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Hand%20Tools:%20Measuring%20Tools

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Hand Tools: Measuring Tools Tape Measure Plastic or metal case, appropriate for general scenic measuring Tri Square Used as a guide for marking 90-degree angles – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hand%20Tools:%20Measuring%20Tools


1
Hand Tools Measuring Tools Tape Measure Plastic
or metal case, appropriate for general scenic
measuring Tri Square Used as a guide for marking
90-degree angles
Combination Square Used for marking 45- and
90-degree angles Bevel Protractor Adjustable and
used for marking 0 to 90-degree angles
2
  • Hand Tools Measuring Tools
  • Framing Square
  • Used for checking accuracy of 90-degree corner
    joints in flat construction
  • Bevel Set
  • Used for transferring angles from one piece of
    work to another
  • Carpenters Level
  • Used to determine true horizontal and vertical
    angles

3
  • Hand Tools Marking Tools
  • Pencils
  • Either carpenters pencils or number two yellows
  • china markers used for marking metal
  • wax pencils for lighting color media
  • Scribe
  • Scratch awl Used for marking wood, metal, and
    plastic can also be used to make starter holes
  • Chalk line
  • Used to mark straight lines

4
  • Hand Tools Hammers
  • Claw Hammer
  • Designed for inserting and removing nails
  • Rip Hammer
  • Can be used for prying or ripping apart
    previously nailed wood
  • Ball Peen Hammer
  • Used for bending and shaping metal and seating
    rivets

5
  • Hand Tools Hammers
  • Mechanics Hammer
  • Used for shaping metal
  • Tack Hammer
  • Used for inserting tacks, the face is magnetized
    to hold tacks in place
  • Mallet
  • Wooden, plastic, or metal head, they are used for
    driving chisels

6
  • Hand Tools Cutting Tools
  • Saws
  • Crosscut Saw
  • Used to cut across the grain of wood
  • Rip Saw
  • Designed to cut parallel with the grain of the
    wood
  • Backsaw and Miter Box
  • Fine-toothed crosscut saw, used with the miter
    box for more accurate cuts

7
  • Hand Tools Cutting Tools
  • Saws
  • Keyhole Saw
  • Used for making curvilinear cuts in stock lumber
  • Coping Saw
  • Used for making fine, curvilinear cuts in thin
    plywood
  • Hacksaw
  • Adjustable frame saw for cutting metal

8
  • Hand Tools Cutting Tools
  • Utility Knife
  • Used to trim excess muslin from the edges of
    flats as well as to cut out stencils and other
    lightweight cutting projects
  • Scissors
  • Used to cut papers and fabrics
  • Tin Snips
  • Used to cut thin ferrous and nonferrous strap and
    sheet metals

9
  • Hand Tools Cutting Tools
  • Wood Chisel
  • Used for gouging, paring, or smoothing wood
  • Cold Chisel
  • Used for cutting through, or shearing, mild steel
    and nonferrous metals

10
  • Hand Tools Cutting Tools
  • Planes
  • Block Plane
  • Used to smooth the ends (across the grain) of
    boards
  • Smoothing Plane
  • Applied parallel to the grain of the wood

11
  • Hand Tools Cutting Tools
  • Planes
  • Spoke Shave
  • Pulled across the surface of the work and used to
    soften or round sharp edges
  • Surform Tools
  • Not really a plane or a file, they are pushed
    across the work, cross-grain or parallel

12
  • Hand Tools Cutting Tools
  • Files
  • Wood Rasp
  • Used for rough shaping of wood
  • Wood File
  • Used for smoothing wooden and plastic surfaces

13
  • Hand Tools Cutting Tools
  • Files
  • Rat-Tail File
  • Can be used with wood, plastic, and metal
  • Metal File
  • Has very fine teeth for use on metal

14
  • Hand Tools Drilling Tools
  • Hand Drill
  • Used for making small-diameter holes in wood
  • Brace
  • Used for holes larger than ¼ inch in diameter
  • Push Drill
  • Designed for light usage, it can be useful for
    making starter holes

15
  • Hand Tools Drilling Tools
  • Bits
  • Twist-Drill Bits
  • Designed for use with either wood or metal
  • Wood Bits
  • Designed for use in wood or soft plastic, used
    with power hand drills or drill presses
  • Auger Bits
  • Used with the brace for cutting holes in wood

16
  • Hand Tools Drilling Tools
  • Bits
  • Push-Drill Bits
  • Very sharp points that seem to punch rather than
    drill holes in wood
  • Hole Saws
  • Used to center the saw in the work

