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Title: OFFICE PROCEDURES AND BUSINESS ETHICS


1
OFFICE PROCEDURES AND BUSINESS ETHICS
  • OS 141

2
PROJECT IN INTERNET AND WEB PAGE DEVELOPMENT
  • Joanna Marlie Del Rosario
  • Katherine Gatuz
  • BOA IV-1

3
Table of Contents
  • OFFICE
  • THE FUNDAMENTAL SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE NEEDED OF AN
    OFFICE WORKER
  • HUMAN RELATIONS
  • 5s in Office
  • HANDLING OF INCOMING AND OUTGOING TELEPHONE CALLS
  • RECORDS MANAGEMENT
  • JOB HUNTING

4
OFFICE
5
  • The word OFFICE, from the Latin word, officium,
    derived from opus which refers to work or
    service and facere meaning to do or to make

6
  • As described by Funk and Wagnalls Standard
    Dictionary of the English language office refers
    to any of the following
  • 1. A particular duty, charge or trust an
    employment undertaken by commission or authority
    a post or position held by an official or
    functionary specifically a position of trust or
    authority under a government the office of the
    premier.

7
  • 2. That which is performed, assigned, or intended
    to be done by a particular thing, or that which
    anything is fitted to perform, function , and
    service.
  • 3. A place, building, or series of rooms in which
    some particular branch of the public service is
    conducted the Patent Office also, the persons
    conducting such business specifically, the head
    of the department and his immediate assistants
    The Executive Office serves the president.

8
  • 4. A room or building in which a person transacts
    business or carries on his stated occupation
    distinguished from shop, store, studio, etc.
    lawyers office.

9
  • Importance of Office Work

(1) giving out understandable instructions to
the members of its staff for their implementation
and guidance (2) coordinating men, materials
and machines and gear then toward the attainment
of company objectives
10
  • (3) doing statistical research as dictated by the
    demands of the business and
  • (4) providing fundamental information for
    continuous succession of management decisions
    which enable the company to stay competitively in
    business and reap profits commensurate with the
    companys investment in terms of money, time and
    efforts.

11
OFFICE MANAGEMENT
  • The efficient functioning of office operations
    is the task and responsibility of office
    management.
  • Office management invariably termed also as
    office administration covers a wide gamut of
    activities involved in the organization of an
    office and in their effective management and
    supervision of its personnel, machines and
    operations. Properly administered, the office
    facilities not moreover the attainment of its
    objectives.

12
OBJECTIVES
  • 1. Improvement. Improved work methods insure
    better performance with a minimum waste of time,
    effort, money and materials.

13
  • 2. Facilitation. This objective could be
    achieved through the use of office machines and
    equipments as well as physical facilities and
    satisfactory working conditions.

14
  • 3. Control. Control which deals with the
    regulating and restraining of activities brings
    about the correlation and coordination of courses
    of action in accordance with plans.

15
Trends in Office Management
  • 1. The rapid transfer of skill human beings to
    semi-automatic machinery.

16
  • 2. Increasing production in business and industry
    has brought about an avalanche of paper work.

17
  • 3. Recent years has shown a marked emphasis on
    personnel development. In its broadest meaning,
    it covers both executives and the rank-and-file
    employees.

18
  • 4. Corollary to the above, progressive-minded
    executives are giving much time attention to the
    effective and efficient utilization of the human
    resources at their disposal.

19
  • 5. The use of computers, electronics data
    processing and fax machines is now becoming
    common in many big offices in highly
    industrialized countries.

20
  • 6. Many employees on their initiative are going
    to colleges and universities to sharpen their
    intellect in preparation for future advancement.

21
THE OFFICE MANAGER
  • The office manager is the coordinator of the
    work system. His role is to coordinate on the
    front and by giving assignments, to monitor work
    processes and to evaluate outcomes.

22
The Role of the Office Manager
  • The over-all job of an office manager is to
    create within the enterprise environment which
    will facilitate the accomplishment of company
    objectives. The manager plans the operations of
    his subordinates, select and trains them,
    organizes tasks relationships, directs their
    work, and measures actual result.

23
Requisites of a Good Office Manager
  • Briefly stated, one major qualification that an
    office manager should possess is his ability to
    understand the varied requirements of the
    organizational elements, including their need for
    communication, clerical equipment and supplies,
    data and able to appreciate the relationship
    between the various elements and the need for
    coordination.

24
  • Must be Personnel-Minded. As a cardinal
    principle in the management of an office, a
    manager must be personnel-minded. As a
    corollary, it may be said that a successful
    office manager should function in a manner which
    creates acceptance within the company for himself
    and for the members of the staff.

25
His personnel programs must be tailored to fit
the objectives of the company. An effective
intercommunication must be established thereby
preventing any gap between the employees and the
manager.
26
THE FUNDAMENTAL SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE NEEDED OF AN
OFFICE WORKER
27
THE BASIC SKILLS
  • The following are the job skills that are basic
    to al office jobs. You must perfect these
    abilities so that you can perform your job
    effectively.
  • 1. Ability to Communicate
  • Your effectiveness as a communicator depends
    upon your ability to read, write, speak, and
    listen well.

28
  • You must also learn how to listen carefully so
    that you can grasp instructions the first time,
    without having to ask that they be repeated.
    Active listening is an art. It requires that you
    concentrate on what is being said so that you
    absorb and retain the message.

29
  • 2. The Methodical Use of Notes
  • Jotting down instructions, ideas, and other
    information will aid recall later on. A
    reputation for being both right and efficient is
    bound to increase your chance for advancement.

30
  • 3. Spelling Proficiency
  • You need to know how to spell words correctly
    so that your message will not be misinterpreted.

31
  • 4. Figure Know-How
  • Figures furnish the important data from which
    many letters, reports, and statements are
    prepared. Figures must be accurate if sound
    decisions are to be based on them. Your figures
    cant be almost aright.

32
  • 5. Legible Handwriting
  • The days of flowery penmanship are past, but
    you still must have good legible handwriting for
    clerical work. Notations have to be made and
    read, some figures have to be posted by hand, and
    forms have to be filled out in longhand.

