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Sheltering%20Instruction%20for%20English%20Language%20Learners

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Title: Sheltering%20Instruction%20for%20English%20Language%20Learners


1
Sheltering Instruction for English Language
Learners
  • Summer 2010
  • Soraya I. de Barros, M.Ed.
  • sdebarros_at_comcast.net

2
Lets Get Acquainted!!!
  • Find Someone

Who has lived /taught in another country
Who can say hello in five or more languages
Who teaches ESL
Who often code switches between 2 languages
Who uses graphic organizers
Who speaks two or more languages
Who can tell what SIOP stands for
3
Round the Clock Learning Buddies
1200
100
1100
200
1000
300
900
400
800
500
700
600
My Name
4
RESOURCES
  • Echevarria, J., Vogt, M.E., Short, D. (2007)
    Making Content Comprehensible for English
    Language Learners. The SIOP Model. Third Edition.
    NY Pearson Allyn and Bacon.
  • M.E., Short, D., Echevarria, J., Vogt, (2008) 99
    Ideas and Activities for Teaching English
    Language Learners with The SIOP Model. Third
    Edition. NY Pearson Allyn and Bacon.
  • Massachusetts Department of Education (2003).
    English Language Proficiency Benchmarks and
    Outcomes for English Language Learners ELPBO
  • The Massachusetts Current Curriculum Frameworks
    for your topic http//www.doe.mass.edu/frameworks/
    current.html
  • ESL Standards for Pre-K-12 Students (TESOL 2006).
    www.tesol.org/s_tesol/sec_document.asp?CID1186DI
    D5349framework

5
Common Acronyms Used in the Instruction and
Assessment of English language Learners
ELL English Language Learner
ELPBO English Language Proficiency Benchmarks and Outcomes for English Language Learners
ESL English as a Second Language
FLEP Formerly Limited English Proficient
High Incidence Program usually having 20 or more of one language group enrolled in a school district or schools
Integration In the context of Chapter 71A, integration means students from immersion and bilingual classrooms are engaged in meaningful learning activities with their native speaking peers
LAS Language Assessment Scales
LEP Limited English Proficient
Low Incidence Fewer than 20 LEP students of one language
L1 First Language of Learner
L2 Second Language of Learner
MEPA Massachusetts English Proficiency Assessment
MELA-O Massachusetts English Language Assessment-Oral
NCLB No Child Left Behind
SEI Structured English Immersion a program model whereby instruction and materials are in English and native language is used for clarification purposes
SI Sheltered Instruction-a methodology through which the development of language and academic content skills are promoted simultaneously
SEI Sheltered English Immersion
TBE Transitional bilingual education
6
Changing Demographics
7
Demographics Anticipation Guide
  • The number of immigrants to the US was the
    highest ever in which of the following decades?
  • 1900s 1920s 1980s 1990s
  • In 2000, ________ of the US population was
    foreign-born, compared to 14.7 in 1910.
  • Among adults who speak a language other than
    English at home, about ________ report that they
    speak English well or very well.
  • There are over ________ million English Language
    Learners (ELLs) enrolled in US schools. Since
    1990-91, the ELL population has grown 105, while
    the general school age population has grown 12.

8
  • The five states or commonwealths with the highest
    ELL enrollment in 2000 were __________,
    __________, __________, __________, and
    _________.
  • Most ELLs are in elementary school. About
    ________ of ELLs are enrolled in high school.
  • Most ELLs speak Spanish as a first language. The
    second largest language group speaks __________.

9
ELLs in Public Schools
  • Most of the students are in elementary schools
  • About 75 of the students are from Spanish
    language backgrounds
  • The students are located mostly in a few states
  • 42 of teachers nationwide have at least one ELL
    in their classroom
  • ELL enrollment in public schools growing 20 times
    faster than average

9
10
There are over 10,000,000 English Language
Learners in U.S. Schools. By 2020, 40 of all
public school students will be ELLs.

10
11
Thinking Differently About English Language
Learners
12
  • WHO ARE THEY?
  • The English language learners in your classroom
    may be very different in their background,
    skills, and past experiences from the other
    students you are teaching.
  • Some may have come to the U.S. from a country in
    which they attended school regularly and will
    bring with them literacy skills and content
    knowledge, although in another language.
  • Other students may come with a history of
    survival within a war-torn country where there
    was no opportunity for consistent--or
    any--schooling.
  • Some come from countries where schooling is very
    different. Some may have large gaps in their
    schooling while others may not have had any
    formal schooling and may lack important native
    language literacy skills that one would normally
    expect for students of their age.
  • There will be differences in home background as
    well. Many will belong to very low-income
    families
  • The parents of some of these, however, may have
    been highly educated in their own country, and
    may have once held professional positions.
  • The resources and the needs that the individual
    students bring are therefore often likely to be
    very different.

