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Chapter%205:%20Evolution%20and%20Community%20Ecology

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Title: Chapter%205:%20Evolution%20and%20Community%20Ecology


1
Chapter 5 Evolution and Community Ecology
  • Mr. Manskopf
  • Notes Can Also Be Found at
  • http//www.manskopf.com

2
Section 1 Evolution
  • Describe the four primary mechanisms of
    biological evolution
  • Describe how speciation and extinction affect the
    diversity of life on Earth.
  • TERMS evolution, gene mutation, genetic drift,
    natural selection, fitness, adaptation,
    artificial selection, speciation, extinction.

3
Incredible Diversity of Life
  • 1.5 to 1.8 million known species
  • Possibly 13-20 million
  • Tropical Rain Forests, Coral Reefs and everywhere
    else

4
Evolution
  • What makes you, YOU?

What makes each species unique and different?
5
Genes
  • Sequences of DNA codes for each particular trait
  • Tall, small, blue eyes, human, goldfish, pine
    tree
  • Evolution is a change of genes over time

6
Evolution
  • Change over time
  • Change of Gene Pool over time
  • Why would genes change over time?

7
4 Ways Evolution Occurs
  • Mutation
  • Migration
  • Genetic Drift
  • Natural Selection

8
Mutation
Accidental change in DNA that can give rise to
variation among individuals
9
Migration
Movement of individuals into (immigration) or out
of (emigration) a population
Sometimes called Gene Flow
10
Gene Flow (Migration)
11
Genetic Drift
  • Evolution that occurs by chance
  • Natural Disasters
  • Run in with human nets, etc.

12
Natural Selection
  • Process by which traits useful for survival and
    reproduction are passed on more frequently than
    those that are not

13
3 Conditions for Natural Selection
  • Organisms produce more offspring than can
    survive.
  • Nature has limitations (limiting factors)
  • Struggle for survival

14
3 Conditions for Natural Selection
  • (2) Individuals vary in characteristics, some of
    which are heritable
  • Not every species is same
  • Some fish are faster, darker, smaller
  • Genes different
  • Heritable Differences

15
3 Conditions for Natural Selection
  • (3) Individuals vary in fitness, or reproductive
    success
  • Survival of Fittest
  • Fittest for its environment
  • Adaptation an inherited trait that increases an
    organisms chance of survival and reproduction.

16
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vxkwRTIKXaxg
  • Travel to Ecuador to see how the process of
    natural selection operates

17
Adaptations
Desert plants have small or no leaves at all
The insect that blends in and is able to survive
may be more likely to reproduce.
18
Adaptations
White coat of polar bear helps in hunting Results
of natural selection all around us NATURE SELECTS
Big ears of desert jack rabbit allow it to cool
off quickly
Long neck of giraffe allow it to reach food
19
Did You Know? Darwin privately researched natural
selection for two decades before publishing On
the Origin of Species.
20
Impacts of Natural Selection Resistance
21
Resistance
  • Resistance the ability of one or more organisms
    to tolerate a chemical designed to kill it
  • Able to survive and reproduce
  • Pesticide resistance
  • Antibiotic resistance

22
Why is this a problem?
23
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24
Artificial Selection How Humans Use Evolution
  • Artificial Selection selective breeding of
    organisms by humans
  • Selecting certain desirable traits
  • Size, sweetness, color, shape,
  • Very common

25
Artificial Selection
26
Artificial Selection
Selecting desirable traits and breeding only
those with those traits.
27
Speciation How did we get millions of species?
28
  • Speciation
  • Process by which new species are generated
  • Can occur in a number of different ways the most
    important way is called allopatric speciation
    Geographic Isolation
  • Has resulted in every form of life on Earth
    today and in the past

29
The canyon is a barrier to dispersal by small
mammals, and as a consequence the isolated
populations can diverge.
30
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vS4wnJp6sq_I
31
Extinction
  • The disappearance of species from Earth
  • Generally occurs gradually, one species at a
    time, when environmental conditions change more
    rapidly than the species can adapt
  • There are five known mass extinction events, each
    of which wiped out a large proportion of Earths
    species.