33
  • SPECIFIC JOB SKILLS
  • Office employees are assigned to specialized
    jobs, according to their individual talents and
    skills. The kind of job you will be assigned
    will depend upon your interests, the specific
    skills you acquire in school, and how well you
    have mastered those skills.

34
SPECIFIC JOB SKILLS
  • 1. Typing

35
  • 2. Shorthand

36
  • 3. Office Machine Operation
  • 4. Filing
  • 5. Recordkeeping
  • and Accounting

37
HUMAN RELATIONS
38
Among the most significant pointers on human
relations which the PR student should bear in
mind are the following
  • 1. Follow the Golden Rule at all times, and you
    will never go astray, human relations-wise.
  • 2. Respect the human personality and accord every
    person a corresponding sense of importance.
  • 3. Always remember that no one is perfect.
  • 4. Bear in mind at all times that nothing is ever
    stagnant in this world all things change.

39
  • 5. Be careful in the use of words.
  • 6. Be sincere in all your dealings.
  • 7. Humility is a trait everyone admires.
  • 8.The you approach is oftentimes effective in
    the attainment of ones objectives.
  • 9. Learn to control your temper under all
    circumstances.
  • 10. Whenever you can, read books on human
    relations.

40
1.The Golden Rule
  • The businessman who engages in business and
    treats his customers as he would want to be
    treated generally develops a lucrative trade with
    an increasingly-growing clientele. The
    professional who serves his fellowmen in the
    manner he would want to be served by them soon
    carves a niche in their hearts.

41
2. Respect the Human Personality
  • In every human being has a soul and a feeling
    of importance. Regardless of education or social
    status, every person deserves the respect of his
    fellowmen.
  • By properly according other people the respect
    and by making them feel important, you would earn
    respect and cooperation in return, and you may
    succeed in getting them to do what you want them
    to do.

42
3. No One Is Perfect
  • None among us is perfect. Everyone, it is said
    is superior in some respects, but inferior in
    other respects. This is important for us to
    remember at all times that dealing with other
    people.

43
4. All Things Change
  • By giving due allowance for the possible
    changes that may take place around us, we pave
    the way towards better human relations amongst
    ourselves.
  • You may meet someone today who is a non-entity,
    socially speaking. Treat him well and cordially
    nevertheless years from now, he may be a
    prominent person, and his attitude towards you at
    that time may mean a world of difference in your
    relations with him then.

44
5. The Use of Words
  • At the root of most human relations problems is
    the improper use of words. Particularly in a
    country where the nationals communicate with one
    another in a borrowed language, the chances for
    misunderstanding because of the wrong use of
    words are abundant.

45
6. Sincerity
  • The sincere person is welcome everywhere.
    Sincerity in attitude, in words, and in deed, is
    a virtue prized anywhere. It is also the secret
    behind the success of many a prominent man.

46
7. Humility
  • PR success usually requires topnotch
    leadership, and the outstanding leader is often
    times one who is humble, modest, and unassuming.

47
8. The You Approach
  • The use of the you approach is premised on
    the theory that every individual is interested in
    himself. Every person is concerned with his own
    welfare.
  • Therefore, in dealing with others, it is
    recommended that matters be presented from their
    point of view, so as to elicit maximum
    cooperation.

48
9. Control of Ones Temper
  • This is one of those things which are easier
    said than done. Learn to control your temper
    is easy to say, but to implement it is usually a
    problem, particularly in the case of persons who
    are by nature sensitive and easily offended.

49
10. Human Relations Books
  • These books have been found very helpful by
    million of men and women all over the world.
    They contain priceless advice for the sincere and
    ambitious PR practitioner. The college student
    may not be required to read books like these, but
    his voluntary perusal of them would certainly
    increase his knowledge of how to get along better
    with others.

50
5s in Office
51
The 5S's are
  • Phase 1 - Seiri
  • Sorting Going through all the tools, materials,
    etc., in the plant and work area and keeping only
    essential items. Everything else is stored or
    discarded.

52
  • Phase 2 - Seiton
  • Straighten or Set in Order Focuses on
    efficiency. When we translate this to "Straighten
    or Set in Order", it sounds like more sorting or
    sweeping, but the intent is to arrange the tools,
    equipment and parts in a manner that promotes
    work flow.

53
  • Phase 3 - Seiso
  • Sweeping or Shining or Cleanliness Systematic
    Cleaning or the need to keep the workplace clean
    as well as neat. At the end of each shift, the
    work area is cleaned up and everything is
    restored to its place. This makes it easy to know
    what goes where and have confidence that
    everything is where it should be.

54
  • Phase 4 - Seiketsu Standardizing Standardized
    work practices or operating in a consistent and
    standardized fashion. Everyone knows exactly what
    his or her responsibilities are to keep above
    3S's.
  • Phase 5 - Shitsuke Sustaining the discipline
    Refers to maintaining and reviewing standards.
    Once the previous 4S's have been established,
    they become the new way to operate. Maintain the
    focus on this new way of operating, and do not
    allow a gradual decline back to the old ways of
    operating. However, when an issue arises such as
    a suggested improvement, a new way of working, a
    new tool or a new output requirement, then a
    review of the first 4S's is appropriate.

55
  • Phase 5 - Shitsuke
  • Sustaining the discipline Refers to
    maintaining and reviewing standards. Once the
    previous 4S's have been established, they become
    the new way to operate. Maintain the focus on
    this new way of operating, and do not allow a
    gradual decline back to the old ways of
    operating.

56
HANDLING OF INCOMING AND OUTGOING TELEPHONE CALLS
57
HOW TO ACHIEVE A GOOD VOICE
  • VOICE QUALITY
  • The quality of your voice is dependent upon its
    rate, pitch, timbre or resonance, and volume.
    Other essentials, in good voice production are
    proper enunciation, articulation, and
    pronunciation.

58
  • 1. RATE OF SPEED
  • This refers to the fastness of slowness of speed
    in talking.
  • Your objective should be a normal rate of speech
    not too slow and not too fast.

59
  • 2. PITCH OR TONE
  • This refers to the highness or lowness of your
    voice.
  • The pitch of your voice is determined largely by
    how you breathe. Thus your voice may be
    described as being high or low according to its
    pitch.
  • Pitch tends to rise when a person is under stress
    or emotional strain, which causes the rate of
    breathing to increase.