12
13
Their Needs
  • Although ELL students come from diverse
    backgrounds, they have several common needs.
  • They need to
  • build their oral English skills
  • acquire reading and writing skills in English
  • maintain a learning continuum in the content
    areas (e.g., mathematics, science, and social
    studies).
  • Some ELL students will have other needs that will
    make the task of learning much more difficult.

13
14
  • Challenges Facing ELLs
  • Whatever label is used to identify these
    students, research has shown that they, in
    disproportionately large numbers, face low
    achievement and high drop out rates.
  • By and large, ELLs are not receiving instruction
    that supports their highest possible achievement.
  • Among the instructional factors that affect ELLs
    achievement are
  • -low teacher expectations
  • -assignment to classrooms with
    under-qualified or inexperienced teachers
  • -instructional methods that do not
    address the development of much needed
  • verbal and vocabulary building
    skills
  • -instruction that does not build on
    students prior skills, knowledge, and
  • experiences
  • -misdiagnosis into special education

14
15
Sheltered Instruction
16
What is Sheltered Instruction?
  • Think, Pair, Share (2minutes)
  • Think about what is sheltered instruction and
    then share with a partner.

17
What is Sheltered Instruction?
  • A means for making grade-level academic content
    more accessible for English Language Learner
    (ELL) while at the same time promoting English
    Language Development (ELD).
  • The practice of highlighting key language
    features and incorporating strategies that make
    the content comprehensible to all learners.
  • An approach that can extend the time students
    have for getting language support services while
    receiving the content subjects needed for
    graduation.

18
  • Why Sheltered Instruction?

19
What is Chapter 71A (Question 2 in MA)?
  • New law requires
  • Active class participation 80 of the time using
    a sheltered format until it is no longer needed
  • Students to be taught grade level content
  • Clarification in native language can be provided
    when needed
  • Instructional materials in ELLs primary language
    cannot be used to teach unless it is part of an
    approved Dual Language or Transitional Bilingual
    Education program
  • Students must be provided opportunity to learn
    English as a second language until competent in
    English

19
20
Sheltered Instruction True / False Questions
  1. Sheltered Instruction is used in sheltered
    content courses.
  2. Sheltered Instruction is used in a variety of
    program models.
  3. Sheltered Instruction cannot be used in classes
    that contain both English language learners and
    native English speakers.
  4. Sheltered Instruction is the same as high quality
    instruction for native English speakers.
  5. Language development classes should separate from
    content classes for ELLs to learn best.
  6. In sheltered instruction classes, teachers
    integrate ESL Standards.

20
21
Four Principles that Help ELLs Succeed in School
  • Increase Comprehensibility
  • Increase Interaction
  • Increase Higher Order Thinking/Thinking
    Strategies
  • Increase Connections

21
22
Increase Comprehensibility
22
23
Increase Interaction
23
24
Increase Higher Order Thinking Skills
24
25
Increase Connections
25
26
Video Clip 1
  • Watch the following video clip demonstrating the
    four principles
  • Make notes about where and how the video shows
    the four principles

26
27
Video Observation Form
  • Increase Comprehensibility
  • Increase Interaction
  • Increase Higher Order Thinking/Thinking
    Strategies
  • Increase Connections

27
28
  • Research Findings
  • Investigations show that most students just plain
    forget most of what they have been taught.
  • Students who see the connections are more
    likely to understand, remember, and use what they
    learn.
  • Teaching for Mastery
  • How We Learn...
  • 10 of what we read
  • 20 of what we hear
  • 30 of what we see
  • 50 of what we both see and hear
  • 70 of what we discuss with others
  • 80 of what we experience personally
  • 95 of what we teach to someone else
  • (Dewey, Glasser, Hunter, Bloom, Goodlad, Gardner,
    Stallings, etc)

28
29
SIOP Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol
  • SIOP consists of eight components and thirty
    indicators.

30
What is SIOP?
  • Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol
  • Purposeful teaching of the language necessary for
    English Learners to understand content.

31
What is the SIOP?
  • A planning tool and observation protocol
    representing an effort to define, develop and
    test a model for sheltered instruction
  • Research-based
  • Designed as an observation instrument
  • Adapted as a lesson planning tool
  • Teacher-researchers involved in all phases!!!!