32
Biodiversity has increased over time, but mass
extinctions are also natural events (5 major
events) How do we get this data?
Did You Know? During the Permo-Triassic
extinction 250 million years ago, 70 of all land
species and 90 of all marine species went
extinct.
33
Extinctions
  • Species gone forever
  • NORMAL
  • Mass Extinction short period of time when large
    number of species go extinct (65 MYA)
  • Currently in mass extinctioncaused by humans
  • Rapid climate change

34
Extinctions
The zebra mussel has completely displaced 20
native mussel species in Lake St. Clair.
35
Section 1 Evolution Review
  • Describe the four primary mechanisms of
    biological evolution
  • Describe how speciation and extinction affect the
    diversity of life on Earth.
  • TERMS evolution, gene mutation, genetic drift,
    natural selection, fitness, adaptation,
    artificial selection, speciation, extinction

36
Section 1 Quiz
  • 1) Which of the following best describes a
    successful individual in evolutionary terms?
  • A. A successful individual possesses traits that
    are different from the traits of the rest of the
    population.
  • B. A successful individual produces many
    offspring that possess unique traits.
  • C. A successful individual is well adapted to its
    environment and produces offspring that survive
    to pass on genes.
  • D. A successful individual will be well adapted
    to its environment and produce a few high quality
    offspring.

A. A successful individual possesses traits that
are different from the traits of the rest of the
population.
37
2) In the history of the world, how many mass
extinctions have occurred? A. 5 B. 7 C. 10 D. 13
A. 5
38
3) In a mass extinction, the rate of extinction
exceeds A. 99 percent. B. 85 percent. C. the rate
of environmental change. D. the rate of
background extinction.
D. the rate of background extinction
39
4) A reintroduced population of wolves in a
national park is 90 grey and 10 black,
consistent with the wolf population in other
regions. After several generations in isolation,
the national parks wolf population is 60 grey
and 40 black. The wolf population has likely
experienced A. natural selection. B. genetic
drift. C. mutations. D. migration.
  • genetic drift
  • Evolution that occurs by chance

40
5) When the environment changes too quickly for
an organism to adapt, what will occur? A)
Evolution B) Speciation C) Genetic Drift D)
Extinction
D. Extinction
41
True or False
6) Two populations of a deer species are
separated when a glacier forms. After the glacier
melts, the two populations have become different
species. This is an example of allopatric
speciation.
TRUE
42
Short Answer
7) A disaster wipes out 50 percent of a small
population of birds. Prior to the disaster, about
half the birds had a green wing patch and half
had a blue wing patch. Several generations after
the disaster, only 10 have a blue wing patch,
and 90 have a green wing patch. What do you
infer happened, and why?
The bird population experienced genetic drift as
the result of a sudden catastrophe. The disaster
reduced genetic diversity in the population and
changed the proportion of birds with a green wing
patch vs. a blue wing patch.
43
Short Answer
8) Pronghorn are a species of extremely fast
hooved mammal that live on the plains of western
North America. They are so fast that no current
North American predator can catch them. During
the ice age, cheetahs occupied North America.
Speculate about how pronghorn became so fast.
Pronghorn probably evolved in an evolutionary
arms race with the cheetah population. They
became faster and faster to escape from cheetahs,
which were probably fast enough to catch them.
44
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45
Section 2 Species Interaction
  • Discuss the factors that influence an organisms
    niche
  • Compare and contrast predation, parasitism,
    herbivory
  • Describe mutualism and commensalism
  • TERMS niche, tolerance, resource partitioning,
    predation, coevolution, parasitism, symbiosis,
    herbivory, mutualism, commensalism.

46
Species Interaction
What resources are the plants in this picture
competing for?
Competition for resources all around us
47
Niche
  • Describes an organisms use of resources and
    functional role in a community
  • Habitat
  • Food It Eats
  • When, How Reproduces
  • What organisms does it interact with

48
Niche Impacted By Tolerance and Competition
  • Affected by an organisms toleranceits ability
    to survive and reproduce under changing
    environmental conditions
  • Often restricted by competition

49
Tolerance Limits
50
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51
Fundamental vs. Realized Niche
  • Fundamental Without competition
  • Realized With competition (restricted niche)

52
Competition
  • Organisms compete when they seek the same limited
    resource.
  • In rare cases, one species can entirely exclude
    another from using resources.
  • To reduce competition, species often partition
    resources, which can lead to character
    displacement.

53
Resource Partitioning
54
  • The zebra mussel has completely displaced 20
    native mussel species in Lake St. Clair.

55
Predation (/-)
  • The process by which a predator hunts, kills, and
    consumes prey
  • Causes cycles in predatory and prey population
    sizes

56
Predator/Prey Cycles
57
Predation
  • Defensive traits such as camouflage, mimicry, and
    warning coloration have evolved in response to
    predator-prey interactions.

58
Predation
  • Some predator-prey relationships are examples of
    coevolution, the process by which two species
    evolve in response to changes in each other.

