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Trends in Biotechnology

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Title: Trends in Biotechnology


1
Trends in Biotechnology
  • Week 1 - 0310 What is biotechnology?
  • Barnum, pp 2-12

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  • I. What is Biotechnology?

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  • Biotechnology is any technique that uses living
    organisms or substances from those organisms, to
    make or modify a product, to improve plants or
    animals, or to develop microorganisms for
    specific uses.

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  • What are you made of?

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  • You are made of cells.

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  • Try these exercises

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  • Mid-digital Hair
  • Some people have hair on the second (middle)
    joint of one or more of their fingers, while
    others dont.

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  • Hand Clasping
  • Clasp your hands together (without thinking about
    it!). Most people place their left thumb on top
    of their right. Now try clasping your hands so
    that the opposite thumb is on top. How does it
    feel?

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  • Bent Little Finger
  • Lay both hands flat on a table. Relax. Do you
    have a bent or straight little finger. Does the
    last joint of the little finger bend inward?

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  • Free Earlobe
  • For some people their ear lobes hang free. With
    the recessive phenotype, the lobes are attached
    directly to the head.

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  • Tongue rolling
  • Some people can roll their tongues into a
    tube-like shape.

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  • All of these things are affected by genes.

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  • Biotechnology is any technique that uses living
    organisms or substances from those organisms, to
    make or modify a product, to improve plants or
    animals, or to develop microorganisms for
    specific uses.

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  • Microorganisms, plants, or animals can be used,
    and products could be new or rare.

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  • Biotechnology is multidisciplinary, covering many
    areas

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  • Biotechnology is multidisciplinary, covering many
    areas
  • 1. Cell and molecular biology.
  • 2. Microbiology.
  • 3. Genetics.
  • 4. Anatomy and physiology.
  • 5. Biochemistry.
  • 6. Engineering.
  • 7. Computer science.

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  • Many applications of biotechnology

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  • Many applications of biotechnology
  • Virus-resistant plants and livestock.
  • Diagnostics for detecting genetic diseases and
    acquired diseases.
  • Therapies that use genes to cure diseases.
  • Recombinant vaccines to prevent diseases.
  • Biotechnology can also aid the environment,
    through bioremediation.

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  • Virus-resistant plants and livestock

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  • Diagnostics for detecting genetic diseases and
    acquired diseases.

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  • Therapies that use genes to cure diseases.

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  • II. Ancient Biotechnology.
  • History of Domestication and Agriculture
  • Ancient Plant Germplasm.
  • C. History of Fermented Foods and Beverages.
  • D. Vinegar (??) fermenting wine using
    Acetobacter bacteria.
  • The amount of fermentation products increased
    from 1900 to 1940.
  • F. Classical biotechnology used chemical
    changes that gave products with important
    therapeutic value.

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  • A. History of Domestication and Agriculture
  • 1. People began to develop farm societies about
    10,000 years ago.
  • 2. Early farmers grew wheat, barley, and possibly
    rye.
  • 3. 7,000 years ago, people used sheep, goats,
    cattle, and also hunted and used grinding stones
    in food preparation.
  • 4. Early farmers arrived in Egypt six thousand
    years ago with cattle, sheep, goats, and crops
    such as barley, emmer, and chick-pea.
  • 5. People began to stop and stay in one place
  • a) Population increases and the need for food.
  • b) Changes in climate.
  • c) Reduced numbers of free (wild) animals.
  • d) Able to control their environment.
  • 6. People collected the seeds of wild plants to
    grow and began selective breeding of plants and
    animals.

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Fig. 1.1 Corn cobs
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Fig. 1.2 Stone amulets from lraq in the shape of
sheep (pierced for suspension).
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  • B. Ancient Plant Germplasm.
  • 1. Farmers saved seeds and tubers, (with the
    plants genes), from season to season for thousand
    of years.
  • 2. A Russian plant geneticist, developed the
    first organized, logical plan for crop genetic
    resource management.
  • 3. The U S developed the National Seed Storage
    Laboratory.
  • 4. Germplasm is in danger because of
    agricultural expansion and the use of herbicides.
  • 5. There is now a global effort to save
    germplasm for gene banks.