60
  • 3. TIMBRE OR RESONANCE
  • Resonance is produced by vibration. You need to
    use your mouth, throat, and chest in voice
    production.

61
  • 4. VOLUME
  • The degree of loudness and softness of your
    voice.
  • If you speak so softly, the listeners may strain
    their ear to hear you.
  • If you speak so loudly, you may assault or
    irritate your listeners.
  • Neither extreme is desirable, nor is a deadly
    sameness of volume.

62
  • 5. ENUNCIATION AND PRONUNCIATION
  • Enunciation is the process of articulation or the
    combining of sounds into syllable. A is
    clearly sounded as A T is clearly sounded as
    T and so on.
  • The combining of syllable into words is called
    pronunciation.
  • The deliver each separate sound clearly requires
    the proper use of your tongue, teeth, lips, and
    jaw.

63
  • Your enunciation may be faultless and your
    articulation clear, but you will make a poor
    impression on your hearers if you pronounce words
    incorrectly.
  • Learn to understand and follow the diacritical
    marks in your dictionary.
  • Listen and learn the correct pronunciation.

64
  • 6. DICTION
  • refers to the right choice of words.

65
TELEPHONE TECHNIQUES
66
  • SEVEN STEPS IN HANDLING INCOMING CALLS
  • 1. Answer telephone calls promptly on the first
    or second ring.
  • 2. Always have the writing tool, like pad and
    ballpen, ready when answering a business
    telephone.
  • 3. Identify yourself courteously.
  • 4. Screen the caller tactfully.
  • 5. Offer to help the caller.
  • 6. Terminate the call courteously.
  • 7. Do not forget to accomplish the message slip
    and forward it to the person concerned for
    appropriate action.

67
  • WAYS OF IDENTIFYING YOURSELF WHEN ANSWERING THE
    TELEPHONE
  • 1. Name of the company and greet the caller.
  • NCBA, Good afternoon
  • 2. Name of the company and offer to help.
  • NCBA, may I help you?
  • Office of Atty. Miralles, Good Afternoon!
  • Clinic of Dr. Hipolito, may I help you?
  • 3. If the call has been referred to you by the
    telephone operator, say
  • Sales Department, Miss de Vera speaking.
  • Accounting Department, may I help you?

68
HOW TO SCREEN THE CALLER
  • INFORMATION THAT THE SECRETARY
  • SHOULD FIND OUT ABOUT THE CALLER
  • 1. Complete name of the caller
  • 2. Position of the caller
  • 3. Company represented by the caller
  • 4. Telephone number of the caller (for returning
    the call)
  • 5. Person the caller wants (get the complete
    name)
  • 6. Purpose of the call (message of the caller)

69
IMPORTANT THINGS TO REMEMBER WHEN SCREENING
CALLERS
  • 1.A secretary new on a job should first find out
    what people the boss doesnt want to talk. The
    secretary should remember the persons the boss
    will or will not talk with.
  • 2. It would be helpful and would create goodwill
    if the secretary could learn to recognize voices.
  • 3. If the secretary doesnt recognize the voice,
    the caller should be asked tactfully who he is
    and what he wants. The whos calling approach
    is a poor way to start a conversation. It is
    better to ask May I ask who is calling? or
    May I tell Mrs. de Vera who is calling?

70
  • 4. The callers affiliation and what he wants to
    talk about are necessary information for the
    secretary to know whether to connect the call,
    handle the business without involving the
    employer, or transfer the call.
  • 5. Get the callers name as early as in the
    conversation as you can courteously do so.
    Knowing the callers name enables you to use it
    during the remainder of the conversation.

71
  • SOME PROBABLE HELP THAT YOU CAN OFFER TO THE
    CALLER
  • Take the message.
  • Advise the caller to call back.
  • Get the telephone number and offer to return the
    call. Always keep promises about making return
    calls. A forgotten return call may mean a lost
    of customer.
  • Refer to caller to someone who can help.

72
HOW TO TERMINATE THE CALL COURTEOUSLY
  • When it is apparent that the caller has almost
    finished the conversation, the secretary should
    follow the following procedures when termination
    a call.
  • Summarize any information that has been give.
    One might say, for example
  • The meeting, then, will be at 8 oclock in the
    morning on May 11 at the Conference Hall
  • By summarizing, the secretary makes sure that
    the information given has been taken down
    accurately.

73
  • Ask the caller if there is anything more he would
    say.
  • Thank the caller for calling say Thanks for
    calling, Mr. Ramos!
  • The courteous secretary waits for the caller to
    hang up first before replacing the receiver.

74
HOW TO HANDLE OUTGOING BUSINESS CALLS
  • JOB TIPS IN HANDLING OUTGOING TELEPHONE CALLS
  • 1. Learn how to use the telephone directory
  • a. SUBSCRIBERS LIST (white pages)
  • Contains the name, address, and telephone
    numbers of each subscriber, arranged
    alphabetically by the name of the subscriber.

75
  • b. COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL SUBSCRIBER (yellow
    pages)
  • List the name, address and phone numbers of
    every business subscriber grouped under product
    and service headings. It also contains an index
    that can help you determine the heading under a
    specific type of product or service. The yellow
    pages are full of information.

76
  • 2. Learn to recognize different kinds of tones
  • a. Dial tone A continuous hmm indicates you
    may start to dial.
  • b. Ringing tone A burr indicates the number is
    being rung.
  • c. Busy tone A short beep repeated regularly
    indicates the number being called is engaged.

77
  • 3. Keep a list of frequently called numbers
  • such as
  • a. Airlines
  • b. Building supervisor
  • c. Express office
  • d. Messenger office
  • e. Post office
  • f. Railroads

78
  • g. residence of employees and offices
  • h. Telegraph offices
  • i. Repair services
  • j. Stockholders
  • k. Banks
  • l. Financiers

79
  • 4. Keep a list of emergency numbers
  • a. Fire d. Poison Control Center
  • b. Police e. Metrocom
  • c. Hospital f. Civil Defense Operation Center

80
  • 5. Keep a list of personal numbers for your
    executive such as
  • a. Bank f. Garage/car repair shop
  • b. Dentist g. Service (dry cleaner, etc.)
  • c. Doctor h. Stores to trade with
  • d. Family (residence bus.) i. Travel agency
  • e. Friends (frequently called)

81
6. Keep a list of your companys telephone
numbers including various departments, branches,
and sister companies.
  • 7. Plan what youre going to say and how you will
    say them to avoid making call backs.