32
SIOP An Integrated Approach
  • Instructional methods integrate language and
    content
  • Focus on identifying and explicitly teaching the
    language necessary to access, to fully
    participate in and to be successful with the
    curriculum
  • Language instruction occurs within content
    instruction--not as an add-on

33
The Eight Components of SIOP
  • Lesson Preparation
  • Building Background
  • Comprehensible Input
  • Strategies
  • Interaction
  • Practice Application
  • Lesson Delivery
  • Indicators of Review
  • Assessment

34
The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol
(SIOP) Checklist pg. 228-229
35
The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol
(SIOP) Checklist pg. 228-229
36
Has the SIOP been proven to be scientifically
based research?
  • Movie Time

37
LESSON PREPARATION
  • Ensuring rigor and relevance

38
(No Transcript)
39
Preparation
  • Clearly defined content objectives
  • Clearly defined language objectives
  • Content concepts appropriate for age and
    educational level of students
  • Supplementary materials used to a high degree
  • Adaptation of content to all levels of student
    proficiency
  • Meaningful activities that integrate lesson
    concepts with opportunities to use language

40
Thinking About Objectives
  • Learning objectives (goals, outcomes)
  • Language objectives

TESOL Standards ELPBO ELA Frameworks
Content Language Demands
Student Needs/ Language Proficiency
Possible language objectives
41
What is the difference between content and
language objectives?
  • Content Objective Students will explore 3
    decision about the atomic bomb that were faced by
    the U.S. during WWII, take a position on each,
    and defend their position orally
  • - Decision A Whether to build an atomic
    bomb
  • - Decision B Whether to drop an atomic
    bomb
  • - Decision C Whether Truman made the right
    decision.
  • Language Objectives Student will
  • - Read information in a small group for each
    decision and reach
  • consensus on a position (by listening and
    discussing).
  • - State their position and orally defend it
    in a class dialogue.
  • - Disagree with prior speakers in a
    respectful manner.
  • - In writing, defend a position on whether or
    not it was
  • justifiable to use the bomb on Japan.

41
42
Language Objectives
  • Good Language Objectives
  • Are Explicit
  • Are Observable
  • Are Measurable
  • Are Connected to the ELPBO
  • Are Related to the Content Objectives (access
    content knowledge or express content knowledge)
  • Are Highlighted as Separate Objectives
  • Are Written in Kid-Friendly Terms

42
43
Language Objectives
  • Good Language Objectives
  • May focus on a language skill (reading, writing,
    listening, speaking)
  • May focus on a language function (describe,
    analyze, synthesize, evaluate, etc.)
  • May focus on vocabulary
  • May focus on language to express culture or
    social skills
  • May focus on the mechanics/syntax of language

43
44
General Guidelines for Writing Language Objectives
  • Objectives should be written at the lesson level
    in student friendly language.
  • ? Students will find words beginning with the
    letter b in the poem.
  • ?Students will learn the alphabet to apply
    necessary cognitive strategies to delineate
    sounds.
  • Objectives should be focused and not include
    multiple embedded objectives.
  • ? Students will listen for numbers between 1-20
    to match to corresponding number of
  • objects.
  • ? Students will recognize and identify numbers
    1-20, trace them, write them in journals.
  • Objectives should be specific.
  • ? Students will write a list of similar
    characteristics found in the two poems read.
  • ?Students will name the characteristics of prose
    poetry.
  • Objectives should be stated in terms of what
    students should know or be able to do (not for
    the teacher).
  • ? Students will use key words from geometry (i.e.
    cylinder, cone) to identify the shapes
  • of common supermarket products.
  • ?We will learn the names of three dimensional
    shaped objects

44
45
General Guidelines for Writing Language Objectives
  • Objectives include the four domains
  • Listening
  • speaking,
  • reading and
  • writing within a lesson/unit.
  • Adapted from research and writings on
    Content-Based Language Instruction (CoBaLTT),
    Diane Tedick, et al., 2004
  • Objectives do not state the activity the students
    will engage in but rather why students engage in
    the activity.
  • ? Students will say demonstrative adjectives
    (this, that, these, those) to introduce family
    members.
  • ?Students will introduce family members
  • Objectives incorporate the function, structure
    and vocabulary needed to complete the task.
  • ? Students will apply transitioning
    words/vocabulary (first, next, then, finally) to
    sequence events in an oral presentation.
  • ? Students will give oral presentations.