17
  • Hand Tools Clamping Tools
  • Carpenters Vice
  • Attached to the edge of a workbench, used for
    holding wood
  • Machinists Vice
  • Used to clamp and hold metal
  • Adjustable Wood Clamp
  • Used in furniture construction

18
  • Hand Tools Clamping Tools
  • Pipe Clamp
  • Used to clamp furniture frames, table tops, and
    similar wide objects together while their glue
    joints dry
  • Belt Clamp
  • Used to clamp irregularly shaped pieces together
  • C Clamp
  • Used for holding work together while the parts
    are being assembled or while glue dries

19
  • Hand Tools Clamping Tools
  • Pliers
  • Slip-Joint Pliers
  • Used for clamping, gripping, bending, cutting
    light wire
  • Long-Nose Pliers
  • Useful for holding small objects in hard-to-reach
    places
  • Adjustable Arc-Joint Pliers
  • Used for holding metal pipe and tubing and other
    similar gripping jobs

20
  • Hand Tools Clamping Tools
  • Pliers
  • Locking Pliers
  • Vise Grip Used to grasp, lock, and hold almost
    any object
  • Diagonal Cutters
  • Used by electricians for cutting soft wire
  • Wire Strippers
  • Used for stripping insulation for electrical
    wires
  • Wire-Crimping Tool
  • Used to pressure-clamp solderless connectors to
    electrical wire

21
  • Hand Tools Clamping Tools
  • Wrenches
  • Open-End Wrench
  • Designed to fit nuts of specific standard or
    metric diameter
  • Box-End Wrench
  • Have a closed, toothed head that must be fit over
    the nut
  • Adjustable-End Wrench
  • Crescent Wrench It adapts to fit any small to
    medium sized nut

22
  • Hand Tools Clamping Tools
  • Wrenches
  • Monkey Wrench
  • Adjustable, used on large nuts and other work too
    large for the crescent wrench
  • Pipe Wrench
  • Used to hold or twist metal pipes
  • Socket Set and Ratchet Handle
  • Allows you to tighten and loosen nuts without
    removing the socket from the nut

23
  • Hand Tools Screwdrivers
  • Standard Screwdriver
  • Available in a variety of sizes
  • Philips Screwdriver
  • Four-flanged tip allows for more rotational force
  • Nut Driver
  • Used for tightening small hex nuts on bolts

24
  • Hand Tools Misc Hand Tools
  • Wrecking bars
  • Used to pry wood apart and remove nails
  • Sandpaper
  • Used for smoothing wood, metal, and plastic
  • Nail puller
  • Used for extracting nails that have been driven
    flush to the wood surface

25
  • Hand Tools Misc Hand Tools
  • Grommet Set
  • Used to seat grommets on drops, stage draperies,
    and the like
  • Oil Stone
  • Used to sharpen knives, chisels, and other
    cutting tools
  • Staple Gun
  • Used for attaching muslin to flat frames and
    fabric to furniture

26
  • Hand Tools Metalworking Hand Tools
  • Anvil
  • Used for bending metal
  • Conduit Bender
  • Used to bend thin-wall conduit
  • Center Punch
  • Used to make small indentations in metal, starter
    holes

27
  • Hand Tools Metalworking Hand Tools
  • Bolt Cutter
  • Used to cut through mild-steel bolts and round
    stock
  • Pipe Cutter
  • Used to make clean, right-angle cuts through
    steel pipe
  • Tap and Dies
  • Used to cut threads on pipe and rod stock

28
  • Power Tools Stationary Power Saws
  • Table Saw
  • Used for ripping lumber
  • Radial-Arm Saw
  • Used for cross cutting and angle cutting, as well
    as for ripping lumber
  • Bandsaw
  • Used to make curvilinear cuts

29
  • Power Tools Power Handsaws
  • Circular Saw
  • Used for straight-line cross cutting and angle
    cutting, as well as ripping
  • Saber Saw
  • Used to make curvilinear cuts
  • Cut Awl
  • Used for making curvilinear cuts and intricate
    cuts

30
  • Power Tools Power Drilling Tools
  • Drill Press
  • Used to polish and sand as well as cut mortise
    and tenon joints for furniture construction
  • Electric Hand Drill
  • Used for light-duty drilling on lumber and light
    metals
  • Heavy-Duty Hand Drill
  • Used for heavier work, such as thick wood, thick
    mild steel, and concrete

31
  • Power Tools Battery-Powered Tools Pneumatic
    Tools
  • Pneumatic Stapler
  • Uses air pressure to drive the staples
  • Pneumatic Nailer
  • Used for rapid assembly of platforms and similar
    structures
  • Impact Wrench
  • Uses air pressure to tighten or loosen nuts