8. When you make a call, wait for six or seven
rings before hanging up.
82
JOBS TIPS TO INCREASE YOUR EFFICIENCY ON THE
TELEPHONE
  • 1. If it is necessary for you to be away from
    your telephone, arrange to have someone else to
    answer it.
  • 2. Avoid personal calls during office hours.
  • 3. Use the telephone instrument properly. It is
    courteous to speak directly into the mouthpiece,
    holding it about half an inch from the lips. It
    is never necessary to shout.
  • 4. When you must interrupt a conversation to
    answer telephone or speak to another person,
    excuse yourself and state the reason.

83
  • 5. If it is necessary to leave the telephone,
    during a conversation explain the reason for
    leaving, stat e the approximate time you will be
    gone, and give the caller a preference as to
    whether he wished to wait or have you call back
    later.
  • 6. When someone is waiting on the telephone,
    look in every minute or so. When the call is
    finally completed, say thank you for waiting.
  • 7. The courtesy of face-to-face conversation
    where the smile plays such an important part can
    be expressed over the telephone only through the
    cheerful tone and a careful choice of words.

84
  • 9. Do not continue a conversation with someone in
    the office after you have lifted the telephone.
  • 10. Do not place the transmitter against your
    chest while speaking to someone in the office.
    The caller can still hear you. Sometimes
    covering the transmitter with your hand is also
    inadequate to shut aside comments.
  • 11. If a telephone call to your employer seems to
    be of a personal nature and you are in his
    office, leave the room quietly while he converse.
  • 12. Never monitor telephone conversation unless
    you are authorized to do so.

85
  • 13.When making a number of calls on a line
    serving several people, try to space your call so
    that others may have a chance to use the
    telephone.
  • 14. Remove all foreign objects from the mouth
    when talking. Think of the mouthpiece as a mold
    in which correct from must be given to every
    sound.
  • 15. Remember the ABC of telephone manners
  • A always B e C Courteous

86
TYPES OF LONG DISTANCE CALLS
  • 1. STATION-TO-STATION CALL
  • Call station-to-station if you wish to talk with
    anyone who answers. Rates are lower than
    person-to-person. Changing begins when the
    called telephone answers.
  • 2. PERSON-TO-PERSON CALL
  • Call person-to-person when you wish to talk to a
    particular person or tension phone. Tell the
    operator you wish to make a person-to-person
    call. Rates are higher than station-to-station.
    Charging starts when a conversation begins with
    the person you want to talk to.

87
  • 3. CONFERENCE CALL
  • You can talk with several persons in different
    places at the same time. This is used by
    business firm with several branches around the
    nation or around the world.
  • 4. COLLECT CALL
  • You can call collect if the person of firm you
    are calling agrees to pay the charge. You should
    inform the operator it is a collect call upon
    filing. Timing starts when the conversation
    begins.

88
  • NUMBER TO REMEMBER
  • INTERNATIONAL CALLS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    . . DIAL 108
  • DOMESTIC LONG DISTANCE CALLS . . . . . . DIAL
    109
  • DIRECTORY ASSISTANCE SERVICE . . . . . . . DIAL
    114
  • (DDD) DDIRECT DISTANCE DIALING
  • ASSISTANCE SERVICE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    . DIAL 112
  • REPAIR SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    . . . . . . . . DIAL 173

89
RECORDS MANAGEMENT
90
  • WHAT ARE RECORDS?
  • Records are the memory of any business
    organization.
  • A record maybe any material thing which serves to
    perpetuate or preserve knowledge of acts, events,
    facts, or ideas.

91
  • WHAT IS AN IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTIC OF RECORDS?
  • An important characteristic of RECORDS is
    that they usually consists of material that can
    be classified and arranged in a methodical manner
    for preservation and ready reference.

92
WHY MUST RECORDS BE MANAGED
  • 1. To regulate the great volume and variety of
    documents and papers currently received and
    created in transacting business.
  • 2. To accommodate and control natural increase in
    volume and variety due to growth of population,
    new function, and related activities.
  • 3. To provide methods to ensure prompt attention,
    rapid movements, guide finding, safe storage, and
    proper disposal of documents and papers.
  • 4. To control and reduce cost of paperwork.

93
  • WHAT IS FILING?
  • Filing is the process of classifying and
    arranging of records in a systematic way so they
    will not only be safely stored but also quickly
    retrieved or located when needed.

94
IMPORTANCE OF MANAGING FILES
  • 1. In filing, the emphasis is more upon the
    finding rather than the storing aspect.
  • 2. Since the written information is being
    retained or filed for future possible use, the
    so-called finding aspect is essential in
    paperwork management.
  • 3. The safekeeping of records is important, but
    being able to find them promptly, when needed, is
    more important.

95
  • 4. Remember needed paper when lost or misplaced
    can delay the work of a dozen employees or even
    the entire office.
  • 5. Management is not only interested in the files
    as such, but more in the information which can be
    obtained from them.
  • 6. Establishing and managing an effective system
    and arranging the records that an office must
    maintain, and placing them at their proper
    locations, will help promote operational
    efficiency in the office.

96
OBJECTIVES IN FILING
  • 1. Efficiency
  • 2. Economy
  • 3. Simplicity

97
PURPOSES OF FILING
  • 1. To make records available when they are needed
    whether for reference or evidence.
  • 2. To keep all related materials together so that
    the history of the dealings of one office with
    other offices or individuals will be available in
    one place.
  • 3. To provide a permanent and safe place for
    records of business information and transactions
    during the time the records are not in use.