45
46
Sample Language and Content Objectives
  • Grade Six Social Studies Lesson
  • Content Objective
  • Students will identify the means of
    transportation by native Americans in New York in
    colonial America.
  • Language Objective
  • Students will preview the chapter (headers and
    visuals) and discuss pictures in the chapter.

46
47
Objective Writing Activity
  • Write two content and two language objectives for
    a lesson. Decide on the English proficiency
    level and grade level of the students you will
    address.

Content Objective Language Objective

47
48
English Language Proficiency Benchmarks and
Outcomes for ELLs
49
ELPBO Activity
  • What is the ELPBO?
  • Why does the MA DESE want us to use it?
  • What information does it have?
  • Is it helpful to our teaching ELLs?

50
  • Return to groups of five
  • I will assign each group S2, S3, R1, R3, W2, or
    W4 and ask you and your small group to respond to
    the following question
  • Is the ELPBO easy to use?
  • Is it logical?
  • How is it helpful for teaching ELLs?
  • Create poster that responds to questions
  • Select spokesperson to share your findings with
    your half of the class

51
How can I lessen the gap?How can I differentiate?
  • Use supplementary materials
  • Adapt content

52
Supplementary Materials
  • Support core curriculum
  • make content concepts concrete
  • tangible, visible, understandable
  • Contextualize learning
  • make it real
  • Support learning styles
  • Support multiple intelligences

53
Examples of supplementary materials
  • hands-on manipulatives
  • realia (real objects)
  • pictures
  • visuals
  • multimedia
  • demonstrations
  • related literature
  • adapted text

54
Adaptation of Content to all levels of student
proficiency by
  • differentiating
  • same content objective,
  • different input/output/process
  • scaffolding
  • adjusting content to various learning styles and
    intelligences

55
Examples of adaptation of content
  • Graphic organizers
  • Leveled study guides
  • Highlighted text
  • Taped text
  • Rewrite text
  • Jigsaw reading
  • Marginal notes
  • Native language texts

56
Meaningful Activities
  • Provide opportunities to experience what students
    are learning about
  • Allows students to be more successful by relating
    classroom experiences to their own lives

57
Grade-level Concepts, Supplementary Materials,
Adaptation of Content and Meaningful Activities
  • Why is it important for content concepts to be
    appropriate for the age and educational
    background of your students?
  • What should you do about grade-level concepts if
    your students have missed several years of
    schooling?

57
58
Group Activity
  • Three different groups
  • 1 group will focus on supplementary materials
  • 1 group will focus on adaptation of content
  • 1 group will focus on meaningful activities
  • Generate lists on how to implement your assigned
    feature in your classroom. Refer to the textbook
    for additional ideas.
  • - Report back to the whole class.

58
59
Vignette Activity Pages 40-50
  • 3 Small groups (Ms. Chen, Mr. Hargroves, or Mrs.
    Hensen)
  • Make a list of pros and cons as you read the
    vignette about your assigned teacher, jotting
    down the positive and negative aspects of
    preparation as depicted in the vignette.
  • Discuss ideas in small groups and then share with
    the whole group.

59
60
Video Activity
  • What features of preparation did you observe in
    the video? What are your impressions?
  • How did the teacher in the video adapt the
    content to the needs of her students?
  • What else could she have done to make this lesson
    more effective?
  • What other ways can you can adapt content?
  • What are some advantages to writing the content
    objectives and the language objectives for the
    students to view?

60
61
BUILDING BACKGROUND

62
Building Background
  • 1) Link concepts to students background
    experiences.
  • 2) Bridge past learning to new concepts.
  • 3) Key vocabulary emphasized.

63
1) Link Concepts to Students Background
Experiences
  • Discuss students previous personal and academic
    experiences to help bridge meaning.
  • Question students backgrounds to preview an
    upcoming topic.
  • Following discussion, relate students input and
    directly apply it to the new concept.

64
Ways to Link Students Background
  • Realia (REAL OBJECTS), Photos, and Illustrations
    Teachers and/or students bring in real items to
    bring the new concept to life.
  • Anecdotal Accounts Teachers and students share
    personal experiences through oral, written or
    drawn explanations. Teacher may prompt through
    questioning.

65
2) Bridge Past Learning to New Concepts
  • Integrate new information with what the learner
    already knows.
  • Build a bridge from previous learning to new
    concepts for students to cross over.
  • Not all students have the ability to make
    connections on their own and benefit from
    teachers explicitly modeling connections.