32
  • Power Tools Metalworking Welders
  • Oxyacetylene Welder
  • Combines oxygen and acetylene to produce a very
    hot flame that burns through metal
  • Arc Welder
  • Works by creating an electrical arc that
  • melts the metals being welded
  • Mig Welder
  • An arc welder that focuses a flow of inert gas on
    the welding zone

33
  • Power Tools Metalworking Soldering Equipment
  • Pencil, gun, iron
  • Used to bond wires together
  • Propane Torch
  • Used for soldering most heavy-duty scenic jobs
    and heating thin-gauge steel for bending and
    shaping
  • Power Hacksaw
  • Used to cut through various types of metal stock

34
  • Power Tools Metalworking
  • Cutoff Saw
  • Used to make either straight or angle cuts
    through metal stock
  • Power Pipe Cutter
  • Used for cutting and threading metal pipes

35
  • Power Tools Misc
  • Router
  • Hand-held, used for shaping wood
  • Wood Lathe
  • Bench-mounted, holds and spins wood rapidly for
    shaping and carving
  • Bench Sander
  • Mounted and used to bevel or smooth the surface
    edges of wood and some plastics

36
  • Power Tools Misc
  • Electric Screwdriver
  • Magnetized tip, used with Philips screws for
    assembling flats and platforms
  • Bench Grinder
  • Used for grinding and sharpening metal
  • Hand Power Grinder
  • Used for pieces too heavy or awkward for the
    bench grinder

37
  • Power Tools Misc
  • Hand Power Sander
  • Uses a rotating disk of sandpaper to sand wood,
    metal, and plastic
  • Belt Sander
  • Uses belts of sandpaper for rapid sanding of wood
  • Hot-Melt Glue Gun
  • Used for making rapid-hold glue bonds between
    just about every type of material

38
  • Wood Stock Lumber
  • A Select Free of all knots, blemishes, erratic
    graining and warps
  • B Select Grain can be less uniform and the wood
    can contain more pitch
  • C Select Can have a few tight knots, slightly
    less uniform, and still more pitch

39
  • Wood Stock Lumber
  • D Select Can have more tight knots, an
    occasional pitch pocket, and some warping
  • No. 1 Common Can have knots that fall out
    commonly warp and twist
  • No. 2 Common Knots that fall out, bark on the
    edges, warped and twisted

40
Wood Molding and Trim
41
  • Wood Sheet Stock
  • Plywood
  • Made by laminating several layers of wood, much
    stronger than solid wood
  • Particle Board
  • Composed of wood chips and sawdust mixed with a
    glue binder
  • Heavier than plywood, but not as strong

42
  • Wood Sheet Stock
  • Wafer Board
  • Similar to particle board but lighter, cheaper,
    and just as strong as plywood
  • Hardboard
  • Called Masonite, is manufactured from wood pulp
    and used as a facing surface
  • Upson Board
  • Paper pulp and binder, fairly flexible with
    little strength, used to cover fairly sharply
    curved surfaces

43
  • Wood
  • Sonotube
  • Paper tube used for forming concrete in theatre,
    it can also be used to make columns
  • Manufactured Wood
  • Woodlike construction materials made from wood
    by-products

44
  • Metal Mild Steel
  • Square and Rectangular Tubing
  • The most used and useful shapes of steel, used
  • for platform framing and flat framing
  • Tubing or Pipe
  • Primarily used for decorative items
  • Channel
  • Used in structures requiring significant
    strength, such as the framework for large
    platforms and wagons

45
  • Metal Mild Steel
  • Angle
  • Used in those situations requiring less strength,
    such as lightweight frames, braces, and
    stiffeners
  • Strap
  • Used to strengthen or brace existing wooden
    structures

46
  • Metal Proprietary Structural Systems
  • Unistrut
  • Consists of U-shaped channels of differing sizes
  • Telespar
  • A system of telescoping square steel tubing can
    be adjusted without cutting
  • Slotted Angle
  • Manufactured with a variety of holes and slots
    punched into both faces of the stock
  • Aluminum
  • Not used as extensively as mild steel, more
    expensive and more difficult to weld mainly used
    for decorative purposes

47
  • Plastics
  • Acrylic
  • Used as a glass substitute and for making
    decorative baubles and stained glass
  • Epoxy
  • Most commonly used types are those for adhesives
    and casting resins, can be worked with either
    wood or metal cutting tools
  • Fluorocarbons
  • Teflon, makes an excellent bearing surface for
    turntables and for covering skids