Rough-Skinned Newt
Did You Know? A single rough-skinned newt
contains enough poison to kill 100 people.
Unfortunately for the newt, its predator, the
common garter snake, has coevolved resistance to
the toxin.
59
Coevolution
The Madagascar star orchid produces nectar at the
bottom part of its slim, foot-long throat. After
observing a specimen, Charles Darwin predicted
the existence of a moth with a proboscis long
enough to reach that nectar. Sure enough, decades
later the giant hawk moth of Madagascar was
discovered.
60
Parasitism and Herbivory (/)
  • Parasitism One organism (the parasite) relies on
    another (the host) for nourishment or for some
    other benefit
  • Herbivory An animal feeding on a plant

61
Parasitism and Herbivory (/)
Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite called
Plasmodium that is spread to humans by the bite
of an infected Anopheles mosquito.
62
Parasitism and Herbivory (/)
63
Mutualism (/) and Commensalism (/0)
  • Mutualism a relationship in which two or more
    species benefit
  • Commensalism a relationship in which one species
    benefits while the other is unaffected

64
Mutualism (/) and Commensalism (/0)
  • Clown Fish and Sea Anemones demonstrate mutualism
    because Anemones provide the Clown Fish with
    protection from predators while Clown fish defend
    the Anemones from Butterfly fish who like to eat
    Anemones.

65
Mutualism (/) and Commensalism (/0)
Barnacles adhering to the skin of a whale or
shell of a mollusk
66
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67
Section 2 Review Species Interaction
  • Discuss the factors that influence an organisms
    niche
  • Compare and contrast predation, parasitism,
    herbivory
  • Describe mutualism and commensalism
  • TERMS niche, tolerance, resource partitioning,
    predation, coevolution, parasitism, herbivory,
    mutualism, commensalism.

68
Section 2 Quiz
  • 1) Madagascar, several species of lemur eat
    bamboo, but each species specializes in one part
    of the bambooone species eats mature bamboo
    stalks, one species eats bamboo shoots, and one
    species eats leaves. This is an example of
  • A. speciation.
  • B. resource partitioning.
  • C. competition.
  • D. niche partitioning.

B. Resource Partitioning
69
  • 2) In the example above, one lemur species eats
    only bamboo shoots. Bamboo shoots contain a high
    level of cyanide, a toxic chemical. This lemur
    species has developed a tolerance for a certain
    amount of cyanide. What do you think will happen
    over time?
  • A. The level of cyanide in the bamboo population
    will increase.
  • B. The level of cyanide in the bamboo population
    will decrease.
  • C. The level of cyanide in the bamboo population
    will remain the same.
  • D. The level of cyanide in the lemur population
    will decrease.

A. The level of cyanide in the bamboo population
will increase.
70
3) Two species of finch live in the same
environment. Over time, one develops a larger
beak to consume larger seeds, while the other
develops a narrow beak to consume more delicate
seeds. This is an example of A. resource
partitioning. B. character displacement. C. coevol
ution. D. competitive exclusion.
C. coevolution.
71
4) An interaction in which an individual of one
species kills and consumes an individual of
another is called A. predation. B. parasitism. C.
herbivory. D. symbiosis.
A. predation
72
5) In the western United States, at the southern
edge of their range, moose are sometimes so
severely infested with ticks that they die. The
tick/moose relationship is best described
as A. predatory. B. parasitic. C. symbiotic. D. mu
tualistic.
B. parasitic.
73
6) A beehive depends on pollen from flowers to
survive. Flowers depend on bees to pollinate
them. The relationship among these two sets of
organisms is A. parasitic. B. commensalist. C. her
bivory D. mutualistic.
D. mutualistic.
74
7) A niche restricted by competition is
a A. fundamental niche. B. realized
niche. C. resource partitioned niche. D. displaced
niche.
B. realized niche
75
8) A deer browsing on a shrub is an example
of A. predation. B. parasitism. C. herbivory. D. p
hotosynthesis.
C. herbivory.
76
True or False You have many species of bacteria
living in your gut that help you with digestion.
This relationship is best defined as commensalism.
False Mutualism
77
Short Answer 9) Explain the difference between
mutualism and commensalisms, with examples.
In mutualism and commensalism, both species are
unharmed. In mutualism, both species benefit, as
in the example of the hawk moth pollinating the
flower the flower is pollinated and the moth is
fed. In commensalism, one species benefits while
the other doesnt experience a negative or a
positive effect. Trees providing shade and
moisture to desert shrubs is an example of
commensalism.
78
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