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The Ocean Floor

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The Vast World Ocean Bathymetry is the measurement of ocean depths and charting topography of ocean floor 36,000 ft deep Marianas trench The Challenger In 1872 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Ocean Floor


1
The Ocean Floor
  • 14.1 The Vast World Ocean

2
The Ocean Floor
  • What does the bottom of the ocean look like?
  • If the water of the ocean were drained, what
    would you see?
  • How much of the Earth is covered with water?
  • Why is Earth called the Blue Planet?

3
The Blue Planet
  • 70 of Earths surface covered by ocean.

Fig 1 Pg 394
4
The Blue Planet
  • The world can be divided into four main ocean
    basinsthe Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the
    Indian Ocean, and the Arctic Ocean.
  • The Pacific Ocean is the largest and has the
    greatest depth.

5
The Vast World Ocean
  • Bathymetry is the measurement of ocean depths and
    charting topography of ocean floor

36,000 ft deep
Marianas trench
6
The Challenger
  • In 1872 HMS Challenger expedition made the first
    study of Earths oceans
  • 65,000 mile trip took the ship and its crew of
    scientists to every ocean except the Arctic
  • How did they measure the depths of the oceans?
  • used line and sinker

7
The Challenger
Recorded depth of the ocean floor
8
The Topography of the Ocean
You could see mountains on bottom of ocean if
Earths oceans were drained
9
The Topography of the Ocean
E
A Continental slope B Seamount C Continental
Rise D Mid Ocean Ridge E Abyssal Plain F
Continental Shelf G Ocean Trench
10
Measuring Topography on the Ocean Floor
  • Three types of technology allow scientists to
    study the ocean floor
  • 1. sonar
  • 2. satellites
  • 3. submersibles

11
Measuring Topography on the Ocean Floor
  • Sonar
  • Invented in the 1906 by Lewis Nixon
  • Sonar is an acronym for Sound Ocean Navigation
    and Ranging
  • Also referred to as echo sounding
  • Sonar works by transmitting sound waves toward
    the ocean bottom

12
Sonar Methods
13
Measuring Topography on the Ocean Floor
Satellites
  • Satellites are able to measure small differences
    by bouncing microwaves off the ocean surface
  • Can measure variations in sea-surface height as
    small as 3 to 6 centimeters (1 to 2 inches)
  • Differences in the height of the ocean surface
    are caused by ocean-floor features

14
Satellite Methods
15
Measuring Topography on the Ocean Floor
  • Submersibles
  • Submersibles are small underwater crafts used for
    deep-sea research
  • Today, many submersibles are unmanned and
    operated remotely by computers. These remotely
    operated vehicles (ROVs) can remain underwater
    for long periods

16
Submersibles
First submersible was used in 1934 by William
Beebe
17
Submersibles
Submersibles can Record video and photos of
previously unknown creatures that live in the
abyss Collect water samples and sediment
samples for analysis
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