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Civil War and Reconstruction

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Title: Civil War and Reconstruction


1
Civil War and Reconstruction
  • Lecture 1

2
Administrative
  • Reading for next class all reading for this
    topic
  • Essay Reminder

3
Review
  • The continued importance of forced labor in the
    American Republic
  • The limited rights of free labor in the USA
  • Early unions developed around crafts
  • The government intervened early on the side of
    employers, criminal conspiracy

4
Today
  1. Workers during the Civil War
  2. African-American workers during Reconstruction

5
I- Workers During the Civil War
  • Which side did most workers support?
  • Why?
  • How did working people participate in the War?
  • What was the effect of the Emancipation
    Proclamation on worker attitudes?

6
Workers During the Civil War
  • What role did African-Americans and
    African-American workers play?
  • How were they treated by the Union?
  • How were they treated by white workers in the
    North?
  • 13th amendment abolishing slavery was not adopted
    until after the war

7
II- African-American Workers in Reconstruction
  • Really three phases
  • Immediately after the war, Andrew Johnson puts
    southern whites back in charge
  • Reconstruction bans confederates and former slave
    owners from positions of power, beginning in 1867
  • End of reconstruction and the reinstallation of
    racialist society, by early 1870s
  • Few of hopes of ex-slaves realized

8
Phase 1
  • Former confederate states adopted Black Codes.
    What were they?
  • Widespread violence against freedpeople

9
Phase 2
  • Passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1866
  • Gave all Americans (except Native Americans)
    equal right to benefits of citizenship without
    regard to race
  • Was routinely ignored in the South
  • What was done in this period to distribute land
    to former slaves?

10
Phase 3
  • Reinstitution of white control
  • Creation of system of segregation
  • Development of the sharecropping system
  • What was this?
  • How did it work?
  • What was the impact on African-American farm
    workers

11
In the North
  • Even in the north, continued employment
    segregation
  • Also routinely paid less than white workers
  • In both north and south, African-Americans
    resisted and demanded equal treatment

12
Next Time
  • Alternative groups of workers
  • Development of Unions

13
Civil War and Reconstruction
  • Lecture 2
  • Development of Unions and Working Class Protest

14
Administrative
  • Reading for next time
  • Essay reminder
  • Not accepted any other time
  • Dont put your name on the essay
  • Hard copy and e-mail
  • Read instructions, especially re citations

15
Review
  • Role of workers during the Civil War
  • African-Americans in the Reconstruction period

16
Today
  1. Other groups in the labor force
  2. National Labor Union
  3. Knights of Labor
  4. Colored National Labor Union
  5. Panic of 1873

17
I. Other Groups in the Labor Force
  • Were African-Americans the only racial group to
    suffer significant discrimination?
  • How were the Chinese treated?
  • How were women treated?
  • Still paid less
  • Still subject to occupational segregation

18
II. National Labor Union
  • Founded 1866
  • President was William H. Silvis, 1st truly
    national labor leader
  • Ended in 1872 over decision to emphasize currency
    reform and National Labor Party project
  • Why would workers be interested in currency
    reform?
  • Why no labor party in the United States?

19
III. Knights of Labor Origins and Philosophy
  • Founded by nine Garment Cutters in Philadelphia,
    Dec. 1869
  • The Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor
  • Membership open to anyone who had ever worked for
    a wage

20
Knights of Labor
  • Secret and highly ritualistic organization with
    quasi-religious overtones
  • Uriah Stephens - 1st Grand Master Workman
  • Trained for the Baptist Ministry
  • Had to abandon school and become tailor after
    Panic of 1837
  • Stephens completely obsessed with secrecy

21
Stephens
  • Cultivate friendship among the great brotherhood
    of toil
  • Eventually he became interested in politics and
    currency reform
  • Ran for Congress on the Greenback ticket in 1878
    and resigned from the Knights

22
Goals and Philosophy
  • "to raise the wage earner above the narrow view
    of his class, or trade or job
  • Antithesis of craft unionism
  • Objected in principle to strikes
  • Alternatives
  • Cooperation definition
  • Arbitration - definition

23
Structure
  • Individual workers joined the Knights and its
    districts directly
  • Also, whole unions affiliated and became
    districts
  • Dominance of the mixed district assembly
  • More about Knights later

24
IV. Colored National Labor Union
  • Founded in Washington, D.C. 1869
  • Called for equality of job opportunity and
    equality before the law
  • Called for land for freedmen
  • Endorsed the Republican Party

25
V. Panic of 1873
  • Almost total collapse of unionism
  • 2/3 of national unions disappeared
  • Union membership fell to less than 20 of its
    previous total
  • Employers took advantage to promote racial
    divisions
  • For an idea of what times were like in the coal
    mines, see the film The Molly Macguires

26
Tomkins Square Riot
  • January 1874 New Yorks unemployed rallied in
    Tomkins Square
  • Mayor sent the police who began clubbing people
    on all sides
  • Witnessed by a young cigar maker, Samuel Gompers

27
Next Time
  • Begin Labor in the Gilded Age
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