catalogued cultural data and was
    used to plot culture areas

16
Culture History
  • Culture History- the scientific cataloguing to
    determine the what, when, and where events took
    place
  • The conceptual framework of the cultural history
    approach emphasized the goal of outlining
    sequence (time dimension) and geographical
    distribution (space dimension) of past cultures.

17
Culture History
  • Components- The component unit consists of
    grouping similar artifacts that distinguishes the
    culture of the inhabitants of a particular time
    and place.
  • Phases Phases are cultural units represented by
    grouping similar artifacts and cultural traits in
    the same space over a short period of time.
  • Culture areas- A culture area is a geographic
    region characterized by fairly uniform
    environment and culture.
  • Traditions- Traditions are social organization,
    customs, beliefs, and material culture that
    distinguish an area for a long period of time.
  • Horizons- Horizons are distinctive artifacts and
    cultural traits that cross traditions into
    neighboring areas allowing the assumption that
    they spread rapidly.

18
Cultural Ecology
  • Julian Steward (1902-1972) developed the idea of
    Cultural Ecology and the theory of Multilinear
    Cultural Evolution

19
Multilinear Cultural Evolution.
 
  • Multilinear cultural evolution- cultures pass
    through similar stages at different rates, not on
    a universal track, of cultural development based
    on their environment.
  • Cultural ecology defined by three principles
  • Similar adaptations can be found in different
    cultures living in similar environments
  • No culture as adapted to their environment and
    have since remained unchanged (culture is
    constantly changing and adapting)
  • Adaptations during periods of cultural
    development in any area can either add to the
    complexity of society or result in new cultural
    patterns.

20
Descriptive Culture Models
  • The primary basis for interpretation of culture
    history depended on descriptive culture models.
    These models are
  • Inevitable variation
  • Cultural Selection
  • Invention
  • Diffusion
  • Migration

21
Disadvantages of Culture History
  • In 1948 Walter Taylor (1913-1997) wrote A Study
    of Archaeology.
  • Archaeologists started reassessing the
    objectives of their research.

22
The New Archaeology
  • A pioneer in this new an revised view of the
    past was Lewis Binford.
  • The New Archaeology advocated for rigorous
    scientific testing using formal scientific
    methods including testing for hypothesis.

23
Processual Archaeology
  • This approach was in direct contrast to the
    descriptive approaches of the past.
  • Focuses on Cultural Materialism

24
Post Processual Archaeology
  • In the 1970s a new approach emerged called
    Postprocessual archaeology
  • Postprocessual archaeology has made three
    important contributions to the field.

25
So where are we today?
26
Introduction to Archaeology
  • Ch 2
  • The Beginnings of Scientific Archaeology
  • Theories and More

27
Why is it important to know prehistory prior to
beginning a study in archaeology?
  • Archaeologists want to learn about people across
    all space and all time through the location and
    interpretation of material remains.

28
Human Origins
  • 2.5 million years ago the first tool making human
    appeared in Africa
  • 1.5 millions years prior to that earlier hominids
    occupied the region as earlier as
  • Around 1.9 million years ago, humanity moved out
    of Africa into Asia and Europe changing and
    adapting to their environments along the way.
  • Around 750,000 years ago, the human population
    was no more then a few tens of thousands of
    people.
  • By about 100,000 years ago, those modern humans
    were fully developed
  • By about 40,000 to 15,000 years ago, humans
    occupied every corner of the globe.

29
So what is Archaeology?
  • Archaeology the study of material remains and
    human cultures using archaeological theory and
    techniques.
  • Essentially, archaeology is the study of the
    human past.

30
Goals of Archaeology
  • Conserving and managing the worlds archaeological
    sites for the future
  • Studying sites and their contents in a context of
    time and space to reconstruct human culture.
  • Reconstructing past lifeways or the ways in which
    people made their living in the changing
    environments of the past which has developed into
    a major goal of archaeology.
  • Explaining why cultures change (or stay the
    same).
  • Understanding sites, artifacts, remains and other
    aspects of the archaeological record.

31
History of Archaeology
  • The first archaeologists were adventurers.
  • Some early archaeologist dug for profit other to
    satisfy their intellectual curiosity, yet
    archaeology has come a long way since then.
  • It has moved from an amateurs pastime to a
    scientifically based occupation.

32
Archaeology in the Contemporary World
  • Archaeology has important lessons about human
    diversity to impart in todays world.
  • Relationships between individuals and groups have
    been established and important in society since
    the beginning of man.
  • Archaeology has a way of reconstructing the past
    thereby contributing to modern day development.