98
HOW ARE RECORDS BEING FILED?
  • 1. By the name of individual or organization
  • 2. By the subject matter they contain
  • 3. By the location or geographical area a record
    may cover
  • 4. By the number assigned to a record
  • 5. By the date

99
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF FILING SYSTEM
  • 1. ALPHABETIC NAME FILE (by name of individual or
    organization)
  • Records that are referred to by name of an
    individual organization be arranged by name in
    strict alphabetic sequence or successive
    continuity.
  • 2. ALPHABETIC SUBJECT TITLE (by subject)
  • Records which are referred to by the subject
    matter they contain should be arranged
    alphabetically by subject title or caption.
  • All records on a particular subject should be
    kept together in as much as each related fits
    somewhere to complete a story.

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  • 3. ALPHABETIC LOCATION FILE (by geographic
    location)
  • Records which are referred to by geographic
    location should be alphabetically arranged by
    location name which may be by country, region,
    province, city/municipality, barrio, or barangay.
  • 4. NUMERICAL FILE (by the number assigned to
    record)
  • Record which are identified by numbers assigned
    to them and are referred to by their respective
    number should be arranged in numerical sequence.
  • A numerical file is often used for records
    pertaining to bank checks, invoices, insurance
    policies, presidential decrees, tax declaration
    and the like.

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  • 5. CHRONOLOGICAL FILE (by the date of records)
  • Records to which primary reference is made by
    date of the record should be filed
    chronologically (in the order of time) by year,
    month, or day as reference indicates.
  • The chronological filing system simply arranges
    material according to its time sequence, that is,
    month or weeks are its main division with days
    for its subdivisions.
  • Some correspondence, bills, and pending accounts
    payable can be handled on a chronological plan.
  • The advantage of this plan are
  • 1. It is very simple.
  • 2. Filing is easy.
  • 3. It is convenient reminder of unfinished work.

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  • TYPES OF OFFICE RECORDS TO BE FILED
  • 1. ADMINISTRATIVE FILES a file material related
    to overall policy mission of organization,
    direction of the office, including management
    improvement programs, formal rules and
    regulations, guides, maintenance of service,
    supplies and other administrative matter which
    have no direct bearing on the operation of the
    office.
  • 2. PERSONAL FILES any paper containing the
    service appointment and the other records related
    to the individual employees.
  • 3. LEGAL FILES consist of administrative case
    of personnel land cases, civil cases,
    investigation records and the like.
  • 4. SUPPLY FILES consist of records of supplies,
    equipment, purchases, contracts, etc.

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5. FISCAL FILES materials on budget
preparation, submission of allotments, and
control of funds.
  • TOOLS IN FILES OPERATION
  • 1. Folders and fasteners
  • 2. Charge-out cards
  • 3. Requisition slip
  • 4. Tickler file or follow-up file
  • 5. Sorting table and rocks
  • 6. Stapler
  • 7. Filing cabinets and shelves
  • 8. Tapes

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SELECTING THE APPROPRIATE FILING SYSTEM
  • CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD FILING SYSTEM
  • A filing system can only be good on if it is
    tailor-made to fit the condition or situations
    prevailing in a particular organization.
  • Filing system is good if it can meet the three
    points success formula of efficiency, economy,
    and simplicity.

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  • Filing system is good if it can meet the three
    points
  • Filing system is good if it fills the needs of
    the operating personnel and serves them
    satisfactorily.

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REQUISITIES OF A GOOD FILING SYSTEM ARE
  • 1. It serves the needs of the office
  • 2. It has the simplest identification of file
    contents
  • 3. It use minimum indexes and codes.
  • 4. It has maximum safeguard against filing errors
  • 5. It is not dependent on the memory of the clerk.

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GUIDES IN SELEECTING APPROPRIATE FILING SYSTEM
  • A certain amount of creativeness is necessary in
    adapting a filing system to the situation at
    hand. There are many different types of filing
    procedures ranging from manual to mechanical to
    electrical. The following guidelines are
    suggested in choosing a filing system

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  • 1. Know the types of records and files created
    and maintained by the office.
  • 2. Know how the records are requested from the
    files.
  • 3. Know why, how, and where the materials to be
    filed originates.
  • 4. Know the procedure steps from post of origin
    to files.

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STEPS IN FILINGHOW TO PREPARE THE MATERIAL TO BE
FILED
  • Incoming correspondence onced received should be
    time and date stamped and given to proper person
    for action.
  • 1. INSPECTING
  • Inspecting the material to make sure it has been
    released for filing.
  • Look for a special mark as release signal like
    the word FILE plus the initials of the person
    releasing it.

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  • 2. INDEXING
  • the name by which correspondence or record is
    most likely to be requested from files.
  • Determine the most likely the heading under the
    paper to be filed.
  • The possibilities are
  • name of on the letterhead
  • name addressed
  • name in the signature
  • name or subject included in the paper
  • file or reference number
  • There are rules for alphabetic indexing that
    should be followed.

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  • 3. CROSS-REFERENCING
  • Cross-referencing is used when it is difficult to
    know which of two or more name is important
  • Cross-referencing is accomplished by filing the
    original under one name and cross reference sheet
    under the other
  • For cross-referencing, you may use
    cross-reference sheets, or plain sheets of paper,
    or a paper with distinctive color.

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  • You may consider cross-referencing under the
    following situations
  • a. When some word other than the first in a
    company of situation name clearly identifies the
    organization. For example, University of San
    Carlos would be filed as written but should be
    cross-referenced to San Carlos University.
  • b. When it is difficult to decide which part of
    an individuals name is the surname. In the case
    of Manolo Herbert you might index the name as
    normally written and use a cross-reference under
    a transposition of the name.

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  • c. When an organization is better known by
    initials than by its complete name, material
    should be filed under the complete name and then
    cross-reference to the explanation, like
  • NATIONAL COLLEGE (of) BUSINESS AND ARTS
  • Cross Reference
  • NCBA
  • See National College of Business and Arts
  • d. When a record is likely to be called for most
    often by subject, should be filed under the
    subject caption but cross-referenced to
    individual or company name.
  • e. When a difficult name is indexed, you may use
    a cross-reference.
  • f. When a married woman is indexed, you may use
    the maiden name as the original file but
    cross-referenced it under the married or legal
    name.

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  • 4. CODING
  • Underline or encircle the caption to be used on
    storing.
  • This is marking the file to indicate how they
    have been indexed
  • Coding highlights the indexing caption and thus
    speeds up filing
  • For alphabetic coding, the indexing caption may
    be check marked, encircled, or underlined on the
    record being coded.