66
Ways to Bridge Past Learning to New Concepts
  • KWL Chart Have students individually or as a
    class create a KWL chart to refer back to
    throughout the unit.
  • Questioning Ask a simple question, Who
    remembers what we did yesterday? and solicit
    responses.
  • Student Journals Have students write or draw
    what they have learned in a journal or notebook.

67
3) Key Vocabulary
  • The most effective way to teach vocabulary is
    when it is presented in the context of new
    concepts, not in isolation.
  • Students should be actively involved in their own
    vocabulary development and make it personal.
  • Students should be immersed in a vocabulary- rich
    environment.

68
Ways to Teach Key Vocabulary
  • Vocabulary Self-Selection Encourage students to
    select vocabulary words that THEY feel are
    essential for their understanding.
  • Word Wall Display vocabulary words related to
    the new concept being taught.
  • Four Corners Vocabulary Gives the students the
    opportunity to identify, illustrate, define and
    contextualize a vocabulary word.

69
Word Walls
Must be organized by color, and/or by
category, and/or by meaning, and/or by letter
size 5-8 words at a time not alphabetized,
random not just for sight words graphic
organization is helpful
70
Word Walls 2--Ideas
strong adjectives verbs our instructional
language science words social studies
words math words Smaller portable sections
better than one big unit
71
Example of a Word WallRevolutionary War
People Weapons Issues
George Washington muskets right to bear arms
Thomas Jefferson rifles taxation
Thomas Paine knives self-governance
King George bayonets freedom of religion
Paul Revere cannons democracy
Making Content Comprehensible for ELLs pg. 65
72
Word Wall Mummies
archaeologists jewels sarcophagus
amputation linen spirits
artifacts mummification tissue
autopsy mummy tombs
coffin oils Tutankhamen
drying-out-process perfumes x-ray
embalming pharaohs wrappings
evidence preservation
gold pyramids
Making Content Comprehensible for Secondary ELs
pg. 183
73
What is ___________? Why is it important?
Whats an example
Whats not an of it?
example of it?
74
Quickwrite
  • Why do you think that it is important to tap into
    your students background experiences in the
    classroom (especially the experiences of
    immigrant students)?
  • How do you build a relationship between the
    students and what are you teaching them?
  • Why are the 3 features for building background of
    English language learning in a sheltered
    instruction lesson important?
  • List ways you link lessons to students personal
    background and/or prior learning.

74
75
Vignette Activity Pages 69-76
  • 3 Small groups (Miss Paige, Mrs. Jarmin, and Mr.
    Ramirez)
  • Read the assigned vignette.
  • In small groups, discuss ideas and the teaching
    practices depicted in the vignettes and then
    share with the whole group.

75
76
Video Activity
  • Directions Before viewing the video clip, think
    about what you do in your room to address these
    SIOP features. Record your practices. Then,
    while viewing, record what the video teacher
    demonstrates for these areas.
  • Concepts linked to students background and
    personal experiences.
  • What Ive done lately
  • What the video teacher did
  • Links explicitly made between prior learning and
    new concepts
  • What Ive done lately
  • What the video teacher did
  • Key vocabulary emphasized (introduced, written,
    repeated, highlighted)
  • What Ive done lately
  • What the video teacher did

76
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COMPREHENSIBLE INPUT
  • What is Comprehensible Input?

78
Video Observation Comprehensible Input
  • First Viewing
  • What was the lecture about?
  • How did you feel when viewing the lecture?
  • How did you respond to those feelings?
  • Second Viewing
  • What was the lecture about?
  • How did you know?
  • How did you feel when viewing the lecture?
  • How did you respond to those feelings?

79
3 Features of Comprehensible Input
  • Clear explanation of academic tasks.
  • Speech appropriate for students proficiency
    level.
  • Variety of techniques used to make content
    concepts clear.

80
Stages of Oral Language Acquisition
  • Pre-Production
  • Cannot produce in English
  • Can understand more than can say
  • Can actively listen for short periods
  • Can respond non-verbally
  • Questions Point to... Do you have the? Who
    has the?
  • Tasks Matching, drawing, acting out
  • Early Production
  • Can produce individual words and phrases
  • Can answer closed questions
  • Can name, label, list, categorize
  • Questions Is this a... or a? Who, what,
    where, when?
  • Tasks Naming, labeling, listing,
    categorizing
  • Speech Emergence
  • Can produce simple complete sentences
  • Can participate in small group activities
  • Can answer open-ended questions why, how, etc.