33
Creationism
  • What is Creationism? Creationism is the idea
    that a higher power, in many cases God, created
    man and placed them here on earth along with the
    animals and plants and everything that is present
    today. It argues that all life on earth was been
    created exactly as it is in the present, and any
    alterations would run counter to Gods plan.
  • Fixity of species.
  • Great Chain of Being
  • Essentialism
  • Grand Design.

34
Evolution
  • What is Evolution? Evolution is the theory in
    which humans evolved, or changed over time, from
    a common ancestor.

35
Evolutionary Theories
  • John Ray (1627-1705), an ordained minister, was
    the first to identify species.
  • In 1735 a Swedish botanist named Carolus
    Linneaus (1707-1778) wrote a book called systema
    Naturae or System of Nature, where he classified
    all animals.

36
Key Contributors to the Theory of Evolution Contd
  • Comte de Buffon (1707-1788), in 1749, developed
    the theory of degeneration
  • Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) (Charles grandfather)
    also began to express ideas of natural selection
    and evolutionary thought.

37
Key Contributors to the Theory of Evolution Contd
  • Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) was the
    first European to come up with an organic
    theory of evolution
  • Thomas Malthus (1766-1834), in 1798, argued
    that human populations double every 25 years,
    it increases exponentially while food
    production remains stable, thereby creating a
    struggle for existence

38
Key Contributors to the Theory of Evolution Contd
  • James Hutton, a geologist, argued in his work
    Theory of Earth in 1784, that the earth was
    formed entirely by natural processes not by a
    divine flood of global proportions.
  • His work was later refined by Charles Lyll in
    1833. There view that the earth had been formed
    completely from natural processes that are still
    in operation today became known as
    Uniformitarianism.

39
Key Contributors to the Theory of Evolution Contd
  • George Cuvier (1769-1832), developed the
    theory of catastrophism in 1830
  • Russell Wallace developed the theory of
    evolution based on natural selection
    simultaneous to Darwin.

40
Darwin
  • Charles Darwin began to formulate this theory of
    evolution while aboard the HMS Beagle.
  • Darwin boarded the Beagle being a staunch
    believer in fixity of species.
  • During a stopover in the Galapagos Islands,
    Darwin noted the flora and the fauna of S.
    America showed striking similarities to those in
    the Galapagos.
  • Darwin collected 13 different varieties of
    finches, these finches shared similarities and
    clearly represented a closely affiliated group
  • This lead Darwin to believe that the finches had
    all descended from a common, mainland ancestor,
    and had become modified in response to the
    varying environments of the islands.

41
Darwins Theory
  • Species produce offspring faster than the food
    supply increases
  • No two individuals of a species are exactly alike
  • Because there are so many individuals in a
    species there is a struggle for existence,
    favorable characteristics will survive
  • Those favorable characteristics are inherited and
    passed on
  • Over long periods of time those successful
    variations will produce new species

42
From Biological Theory to Social Theory
  •  
  • Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) argued that human
    progress is not an accident, that social
    institutions progress from a simple form to a
    complex form and that each culture passes through
    these same phases.
  • This idea fine tuned by Spencer, Edward B Tylor
    (1832-1917) and Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881)
    was known as Unilinear Cultural Evolution .
  • Unilinear Cultural Evolution Stage
  • savage stage as hunters and gathers
  • barbaric stage of farming
  • civilized stage of modern western culture.

43
Diffusionist Theory
  • The diffusion theory suggests that culture change
    and human origin is based on population
    movements, migration, and invasion.
  • This idea was in direct reaction against the
    unilinear models.

44
Historical Particularism
  • Historical Particularism, a widespread reaction
    against sweeping generalizations about culture
    change brought on by the Unilinear Cultural
    Evolutionsits ( Herbert Spencer, Edward Tylor,
    and Lewis Henry Morgan).
  • Instead of presuming that some cultures were
    more evolved than others, this new idea argued to
    regard all cultures as unique in time and place.
  • In the United States this movement, known as
    Historical Particularism, was led by the
    anthropologist Franz Boas.

45
Historical Particularism
  • Historical Particularism carefully and
    scientifically catalogued cultural data and was
    used to plot culture areas
  • Historical Particularism has influenced how
    researchers interpreted archaeological data. This
    cataloging of data using scientific methods
    served as a basis for interpreting this data
    using a variety of theoretical perspectives.
  • Culture History, or the description,
    chronological, and spatial ordering of data

46
Culture History
  • Components- The component unit consists of
    grouping similar artifacts that distinguishes the
    culture of the inhabitants of a particular time
    and place.
  • Phases Phases are cultural units represented by
    grouping similar artifacts and cultural traits in
    the same space over a short period of time.
  • Culture areas- A culture area is a geographic
    region characterized by fairly uniform
    environment and culture.
  • Traditions- Traditions are social organization,
    customs, beliefs, and material culture that
    distinguish an area for a long period of time.
  • Horizons- Horizons are distinctive artifacts and
    cultural traits that cross traditions into
    neighboring areas allowing the assumption that
    they spread rapidly.