48
  • Plastics Polyesters
  • Saturated Polyesters
  • Have a variety of uses in both scenic and costume
    construction, such as stage mirrors
  • Unsaturated Polyesters
  • Can be used in casting or to create fiberglass

49
  • Plastics
  • Polyethylene
  • Available in film and foam, can be used for such
    things as drop cloths and projection screens
  • Polystyrene
  • Styrofoam, used for making decorative trim
  • Polyvinyl Chloride
  • PVC pipe, can be used for a variety of decorative
    scenic purposes
  • Urethanes
  • Commonly used for cushions and padding in
    furniture

50
  • Fasteners Nails
  • Common Nail
  • Large head, thick shank, used for heavier general
    construction
  • Box Nail
  • Narrower shaft that reduces the chance of
    splitting lumber
  • Coated Box Nail
  • Even narrower shaft, coated with an adhesive that
    bonds the nail to the wood

51
  • Fasteners Nails
  • Finish Nail
  • Slender shaft and narrow head, used for building
    props or furniture in which the nail head needs
    to be hidden
  • Wire Nail and Brad
  • Small finish or box nails with slender shafts,
    used in property construction or for attaching
    delicate decorative moldings to larger scenic
    elements
  • Double-Headed Nail
  • Used for scaffolding or any temporary structure
    that needs to be dismantled quickly

52
  • Fasteners Nails
  • Screw Nail
  • Threaded shank that rotates as it is driven into
    the wood for more holding power
  • Clout Nail
  • Used to be used in flat construction but has
    since been replaced by power-driven screws and
    pneumatic devices
  • Tack
  • Used for attaching fabric and for decorative
    purposes

53
  • Fasteners Nails
  • Corrugated Fastener
  • Used to hold lightweight frames together
  • Staple
  • Come in a variety of types, used to fasten things
    together

54
  • Fasteners Screws
  • Flat-Head Wood Screw
  • Used for attaching hardware and
  • joining various wooden elements together
  • Round-Head Wood Screw
  • Used in those situations in which you do not want
    to have the top of the screw flush with the
    surface of the work
  • Drywall Screw
  • Used to attach gypsum board or drywall to wooden
    wall and ceiling studs

55
  • Fasteners Screws
  • Sheet-Metal Screw
  • Used for joining sheets of metal
  • Lag Screw
  • Very large wood screws used where the lack of
    access to both sides of the work prevents the use
    of bolts

56
  • Fasteners Bolts
  • Carriage Bolt
  • Used to join either wood to wood or wood to metal
  • Machine Bolt
  • Designed to join metal to metal
  • Stove Bolt
  • Used for attaching stage hardware, hinges, and
    similar items that require extra fastening
    strength

57
  • Fasteners
  • Washers
  • Flat-steel disks that increase the bearing
    surface of the nut or bolt and prevents the nut
    or bolt from cutting into the surface of the work
  • Nuts
  • Applied to threaded ends of bolts to close
  • and tighten the fastener

58
  • Glues and Adhesives Glues
  • Animal Glue
  • One of the prime ingredients of scenic glue, used
    to glue muslin or canvas to flats or to construct
    furniture
  • Flexible Glue
  • Animal glue with glycerine, used for projects
    requiring flexibility
  • Wheat Paste
  • Used for hanging wallpaper, papier-mâché, and for
    attaching dutchman

59
  • Glues and Adhesives Adhesives
  • White Glue
  • Elmers Glue, used extensively in scenic
    construction
  • Carpenters Glue
  • Used in woodworking, dries almost clear, is
    stronger and dries more quickly than white glue
  • Latex Cement
  • Used in laying carpet

60
  • Glues and Adhesives Adhesives
  • Contact Cement
  • Used for bonding nonporous surfaces together
  • Polyvinyl Glue
  • Resembles white glue and can be used for
    furniture construction and repair and as a binder
    for scene paint
  • Cyanoacrylate Cement
  • Super Glue, powerful adhesives used in property
    construction
  • Epoxy Resin Adhesive
  • Used in the shop in situations where its strength
    can be an advantage, furniture construction and
    property work

61
  • Hardware Construction Hardware
  • Eye Bolt
  • Used for attaching lines or ropes to an object
  • Screw Eye
  • Similar to eye bolts but used when the extra
    strength or the bolt fastener is not necessary
  • Screw Hook
  • Have a hook instead of an eye so that items hung
    from the hook can be quickly removed