81
Stages of Oral Language Acquisition
  • Intermediate Fluency
  • Can create extended discourse
  • Can participate in reading and writing activities
  • May appear orally fluent, but experience
    difficulties in academics and literacy
  • Can do most classroom tasks if supported and
    scaffold
  • Questions Describe, compare What do you
    think
  • about? What would happen
    if.?
  • Tasks Can do most classroom tasks if
    supported or scaffolded
  • Proficiency
  • Demonstrates accuracy and correctness
    comparable to native
  • language speakers

82
Guidelines to Achieve Comprehensible Input
  • Teacher Speech Behavior
  • Expression
  • Body Language
  • Instructional Strategies
  • Visuals
  • Graphics

83
Guidelines to Achieve Comprehensible Input
  • Teacher Speech and Behavior
  • Use expression and body language
  • Speak slowly and clearly
  • Use more pauses between phrases
  • Uses shorter sentences with simpler syntax
  • Stress high frequency vocabulary
  • Repeat and review vocabulary
  • Watch carefully for comprehension and be ready t
    repeat or restate to clarify meaning whenever
    necessary
  • Be friendly and enthusiastic
  • Maintain a warm supportive affect
  • Open discussion to different perspectives of a
    topic

83
84
Guidelines to Achieve Comprehensible Input (Cont)
  • Instructional Strategies
  • Use visuals
  • Use graphic organizers
  • Communicate about the subject area in oral,
    written, physical, or pictorial form
  • Tap the students as resources for information
    about the topic
  • Provide hands-on and performance-based activities
  • Promote critical thinking and study skill
    development
  • Incorporate cooperative learning activities
  • Be process-oriented and provide modeling
  • Adjust instruction for the different learning
    styles

84
85
  • Watch Angies lesson about iron in breakfast
    cereal. How/When does she
  • visually display what is to be learned?
  • think aloud and model activities?
  • regulate her instructional language?
  • modify text instructional material?
  • use visuals and other supporting material?

86
STRATEGIES
  • The SIOP Model

87
Three Important Features
  • Ample opportunities for student to use
    strategies.
  • Consistent use of scaffolding techniques
    throughout lesson, assisting and supporting
    student understanding.
  • A variety of question types used, including those
    that promote higher-order thinking skills
    throughout the lesson (e.g., literal, analytic,
    and interpretive questions).
  • (Group) Discussion Question
  • Why are these features important when teaching
    strategies to English language learners in an SI
    lesson?

87
88
(No Transcript)
89
Metacognitive Strategiesthinking about thinking
  • Predicting/Inferring
  • Self-questioning
  • Monitoring/Clarifying
  • Evaluating
  • Summarizing
  • Visualizing
  • Studies show explicit instruction in
    metacognitive strategies directly increases
    reading comprehension.

90
Cognitive Strategiesactive learning
organizing learning
  • Previewing/Rereading
  • Establishing a purpose for reading
  • Making connections
  • Reading aloud
  • Highlighting
  • Taking notes
  • Mapping information
  • Finding key vocabulary
  • Mnemonics

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Social/Affective Strategiesinteractive learning
  • Interaction/questioning
  • Cooperative learning
  • Group discussion/self talk
  • i.e.. Think/Pair/Share

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Blooms Taxonomy
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Thinking in Bloom
  • Who was the 16th president of the United
    States?
  • Given the topic of presidency, what are several
    additional questions you could ask that promote
    higher-order thinking?
  • Brainstorm at least 2 questions for each level of
    Blooms taxonomy.

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Cummins Continuum of Language Use
Cognitively Undemanding Language Skills Cognitively Undemanding Language Skills Cognitively Undemanding Language Skills Cognitively Undemanding Language Skills

Context-Embedded A C Context-Reduced
Language Skills B D Language Skills

Cognitively Demanding Language Skills Cognitively Demanding Language Skills Cognitively Demanding Language Skills Cognitively Demanding Language Skills
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Continuum of Language Use
  • 1. ___ Understanding academic presentations
    without visuals or demonstrations.
  • 2.____ Participating in hands-on science
    activities.
  • 3. ___ Making models, maps, charts, and graphs
    in social studies.
  • 4. ___ Playing simple games.
  • 5. ___ Engaging in face-to-face interactions.
  • 6. ___ Writing answers to lower level questions.
  • 7. ___ Taking standardized achievement tests.
  • 8. ___ Using higher order level reading
    comprehension skills inferential and critical
  • reading.
  • 9. ___ Understanding academic presentations
    accompanied by visuals, demonstrations of a
  • process, etc.