47
Cultural Ecology
  • Julian Steward (1902-1972) developed the idea of
    Cultural Ecology an theory of Multilinear
    Cultural Evolution that simply stated societies
    do pass through similar stages of cultural
    development but this development was based on
    their environment.

48
Multilinear Cultural Evolution.
 
  • In the late 1930s anthropologist Julian Steward
    asked, are there ways of identifying common
    cultural features in many sites distributed over
    man cultural areas?
  • Multilinear cultural evolution- cultures pass
    through similar stages at different rates, not on
    a universal track, of cultural development based
    on their environment.
  • Cultural ecology and defined the three principles
    as
  • Similar adaptations can be found in different
    cultures living in similar environments
  • No culture as adapted to their environment and
    have since remained unchanged (culture is
    constantly changing and adapting)
  • Adaptations during periods of cultural
    development in any area can either add to the
    complexity of society or result in new cultural
    patterns.

49
Culture History
  • Culture History- the scientific cataloguing to
    determine the what, when, and where events took
    place
  • The conceptual framework of the cultural history
    approach emphasized the goal of outlining
    sequence (time dimension) and geographical
    distribution (space dimension) of past cultures.
  • The primary basis for interpretation of culture
    history depended on descriptive culture models.
    These models are inevitable variation, cultural
    selection, invention, diffusion, and migration
    and are used to describe an reconstruct the past.

50
Descriptive Culture Models
  • Inevitable variation Small changes in learned
    behavior passed down from generation to
    generation, ultimately, over time, greatly affect
    ones culture.
  • Cultural Selection is the selection of cultural
    traits on the basis of whether they are
    advantageous to the society as a whole.
  • Invention is simply a new idea. This new idea
    either modifies an old idea or creates a
    completely new idea.
  • Diffusion is the method by which new ideas or
    changes in culture spread, usually over long
    distances. It can result from mechanisms such as
    warfare, trade, and general travel.
  • Migration is the actual movement of human
    populations. English settlers moving to the
    North American continent, Spanish conquistadors
    conquering and moving into Mexico, etc.

51
Disadvantages of Culture History
  • In 1948 Walter Taylor (1913-1997)wrote a very
    eye opening essay titled A Study of Archaeology.
  • Archaeologists started reassessing the
    objectives of their research.
  • This self critique occurred right around the
    time of other technological innovations such as
    the computer C14 dating methods, and new methods
    for locating and identifying archaeological
    sites.
  • All these changes brought about a new approach
    to understanding archaeological evidence.

52
The New Archaeology
  • A pioneer in this new an revised view of the
    past was Lewis Binford.
  • In the 1960s Binford wrote a series of articles
    that stressed the importance of theory and
    strictly defined the close links between
    archaeology and anthropology.
  • This demand for change within the profession in
    addition to the technological advances taking
    place was seen by many as the New Archaeology.
  • The New Archaeology advocated for rigorous
    scientific testing using formal scientific
    methods including testing for hypothesis.

53
Processual Archaeology
  • Processual archaeology focuses on the cultural
    process and the explaining of culture change
    through explicitly scientific methods (the how
    and why past events took place).
  • This approach was in direct contrast to the
    descriptive approaches of the past.
  • Cultural Materialism
  • holds that there are biological and
    psychological needs common to all humansHow
    societies meet these needs in the means in which
    to evaluate the cultures adaptive efficiency

54
Post Processual Archaeology
  • In the 1970s a more Holistic archaeology was
    born, which did take into consideration
    ecological, technological, human conscience,
    religious and worldviews, and human body
    limitations. The new approach was called
    Postprocessual archaeology

55
Post Processual Continued
  • Postprocessual archaeology has made three
    important contributions to the field
  • Meaning is more important than materialism.
  • Archaeologist must examine their social
    responsibilities and look to the broader aims of
    the discipline.
  • There are many perspectives on our historic past
    that have been neglected (minorities, women,
    etc) archaeology is the voice of many, not just
    one!

56
So where are we today?
  • Modern archaeology consists of a variety of
    theoretical perspectives and approaches that
    share aspects of cultural history approaches,
    processual approaches, and post processual
    approaches.
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