62
  • Hardware Construction Hardware
  • U Bolt
  • Used to secure or fasten pipe, tube, or rod to
    flat surfaces
  • Cable Clamp
  • Used to hand scenery and battens
  • Nicopress Tool
  • Provides a permanent, nonremovable friction clamp
    for wire rope or cable

63
  • Hardware Construction Hardware
  • Thimble
  • Used to protect wire, rope, or cable from sharp
    bends or kinks
  • Turnbuckle
  • Used to lengthen or shorten a line system
  • Snaps
  • Used to provide a quick means of attaching a line
    to its associated load

64
  • Hardware Construction Hardware Hinges
  • Strap Hinge
  • Used to hinge stage doors
  • Butt Hinge
  • Used to hang stage doors
  • T-Strap Hinge
  • Used for hanging doors, gates, and box lids

65
  • Hardware Construction Hardware Hinges
  • Loose-Pin Back-Flap Hinge
  • Used for joining scenery, the pin can be removed
    in
  • order to break the unit apart
  • Tight-Pin Back-Flap Hinge
  • Used for joining scenery permanently

66
  • Hardware Stage Lashing
  • Lash-Line Eye
  • Used to attach the lash line to the flat
  • Lash-Line Cleat
  • Used to hold the rope in place so that the flats
    can be lashed together
  • Lash-Line Hook
  • Used to hold the rope in place so that the flats
    can be
  • lashed together can also be used in place of a
    tie-off cleat

67
  • Hardware Stage Lashing
  • Tie-Off Cleat
  • Used in pairs to tie off the line after the flats
    have been lashed together
  • Stop Cleat
  • Attached to the back of flats to prevent the
    flats from slipping past each other when they are
    being lashed together in an outside corner
    configuration
  • Stop Block
  • Small piece of scrap wood used to prevent flats
    from slipping past each other when they are being
    lashed together in an inside corner configuration

68
  • Hardware Stage Flying Hardware
  • Hanger Iron
  • Used in conjunction with a bottom hanger iron for
    flying heavy scenery
  • Bottom Hanger Iron
  • Used in conjunction with a hanger iron for flying
    heavy scenery
  • Ceiling Plate
  • Bolted to primary structural members of the
    ceiling to provide a means of attaching the
    flying lines to the ceiling

69
  • Hardware Stage Bracing
  • Stage Brace
  • Adjustable pole attached to the brace cleat and
    secured to the stage floor
  • Brace Cleat
  • Attached to the stile of the flat, provides the
    point of attachment between scenery and the stage
    floor
  • Rigid Foot Iron
  • The long leg is attached to the bottom of the
    scenery and the short leg is secured to the stage
    floor

70
  • Hardware Stage Bracing
  • Hinged Foot Iron
  • Similar to the rigid foot iron, its horizontal
    foot is hinged to fold out of the way when the
    scenic unit is shifted or flown
  • Stage Screw
  • Used to anchor a foot iron or stage brace to the
    stage floor
  • Improved Stage Screw
  • Doesnt tear up the stage floor as much as the
    regular stage screw

71
  • Hardware Stage Bracing
  • S Hook
  • Latch keeper, used to hold stiffening battens on
    the back of wall units made of two or more flats
  • Floor Plate
  • Used when the stage floor is not wood or you are
    not allowed to put holes in it

72
  • Hardware Stage Misc
  • Corner Plate
  • Used to reinforce the corners of doors, windows,
    door or window casings, and picture frames
  • Tee Plate
  • Used as a substitute for keystones
  • Picture Hook and Eye
  • Used in sets of two or more for rapid hanging and
    removal of decorative draperies

73
  • Hardware Stage Misc
  • Casket Lock
  • Heavy-duty, hidden lock used to hold platforms
    together
  • Casters
  • Wheeled attachments used
  • to easily move scenery

74
  • Hardware Stage Hardware

75
  • Rope, Cable, and Wire
  • Manila Rope
  • Primary type of rope used for raising and
    suspending loads in the theatre
  • Sisal Rope
  • Much stiffer than manila and easily deteriorates
    when used in sharp angle bending
  • Clothesline
  • Used for operating line on travelers as well as
    for lashing flats together

76
  • Rope, Cable, and Wire
  • Nylon Rope
  • Stretch too much and are too expensive for use in
    the theatre
  • Monofilament Line
  • Fishing line, used whenever lines need to be
    invisible
  • Aircraft Cable
  • Flexible and strong, used for flying heavy stage
    scenery

77
  • Rope, Cable, and Wire Wire
  • Stovepipe Wire
  • Used for tying or wiring things together, not to
    be used for flying scenery
  • Piano Wire
  • Used to fly scenery
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