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Fig. 1.3 The eight centers of origin identified
by Nikolai Vavilov, the Russian plant geneticist
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  • C. History of Fermented Foods and Beverages.
  • 1. Fermented Foods.
  • a) Fermentation is a microbial process which
    enzymatically changes organic compounds.
  • b) Fermentation produces foods such as bread,
    wine, and beer.
  • c) Fermentation was used for years without
    knowing the processes.
  • d) Pasteur found out about bakers yeast.
  • e) The Chinese in 4000 BC produced yogurt,
    cheese, fermented rice, and soy sauces.
  • f) Milk has been eaten since 9000 BC, producing
    cheese, cream, yogurt, sour cream, and butter.

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Fig. 1.4 A model of a bakery, Asyut, Egypt,
Middle Kingdom(2040-1782 BC).
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  • Modern cheese manufacturing involves these major
    steps
  • Inoculating milk with lactic acid bacteria.
  • Adding enzymes such as rennet to curdle casein (a
    milk protein).
  • Heating.
  • Separating curd from whey.
  • Draining the whey.
  • Salting.
  • Pressing the curd.
  • Ripening

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Fig. 1.5 Curdled milk stirred for cheese making.
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  • 2. Fermented Beverages.
  • Beer making began around 5000 BC, using cereal
    grains such as rice, and wheat.
  • Brewers knew nothing about the microbial basis of
    fermentation.
  • In 1680, Anton van Leeuwenhoek looked at samples
    of fermenting yeast under a microscope.
  • Between 1866 and 1876, Pasteur finally showed
    that yeast and other microbes were responsible
    for fermentation.
  • Wine was probably first made by accident, when
    yeast and other microbes grew in grape juices.

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Fig. 1.6 Servant bottling beer and sealing the
pottery jar with clay.
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  • III. Classical Biotechnology.
  • A. Fermentation developed from ancient times to
    now.
  • B. Classical and modern biotechnology has
    improved fermentation. Many new and important
    compounds can be produced.
  • C. Brewers began making alcohol on a large scale
    in the early 1700s.
  • D. Vinegar is another product that shows
    progress in technology.
  • E. The amount of fermentation products increased
    from 1900 to 1940.

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Fig. 1.7 Large quantities of vinegar are produced
by Acetobacter on a substrate of wood chips.
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  • E. The amount of fermentation products increased
    from 1900 to 1940
  • 1. Glycerol, acetone, butanol, lactic acid,
    citric acid, and yeast biomass for bakers yeast
    were developed.
  • 2. Industrial fermentation was developed to
    make glycerol for explosives.
  • 3. Aseptic (???) techniques improved industrial
    fermentation by the 1940s, as well as the control
    of nutrients, aeration, methods of sterility, and
    product purification.
  • 4. The modern fermenter, also called a
    bioreactor, was developed to mass-produce
    antibiotics such as penicillin and others.

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  • F. Classical biotechnology products with
    important therapeutic value
  • In the 1950s, cholesterol was converted to
    cortisol and the sex hormones by reactions such
    as microbial hydroxylation reactions (addition of
    an OH group to cholesterol).
  • By the mid-1950s, amino acids and other primary
    metabolites (molecules needed for cell growth)
    were produced, as well as enzymes and vitamins.
  • By the 1960s, microbes were being used as sources
    of protein and other molecules called secondary
    metabolites (molecules not needed for cell
    growth).

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  • 4. Now, many chemicals are produced
  • a) Amino acids.
  • b) Pharmaceutical compounds such as
    antibiotics.
  • Many chemicals, hormones, and pigments.
  • Enzymes with a large variety of uses.
  • e) Biomass for commercial and animal
    consumption (such as single-cell protein).

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