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Creating a Context-Embedded Lesson
Cognitively demanding, context-reduced task Cognitively demanding, context-embedded task
1 Listening to a social studies lecture on the causes of WWII and completing a worksheet requiring several short answer responses
2 Listening to an explanation of a math concept such as converting fractions to decimals.
3 Completing a biology worksheet that asks a number of questions about the parts and functions of cells.
4 Reading a story and writing an alternative ending to the story
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Cummins Framework Context-embedded vs.
Context-reduced Instruction Task How would a
lesson on Nutrition look in each of Cummins
quadrants? Note some of the expected lesson
components you might see in quadrant A, B, C, and
D. A


C


B
D
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Teacher Behaviors
  • The Big Picture
  • Building Background
  • Self-Correcting
  • Self-Evaluation
  • Peer Interaction
  • Imitation
  • Native Language Resources

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A Model of Scaffolding
Teacher- Centered Teacher-Assisted Peer-Assisted Student-Centered
Lecture Drill Practice Role Playing Rehearsal Strategies (repeated readings)
Direct Instruction Discovery Learning Peer Tutoring Elaboration Strategies (imagery)
Demonstration Brainstorming Reciprocal Teaching Organizational Strategies (graphic organizers)
Recitation Discussion Cooperative Learning
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What Strategies Do Good Learners Use?
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Strategies
  • Graphic Organizers
  • Comprehension Strategies
  • Rehearsal Strategies
  • GIST
  • PENS
  • SQP2RS
  • Mnemonics

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INTERACTION

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The Interaction Component includes Four Items
  1. Interaction
  2. Grouping Configurations
  3. Wait Time for Student Responses
  4. Clarify Key Concepts in L1

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Activity 1
  • Discuss with your group How does interaction
    benefit ELs?
  • For example, interaction encourages elaborated
    responses

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Compare Your Ideas
  • Increases use of academic language
  • Improves quality of student talk
  • Encourages elaborated responses
  • Provides oral rehearsal
  • Helps individualize instruction
  • Encourages reluctant learners to participate
  • Allows for written interaction with dialogue
    journals
  • Promotes a positive social climate

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Activity 2
  • Discuss different aspects of facilitating
    interaction. Record notes on the worksheet.
  • Group configurations
  • Homogenous vs. heterogeneous grouping
  • How group members are selected
  • Students roles in the group

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Group Configurations
  • Individual work
  • Partners
  • Triads
  • Small groups of four or five
  • Whole group

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Homogenous / Heterogeneous
  • Gender
  • Language proficiency
  • Language background
  • Ability

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How Group Members are Selected
  • Random
  • Voluntary
  • Teacher assigned

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Roles in the Group
  • Group recorder
  • Materials Collector
  • Reporter
  • Final Copy Scribe
  • Illustrator
  1. Time keeper
  2. Cheerleader
  3. Facilitator / Monitor
  4. Messenger

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Do You Give Students Wait Time?
  • Do you complete their sentences?
  • Do you call on a different student before the
    first student has a chance to respond?
  • Do you answer the question before the students?

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Why Wait?
  • ELs need time to translate, often in their head.
  • Wait time varies by culture.
  • ELs need additional time to formulate the
    phrasing of their thoughts, because they are
    processing ideas in a new language.

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Wait Time Strategies
  • Allow students to write down their answers while
    waiting for other students to respond.
  • Build in wait time, On the count of 3 we will
    all respond.
  • Use 50-50, giving students a choice between two
    possible answers
  • Use phone a friend, allowing students to ask
    for help.

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Use of Native Language in the Classroom
  • Establish rules or expectations for native
    language (L1) use.
  • Clarification of key concepts in students L1
    supports academic learning

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Appropriate use of L1 in the Classroom
  • Assistance from peers.
  • Materials written in the students L1
  • Use caution with online translators (idiomatic
    speech vs. word for word translation)

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PRACTICE AND APPLICATION

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Practice / Application
  • Hands-on materials and/or manipulatives for
    students to practice using new content knowledge.
  • Activities for student to apply content and
    language knowledge in the classroom.
  • Activities that integrate all language skills
    (reading, writing, listening , and speaking)

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What Does a Class That Incorporates All Four
Language Skills

Look Like?
Sound Like?
Feel Like?
Examples
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Think it over
  • Why is using a variety of hands-on classroom
    activities important?
  • How are you using hands-on activities and
    manipulatives to enhance opportunities for
    English language learners to apply both language
    and content knowledge ?