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  • For numeric coding follow these three steps
  • 1. Selecting the name under which a paper is to
    be filed
  • 2. Referring to the card index to determine the
    number to be assigned.
  • 3. Marking the number in the upper margin of the
    paper
  • For subject coding follow these steps
  • 1. Write the subject in the margin of each
    record.
  • 2. Re-sort in each category for more exact
    sequence.
  • 3. Assemble all the materials in proper sequence.

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  • 4. FILING or STORING
  • This is the final step in manual filing which is
    placing the papers in appropriate containers,
    usually file folders.
  • The papers are placed in the proper folders in
    the filing cabinets.
  • Follow these procedures
  • 1. Punch holes into the paper to be filed
  • 2. To insert material, lift the folder out of the
    file drawer in order to make sure you have the
    correct folder.
  • 3. Insert the paper evenly.
  • 4. See to it that the material you are inserting
    is in correct sequence in the folder.

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  • 5. Avoid overcrowding the folder. Overcrowding
    extends records beyond the top edge of the
    folder, causing torn edges it also pulls the
    back of the folder down and hides the caption.
  • 6. Use the creases across the bottom of the front
    flap of the folder to accommodate increasing
    bulk. By expanding the folder, you can stock
    papers as much as three-quarters of an inch high
    without bulging. When the maximum capacity is
    reached, it is time to use a second folder.

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SOME USEFUL REMINDERS WHEN FILING
  • REMOVING ATTACHMENTS
  • 1. Paper clips, rubber band, and other such
    attachments should be removed from papers before
    they are filed.
  • ARRANGING DRAWER SPACE
  • 1. Provide enough space in each file drawer of
    active records to permit easy access and pulling
    out of folders.
  • 2. Guides and folders should not be pulled out
    the files by their tabs. The tabs are not
    handles and will soon be worn out if so used for
    pulling out folder.
  • 3. Adjust the follow block when file drawer
    begin to sag. Proper positioning of the drawer
    compressor helps to keep folder upright in a
    drawer.

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  • FILING CLIPPINGS
  • 1. Indicate the names of the publication and the
    date of the issue from which they were taken.
  • 2. Small clipping should be mounted on plain
    paper.
  • 3. Clipping larger than the ordinary size of bond
    paper may be folded as needed to fit the folder.
  • FILING BULKY MATERIAL
  • 1. Bulky material should be filed separately in
    appropriate storage lockers or suitable shelves,
    either numeric alphabetic.
  • 2. Items may need to be cross-referenced to
    related correspondence files.
  • 3. They should be neatly arrange, clearly marked,
    and kept clean and dusted.

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  • RETRIEVING OR FINDING MATERIAL
  • FROM FILES
  • 1. If papers have been properly prepared in
    filings and if they have been carefully placed in
    the correct file folders and in the right
    drawers, finding them when they are needed would
    be a simple and easy matter.
  • 2. However, all records removed from the files be
    recorded, especially if the files are used by
    many different people.
  • 3. Chargeout procedure should be carefully
    followed.

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CHARGEOUT PROCEDURES
  • 1. A chargeout system tells you where a record
    can be located after it has been taken from the
    files.
  • 2. There are two types of chargeout records
  • A. One to account for complete folders removed
    from a file
  • B. Another to account for papers taken from a
    folders
  • The function is the same to ensure that the
    records that were removed will be returned.
  • 3. Chargeout record must contain the following
    information
  • A. name of the borrower
  • B. a description of the material borrowed
  • C. date borrowed

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  • 4. A folder chargeout may be either be an
    out-folder or an out-guide.
  • 5. The OUT-FOLDER is a folder with a tab marked
    OUT and ruled spaces on the front for recording
    chargeout information. It replaces a removed
    folder. Incoming items are filed in it until the
    regular folder is returned.
  • 6. The OUT-GUIDE has a pocket into which a copy
    of the requisition slip made out by the borrower
    may be inserted. When out guides are used,
    incoming items are accumulated in a For File
    Folder until the regular folder is returned.

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REQUISITION SLIP
  • 1. To control requests for files, use a special
    form called the REQUISITION SLIP.
  • 2. Prepare the slip in triplicate to save time
    and control safe return of files.
  • 3. These slips become the chargeout record.
  • 4. The original is put into the pocket of the OUT
    GUIDE.
  • 5. Copy 2 goes into a follow-up file box where it
    is filed by date.
  • 6. Copy 3 goes clipped to the items that were
    taken from the files to identify them to remind
    the user of the due date.

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HOW TO SEARCH FOR MISSING FILES
  • The following clues help to uncover many misfiled
    papers.
  • 1. ON SOMEONES DESK?
  • Look first through your own desk when tracking a
    misplaced record. Then the executives desk.
    Still not there? Look in the FOR FILING
    folder.
  • 2. THE FOLDER BEFORE OR THE ONE BEHIND THE RIGHT
    FOLDER?
  • Look into the folder immediately ahead of or
    immediately behind the folder in which the paper
    belongs. This type of filing error usually
    occur.
  • 3. BETWEEN OR UNDER FOLDER?
  • Look between the folders on either side of the
    folder in which the missing paper should be. Not
    there? Then look under the folders. Single
    papers and even folders have been known to slip
    gradually under the other folders when the guides
    are not attached by a rod.

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  • 4. TRANSPOSITION OF NAMES
  • Some names such as Danilo Manuel, are easily
    transposed. A letter to Danilo Manuel
    Enterprises may turn up in the Danilo folder.
  • 5. SIMILAR NAMES?
  • Look under similarly spelled names. The Joana
    paper may be in Jones, Johns, Joens, or even
    folder.
  • 6. CROSS-REFERENCES?
  • Look under the cross-references. Original may
    sometimes filed with cross reference folder.

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  • 7. PAPER CLIPS
  • Paper clips have a way of picking up neighboring
    papers. This is one of the reasons you are
    advised from the start not to use paper clips.
  • 8. ASK YOUR BOSS
  • If all the solutions were made and still you
    cant find the record, ask your boss. He might
    have taken it and brought home without informing
    you.

