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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

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Title: ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR


1
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
  • Chapter 14 -15
  • Power Politics
  • Conflicts Negotiation

2
A Definition of Power
Power A capacity that A has to influence the
behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with
As wishes
Dependency Bs relationship to A when A possesses
something that B requires
3
Contrasting Leadership and Power
  • Leadership
  • Focuses on goal achievement
  • Requires goal compatibility with followers
  • Focuses influence downward
  • Research Focus
  • Leadership styles and relationships with
    followers
  • Power
  • Used as a means for achieving goals
  • Requires follower dependency
  • Used to gain lateral and upward influence
  • Research Focus
  • Power tactics for gaining compliance

4
Dependency The Key To Power
  • The General Dependency Postulate (suppose)
  • The greater Bs dependency on A, the greater the
    power A has over B
  • Possession/control of scarce organizational
    resources that others need makes a manager
    powerful
  • Access to optional resources (e.g., multiple
    suppliers) reduces the resource holders power
  • What Creates Dependency
  • Importance of the resource to the organization
  • Scarcity of the resource
  • Nonsubstitutability of the resource

5
Power Tactics
Power Tactics Ways in which individuals translate
power bases into specific actions
  • Influence Tactics
  • Legitimacy Authority Position
  • Rational persuasion Presenting logic arguments
  • Inspirational appeals Emotional commitment
  • Consultation Motivate and support
  • Exchange Rewarding with benefits
  • Personal appeals Loyalty Friendship
  • Pressure Using warning
  • Coalitions

6
Power in Groups Coalitions
Coalitions Clusters of individuals who
temporarily come together to achieve a specific
purpose
7
Politics Power in Action
Political Behavior Activities that are not
required as part of ones formal role in the
organization, but that influence, or attempt
to influence, the distribution of advantages or
disadvantages within the organization since it
influence the goals criteria or process used for
decision making
Legitimate Political Behavior Normal everyday
politics e.g. Complaining to supervisor ,forming
collations
Illegitimate Political Behavior Extreme political
behavior that violates the implied rules of the
game e.g. sabotage
8
Factors that Influence (Encourage) Political
Behaviors
E X H I B I T 14-4
9
Employee Responses to Organizational
PoliticsOrganizational politics and individuals
out com
E X H I B I T 14-5
10
Conflict
  • Conflict Defined
  • A process that begins when one party perceives
    that another party has negatively affected, or is
    about to negatively affect, something that the
    first party cares about
  • That point in an ongoing activity when an
    interaction crosses over to become an
    interparty conflict
  • Encompasses a wide range of conflicts that people
    experience in organizations
  • Incompatibility of goals
  • Differences over interpretations of facts
  • Disagreements based on behavioral expectations

11
Transitions in Conflict Thought
Traditional View of Conflict The belief that all
conflict is harmful and must be avoided
  • Causes
  • Poor communication
  • Lack of openness
  • Failure to respond to employee needs

12
Transitions in Conflict Thought
Human Relations View of Conflict The belief that
conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in
any group
Interactionist View of Conflict The belief that
conflict is not only a positive force in a group
but that it is absolutely necessary for a group
to perform effectively
13
Functional versus Dysfunctional Conflict
(Positive)
Functional Conflict Conflict that supports the
goals of the group and improves its
performance
Dysfunctional Conflict Conflict that hinders
(blocks) group performance
(Negative)
14
Types of Conflict
Task Conflict Conflicts over content and goals of
the work
Relationship Conflict Conflict based on
interpersonal relationships
Process Conflict Conflict over how work gets done
15
The Conflict Process
E X H I B I T 151
16
Stage I Potential Opposition or Incompatibility
  • Communication
  • Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and
    noise
  • Structure
  • Size and specialization of jobs
  • Authority clarity/ambiguity
  • Member/goal incompatibility
  • Leadership styles (close or participative)
  • Reward systems (win-lose)
  • Dependence/interdependence of groups
  • Personal Variables
  • Differing individual value systems
  • Personality types

17
Stage II Cognition and Personalization
Perceived ConflictAwareness by one or more
parties of the existence of conditions that
create opportunities for conflict to arise
Felt ConflictEmotional involvement in a
conflict creating anxiety, tenseness,
frustration, or hostility
Conflict Definition
18
Stage III Intentions
Intentions Decisions to act in a given way
  • Cooperativeness
  • Attempting to satisfy the other partys concerns
  • Assertiveness
  • Attempting to satisfy ones own concerns

19
Dimensions of Conflict-Handling Intentions
E X H I B I T 15-2
20
Stage III Intentions
Competing A desire to satisfy ones interests,
regardless of the impact on the other party to
the conflict
Collaborating A situation in which the parties to
a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the
concerns of all parties
Avoiding The desire to withdraw from or suppress
a conflict
21
Stage III Intentions
Accommodating The willingness of one party in a
conflict to place the opponents (opposites)
interests above his or her own
Compromising A situation in which each party to a
conflict is willing to give up something
22
Stage IV BehaviorStatements, actions and
reactions
Conflict Management The use of resolution and
stimulation techniques to achieve the desired
level of conflict
23
Conflict Management Techniques
  • Conflict Resolution Techniques
  • Problem solving
  • Superordinate goals create a shared goals
  • Expansion of resources create win-win solution
  • Avoidance withdrawal
  • Smoothing creating common interest
  • Compromise each party given something

Source Based on S. P. Robbins, Managing
Organizational Conflict A Nontraditional
Approach (Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall,
1974), pp. 5989
E X H I B I T 154
24
Conflict Management Techniques
  • Conflict Stimulation Techniques
  • Communication using unclear massage
  • Bringing in outsiders Different values
  • Restructuring the organization changing status

Source Based on S. P. Robbins, Managing
Organizational Conflict A Nontraditional
Approach (Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall,
1974), pp. 5989
E X H I B I T 154 (contd)
25
Stage V Outcomes
  • Functional Outcomes from Conflict
  • Increased group performance
  • Improved quality of decisions
  • Stimulation of creativity and innovation
  • Encouragement of interest and curiosity
  • Provision of a medium for problem-solving
  • Creation of an environment for self-evaluation
    and change
  • Creating Functional Conflict
  • Reward dissent (disagree) and punish conflict
    avoiders

26
Stage V Outcomes
  • Dysfunctional Outcomes from Conflict
  • Development of discontent
  • Reduced group effectiveness
  • Retarded (delayed) communication
  • Reduced group cohesiveness

27
Negotiation
Negotiation A process in which two or more
parties exchange goods or services and attempt to
agree on the exchange rate for them.
28
Bargaining Strategies
Distributive Bargaining Negotiation that seeks to
divide up a fixed amount of resources a win-lose
situation
Integrative Bargaining Negotiation that seeks one
or more settlements that can create a win-win
solution
29
Third-Party Negotiations
Mediator A neutral third party who facilitates a
negotiated solution by using reasoning,
persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives
Arbitrator A third party to a negotiation who
has the authority to dictate an agreement.
30
Third-Party Negotiations
Conciliator A trusted third party who provides an
informal communication link between the
negotiator and the opponent
Consultant An impartial third party, skilled in
conflict management, who attempts to facilitate
creative problem solving through communication
and analysis
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