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Key Definitions
  • Practice refers to the opportunities provided
    to English language learners to become familiar,
    analyze and/or experiment with content and
    language topics.
  • Application refers to the ways in which
    learners apply what they have learned in
    different contexts or situations.

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Practice and ApplicationTools
Purpose
  • Hands-on materials
  • and/or manipulatives
  • Language and content knowledge-rich activities
  • Language skills-integrated activities
  • For students to practice with new content
    knowledge
  • For students to apply
  • learning in the classroom
  • For students to develop reading, writing,
    listening and speaking skills

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LESSON DELIVERY
  • THE SIOP MODEL

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LESSON DELIVERY FEATURES
  • Content Objectives should be clearly supported by
    the lesson delivery
  • Language Objectives should be clearly supported
    by the lesson delivery
  • Students should be engaged approximately 90-100
    of the time during the lesson
  • Pacing of the lesson should be appropriate to the
    students ability level

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LESSON FEATURE QUESTIONS
  • Is it necessary to tell objectives to the
    students ?
  • Is it a good idea to review the objectives at the
    end of each lesson ?
  • How do the objectives affect the pacing of a
    lesson ?

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  • When teachers spend
  • their time and energy
  • teaching students
  • the content
  • the students need to learn,
  • students learn the material.
  • When students spend their time
  • actively engaged
  • in activities that relate strongly
  • to the materials
  • they will be tested on,
  • they learn MORE of the material.

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What are some factors that contribute to high
levels of student engagement?
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Factors that Contribute To High levels of Student
Engagement
  • Well planned lessons
  • Clear explanation of academic tasks or
    instructions
  • Appropriate amount of time spent on an academic
    task
  • Strong classroom management skills
  • Opportunities to apply information in meaningful
    ways
  • Active student involvement

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Lesson Tips For New Teachers
  • Discuss ways to deliver an effective SIOP lesson.
  • In your groups, list 7-10 tips about effective
    lesson delivery for new teachers.
  • Post the lists around the room.
  • Each participant walks around, re-reading the
    lists.
  • Then, using a colored dot sticker each
    participant indicates his or her top tip on each
    list.

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VIDEO CLIP
  • AN EFFECTIVE SIOP LESSON
  • PRESENTED BY
  • BARBARA FORMOSO

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VIDEO FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONS
  • What pacing strategies did Barbara use?
  • How did Barbara promote student engagement?
  • Do you think you can use Barbaras strategies as
    a model for achieving objectives in your class?

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REVIEW OF LESSON FEATURE QUESTIONS
  • Is it necessary to tell objectives to the
    students ?
  • Is it a good idea to review the objectives at the
    end of each lesson?
  • How do the objectives affect the pacing of a
    lesson ?

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REVIEW ASSESSMENT

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Effective Teaching Cycle for ELLs
Develop lesson using Assessment, standards, and
SIOP Model
Reteach
Teach Lesson
Assess Student Comprehension and Student Work
Make Adjustments to Improve Student Comprehension
Review Key Concepts and Vocabulary
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Review/ Assessment Overview
  • Who uses Review/ Assessment and why?
  • When does Review/ Assessment occur?
  •  

What are some types of Assessment?
  •  

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Tiers of a Comprehensive Assessment System
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Review Activities
  • Thumbs Up-Thumbs Down
  • Number Wheels
  • Find Someone Who
  • Simultaneous Roundtable
  • Share Bear
  • Find the Fib
  • Response Boards
  • Word Story Books
  • Numbered Heads Together
  • Sign in Please
  • Outcome Sentences
  • Restate Student's Response
  • Kinesthetic

Discussion QuestionWhat other Review Activities
do you use in class?
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Traffic light check
10-2
A
Index card multiple choice
B
Stop-and-paraphrase
Freyer Model
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What is ___________? Why is it important?
Whats an example
Whats not an of it?
example of it?
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Assessment Modification Tips
Give students objective tests (matching, multiple choice, T or F) instead of subjective tests (essays). Provide extra testing instructions or rephrase directions. Test key concepts or main ideas (not specific points).
Make a simplified language test. Supply ELLs with word banks for tests. Reduce the number of test responses.
Simplify test directions. Assess ELLs on their effort to understand content area material at their level of language ability. Provide highlighted tests.
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Authentic Assessment
  • Creative work (drawing, charades)
  • Portfolios
  • Journals
  • Student/Parent Interviews
  • Projects
  • Observations
  • Written Pieces
  • Oral response (after teacher) 
  • Audiotapes

Discussion QuestionWhat types of Authentic
Assessment do you use in class?
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