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TRANSFER AND RETENTION
  • Transferring files is the process of removing
    old and inactive items from files. However,
    transferred materials are not automatically
    destroyed. You may do the transferring of files
    during free times when the boss is away.

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TWO GENERAL TRANSFER METHODS
  • 1. PERPETUAL TRANSFER
  • moves records to the inactive area as they become
    inactive.
  • 2. PERIODIC TRANSFER
  • files are moved at stated intervals, once or
    twice a year.
  • REMEMBER See to it that you get the approval of
    your boss before you transfer any record.

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SOME DOS AND DONTS OF FILING
  • DO
  • 1. Do staple papers neatly together in upper left
    hand corners. If you must fasten you can use a
    fastener folder.
  • 2. Do file papers in an orderly fashion in
    folder.
  • 3. Do use individually tabbed folders with typed
    labels for ready reference.
  • 4. Do type all labels on folders. They are so
    easily read.
  • 5. Do lift the folder out to insert papers in
    proper place. You will be accurate and your file
    will be neat. Be a good housekeeper.
  • 6. Do file them in date order, keeping the latest
    date on top.

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  • 7. Do split the papers up according to date,
    customer, or subject so that no folder contains
    more than the capacity it is designed for
    (generally ½ to 1)
  • 8. Do file material in one folder, placing a
    cross-reference sheet in folder for any other
    subject or customer include in the material.
    This will save many minutes in locating materials
    when the boss is in a hurry.
  • 9. Do keep all files in proper alphabetical
    sequence.
  • 10. Do file in back of guide. After all guide
    is what the name implies a guide indication the
    proper place to locate a folder.
  • 11. Do pre-arrange or sort your papers in exact
    order according to your file index. Then start
    to file.

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  • 12. Do keep your filing rough sorted from A to
    Z if you cant take care of it immediately. You
    will be able to locate papers so must faster.
  • 13. Do charge out papers removed and place the
    OUT card in the file. Think of the arguments
    this will save.
  • 14. Do type labels in capital letters so they may
    be easily read and keep one on every drawer.
    Even you might forget which is which if you are
    busy.
  • 15. Do close each drawer as you finish with it.
    Open file drawer may cause a serious accident.

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  • DONT
  • 1. Dont use pins, paper clips or rubber bands on
    file papers.
  • 2. Dont file papers loose in a drawer.
  • 3. Dont write captions on folders by hand.
    Perhaps you can read your writing but can the
    other person read your handwriting? You can
    write caption if your hand writing is very
    readable.
  • 4. Dont jam papers down into folders. You cant
    be sure they are in the correct place and anyway,
    think how messy they will look.
  • 5. Dont allow papers to be all mixed as to dates
    within a folder.
  • 6. Dont allow your folders to become cluttered
    and overcrowded.

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  • 7. Dont allow your folders to become so full
    that they buldge, or the back sags down out of
    sight.
  • 8. Dont allow your files to become confusing
    when letters contain two or more subjects or
    customers.
  • 9. Dont flounder around spending precious
    moments looking for a folder which had been filed
    under another name.
  • 10. Dont pull a folder out of place
    alphabetically just because it may be large.
  • 11.Dont file in front of guides.
  • 12. Dont start to file with papers in haphazard
    arrangement.

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  • 13. Dont let your new filing pile up. Update
    your files.
  • 14. Dont leave your new filing in a disorganized
    file.
  • 15. Dont lend papers and then depend upon your
    memory to tell you who took them. Keep a record
    of borrowed file folder.
  • 16. Dont allow the labels on your file drawers
    to be handwritten dirty or torn off.
  • 17. Dont pull out more than one file drawer at a
    time.

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FOUR CATEGORIES OF RETENTION SCHEDULES
  • RECORDS KEPT PERMANNETLY Two broad classes of
    business record are generally retained
    permanently those that provide evidence of
    corporate and individual rights and those with
    historical implications. Such records are
    generally irreplaceable and are considered
    essential to the existence of the business.
    Photocopy duplicated of them should be stored in
    several locations as a precaution against
    destruction. Old documents may require special
    restorative or preservative methods to protect
    them against deterioration.

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  • Some records that should be kept permanently
    are
  • 1. Capital stock and bond ledgers and registers
  • 2. Partnership papers
  • 3. Stockholder and director minutes
  • 4. Deeds and other title papers and mortgages
  • 5. General ledgers, journals, and cashbooks
  • 6. Records of cost and inventory value of plant
    equipment and fixtures
  • 7. Tax backup records

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  • 8. Audit reports
  • 9. Records relating to bills and accounts payable
  • 10. Paid drafts, checks, and cash receipts
  • 11. Correspondence about stop-payment orders and
    duplicate checks.
  • 12. Payrolls paychecks, and other evidences or
    payments of services
  • 13. Employee applications.

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  • RECORDS KEPT SIX OR SEVEN YEARS. Records in
    this category facilitates routine business
    operations and are replaceable only at
    considerable cost and delay. They should be
    transferred when inactive to secure storage.
    They include the following
  • 1. List of security holders present at meetings.
  • 2. Records of interest coupons, paid and unpaid.
  • 3. Contracts, leases, and agreements (seven
    years after expiration)

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  • 4. Accounts receivable ledgers
  • 5. Schedules of fire and other insurance and
    papers substantiating claims
  • 6. Deposit book and record stubs
  • 7. Inventories of materials with adjustment
    records
  • 8. Sales records
  • 9. Collection records
  • 10. Record of uncollectable accounts

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  • RECORDS KEPT FOR THREE OR FOUR YEARS. Many
    business papers are temporarily useful and
    replaceable at slight cost. They may be safely
    destroyed after three or four years. The
    following illustrate this category
  • 1. Proxies of holder of voting securities
  • 2. Employee fidelity bond records
  • 3. Insurance records changes and cancellations
    of policies
  • 4. Records about employee salary adjustments and
    assignments

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JOB HUNTING
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  • The right job for a capable secretarial graduate
    is always available.
  • Looking for the right job for you requires (Ps)
  • 1. planning 4. packaging the application
    and bio-data
  • 2. preparation 5. presentation during the
    interview
  • 3. persistence 6. performance

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  • When you plan to look for the right job, your
    objective should be
  • To match your capabilities with the needs of a
    specific job.

144
WHEN HUNTING GOR THE RIGHT JOB CONSIDER THE
FOLLOWNG FACTORS
  • 1. That job should make your years preparation
    seem worthwhile.
  • 2. That you are qualified for that job.
  • 3. That you will be proud and happy to accept
    that job.
  • 4. That job will give you an awareness of being
    needed.
  • 5. That job will give an opportunity for
    professional growth.
  • 6. That job will give you a feeling of financial
    satisfaction.

145
STEPS IN JOB HUNTING
  • 1. Understand your potentials and your goals
  • 2. Know the different job sources
  • 3. Know the company and the requirements
  • 4. Prepare yourself bio-data and application
    letter
  • 5. Prepare yourself for the interview

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STANDARD REQUIREMENTS FOR EMPLOYMENT
  • 1. NBI Clearance
  • 2. Police Clearance
  • 3. T.A.N Tax Account Number
  • 4. S.S.S No. Social Security System Number
  • 5. Fiscals Clearance ( optional )
  • 6. Transcript of records/Diploma ( Xerox Copy but
    be ready with
  • Original copy)
  • 7. I.D PHOTO size 2 x 2 or depending upon the
    size requirement
  • 8. Clearance from previous employer
  • 9. X-RAY Result or medical exam result
  • 10. Letter of recommendation from personal
    reference
  • 11. Character Reference
  • 12.Others which may be required by the company

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SOURCES OF JOB PROSPECTS
  • 1. Friends, Acquaintances, and Relatives
  • 2. College Placement Office or Schools
    Employment Assistance Office
  • 3. Employment Agencies
  • 4. Newspaper Advertisements
  • 5. Civil Service Announcements
  • 6. Direct application ( signboard and billboard )

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HOW TO COMMUNICATE WITH A PROSPECTIVE EMPLOYER AS
AN APPLICANT
  • 1. Make a personal appearance
  • 2. Place a telephone call
  • 3. Answer a newspaper ad
  • 4. Write a letter of application asking for an
    appointment and enclosing a data sheet

149
DIFFERENT TITLES USED FOR DATA SHEET
  • Personal Data Sheet
  • Bio-Data Sheet
  • Resume
  • Curriculum Vitae

150
HOW TO PREPARE THE PERSONAL DATA SHEET
  • CONTENT AND LAYOUT OF DATA SHEET
  • A good data sheet helps you make a good
    impression about yourself.
  • A poorly prepared, messy-looking data sheet can
    severely reduce your chances of getting a
    position even though you appear desirable in
    every way.
  • Data sheet should be kept simple and contained in
    one page if possible.
  • Your data sheet must be typed, preferably on a
    good-quality bond paper.

151
  • Duplicated copies are acceptable if they are well
    done.
  • Data Sheet must be neat, clean, and presentable.
  • Careless erasures and misspelled words are
    inexcusable.
  • Keep a copy of your data sheet on file should
    original be lost.
  • Margins should be proportionately equal.
  • Information should be well-arranged and
    presentable to the reader.

152
ORGANIZATION OF DATA SHEET
  • Organize the elements of your data sheet in an
    orderly and meaningful way
  • Attractively arranged data sheet have
    occasionally caught the interest of companies.
  • When you organize your data sheet always
    highlight your strong points in an honest,
    straight-forward fashion.

153
  • You may highlight your extra-curricular
    activities or your work experience related to the
    job you are applying at present.
  • Always remember that in organizing your data
    sheet you must sell your value to a company. To
    do so, you must appeal to the companys interest
    in what you have to offer.
  • List your work experience chronologically,
    beginning with the last job held and ending with
    the earliest.

154
  • Give dates, along with company address and a
    brief description o the work you did.
  • You may also indicate any promotion or
    recognition you received as a result of success
    in a job.
  • Your progress and demonstrated ability mean more
    to an interview as well as to the company.

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EDUCATION
  • Present your educational background with the mist
    recent training listed first.
  • Indicate the name and address of each school
    attended, consecutive years of attendance, dates
    of graduation, and degrees or diplomas received.
  • Include typewriting, shorthand, and transcription
    rates.
  • Statement of honors or recognition received or
    class standing is also appropriate.
  • Indicate all special training in computer or
    other related skills and seminars attended.

156
SPECIAL INTEREST
  • Indicate your special interest and extra
    curricular activities.
  • If you participated in sports or musical
    activities or belong to social organizations,
    include them in your data sheet because they
    speak well for you as a person who gets along
    with others.

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SPECIAL SKILLS
  • Specify the skills you have like
  • Typing indicate your NWAM
  • Stenography indicate your highest rate in
    taking dictation
  • Office machine operation indicate exactly what
    office machines you can operate competently.

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REFERENCES
  • Give at least three reliable references.
  • Every employers prefer that you did list
    reference on your data sheet.
  • Choose references related to your work
    experiences.
  • Your professors or college instruction in your
    field of secretarial training are a good choice.

159
  • However, not all our references should be
    instructors.
  • Never use relatives names in your references
    list.
  • Include all least one reference who can attest to
    your moral values.

160
  • Always give the complete information about your
    reference which include the name, position,
    company name address, telephone number, and other
    related information.

161
THE APPLICATION LETTER
  • An effective application letter should tell the
    prospective employer why an application would
    want to join is organization and it should not
    duplicate the information stated in the resume.

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PURPOSE OF AN APPLICATION LETTER
  • The primary purpose of an application letter is
    to obtain an interview.
  • To accomplish the above objective, the letter and
    the data sheet must function as a sales letter.
    You will sell your qualification to the
    prospective buyer the employer.

163
  • You application letter and data sheet must
    achieve the AIDA principle of sales
  • A Attract attention of the prospective
    employer.
  • I arouse his interest about your skills and
    abilities.
  • D Develop his desire to see you personally
    because you are
  • the person he is seeking to fill the job vacancy
  • A Move him into action to call you for an
    interview.

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APPEARANCE OF AN APPLICATION LETTER
  • Make sure that when the employer opens your
    letter of application it would be create a
    favorable first impression.
  • Use plain-good quality paper

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  • The letter should reflect your neatness, your
    sense of design and composition, and your typing
    ability.
  • Proofread your letter carefully a
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