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B U S I N E S S A N D D E V E L O P M E N T C E N T E R ul. Kurpiowska 5/77, 35-620 Rzesz w, Poland, tel./fax +4817 857 85 25, e-mail:, www ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The%20project:

C E N T E R ul. Kurpiowska 5/77, 35-620
Rzeszów, Poland, tel./fax 4817 857 85 25,
e-mail, www.
Intercultural Training in Poland
The project Exchange of experience and best
practice of intercultural trainings" (INTEREX)
C E N T E R ul. Kurpiowska 5/77, 35-620
Rzeszów, Poland, tel./fax 4817 857 85 25,
e-mail, www.
The Introduction
The Intercultural Training in Poland
  • There are main elements of training

The Interview
The Cultural differences pictures from
countries discussion
The business meeting with international partner
- exercise
The Culture Business. The quiz
Building the bridge instead the walls
Stereotypes exercise The our list of
Group Work What do we know and what dont we
know about different nations
We are going to go to the international meeting
expectations, doubts
The summary of training
The Cultural differences some information
  • Modern day corporate, public and
    nongovern-mental organisations now operate on a
    global scale. Whether you are posted on an
    interna-tional assignment, liaise regularly with
    overseas clients and colleagues or work in an
    internatio-nal environment, the ability to
    communicate effectively across cultures is key to
    your success.

The Cultural differences some information
  • Culture is defined as a system of values and
    beliefs which we share with others, all of which
    gives us a sense of belonging or identity.
  • Each culture exhibits differing value and belief
    systems, which effect how people perceive reality
    and react to it.

The Cultural differences some information
  • Culture (by Steward Hall)
  • To say that two people belong to the same
    culture is to say that they interpret the world
    in roughly the same way and can express
    themselves, their thoughts and feelings about the
    world, in way which will be understood by each
    other. Thus culture depends on its participants
    interpreting meaningfully what is happening
    around them, and making sense of the world, in
    broadly similar ways

The Cultural differences some information
  • In todays global business environment,
    contact with foreign cultures can assume various
    forms. International assignments, cross-border
    negotiations and international teams are just a
    few examples where you may encounter differing
    customs, values and business practices. Such
    international contact will often expose you to
    different working styles and communication
    approaches which, in turn, can lead to the risk
    of misunderstandings and confusion.
  • If we want to avoid misunderstanding and
    confusion well need intercultural learning.

The Intercultural Learning Models of Culture
  • The Iceberg Model of Culture
  • Geert Hofstedes model of cultural dimensions
  • Edward T. and Mildred Reed Halls behavioural
    components of culture
  • Jacques Demorgon and Markus Molzs discussion of

The Intercultural Learning Models of Culture
  • The Iceberg Model of Culture
  • The idea behind this model is that culture can be
    pictured as an iceberg only a very small portion
    of the iceberg can be seen above the water line.
  • We can say similar in culture. There are some
    visible parts architecture, art, cooking, music,
    language, etc. But the powerful foundations of
    culture are more difficult to spot the history
    of the group of people that hold the culture,
    their norms, values, basic assumptions about
    space, nature, time, etc.
  • The iceberg model implies that the visible parts
    of culture are just expressions of its invisible
    parts. It also points out, how difficult it is at
    times to understand people with different
    cultural backgrounds because we may spot the
    visible parts of their iceberg, but we cannot
    immediately see what are the foundations that
    these parts rest upon.

The Intercultural Learning Models of Culture
  • Geert Hofstedes model of cultural dimensions
  • Geert Hofstedes idea about culture is based on
    one of the largest empirical studies done on
    cultural differences in the 1970s, for IBM.
    Hofstede describes culture as the collective
    programming of the mind which distinguishes the
    members of the human group from one another.
  • After several rounds of research, Hofstede
    identified the four dimensions, what he called
  • power distance,
  • individualism/collectivism,
  • masculinity/femininity,
  • uncertainty avoidance.
  • and after some additional research, he added the
    dimension of time orientation.

The Intercultural Learning Models of Culture
  • Edward T. and Mildred Reed Halls behavioural
    components of culture
  • This couple developed their model of culture from
    a very practical point of view They wanted to
    give good advice to US-American businessmen who
    were to travel and work abroad. On the basis of
    their study they developed several dimensions of
    difference. These dimensions were all associated
    with either communication patterns, or with
    space, or time
  • - Fast and Slow Messages,
  • - High and Low Context of information,
  • - Territoriality,
  • - Personal Space,
  • - Monochronic and Polychronic Time.

The Intercultural Learning Models of Culture
  • Jacques Demorgon and Markus Molzs discussion of
  • Demorgon and Molz introduce what we would call a
    model of culture. Culture can only be understood,
    they say, when one connects it with the concept
    of adaptation. Humans are constantly challenged
    to establish a lasting relationship between their
    inner world (needs, ideas, etc.) and the outer
    world (environment, other people, etc.). They do
    this in concrete situations that should form the
    basis for analysis. In all of these situations,
    individuals shape their environment (every person
    can influence what is happening around
    him/herself), and are shaped by their environment
    (every person can change with what is happening
    around him/herself). Both, shaping the
    environment, and being shaped by it, are the two
    sides of the coin adaptation.

The Intercultural Learning Conclusions
  • The intercultural learning is a process.
  • This process demands that you know yourself, and
    where you come from, before being able to
    understand others.
  • It is a challenging process as it involves very
    deeply rooted ideas about what is good and bad,
    about structuring the world and your life.
  • Intercultural learning is a challenge to ones
  • The intercultural learning is essentially about
    learning how to live together, learning how to
    live in a diverse world.

C E N T E R ul. Kurpiowska 5/77, 35-620
Rzeszów, Poland, tel./fax 4817 857 85 25,
e-mail, www.
The pictures from countries
The Intercultural Training in Poland
Based on CIA The World Factbooks
The Austria - FACTS
Background Once the center of power for the
large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was
reduced to a small republic after its defeat in
World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany
in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the
victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status
remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty
signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized
Austria's independence, and forbade unification
with Germany. A constitutional law that same year
declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as
a condition for Soviet military withdrawal.
Following the Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and
Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995,
some Austrian's have called into question this
neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country,
Austria entered the European Monetary Union in
Based on CIA The World Factbooks
The Austria - FACTS
Important Information Location Central
Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia Area
total 83,870 sq km Border countries Czech
Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km,
Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91
km, Slovenia 330 km, Switzerland 164 km
Climate temperate continental, cloudy
Natural resources oil, coal, lignite, timber,
iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony,
magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, Population
8,174,762 (July 2004 est.) Ethnic groups
German 88.5, indigenous minorities 1.5
(includes Croatians, Slovenes, Hungarians,
Czechs, Slovaks, Roma), recent immigrant groups
10 (includes Turks, Bosnians, Serbians,
Croatians) (2001) Religions Roman Catholic
73.6, Protestant 4.7, Muslim 4.2, other 0.1,
none 17.4 Languages German (official
nationwide), Slovene (official in Carinthia),
Croatian (official in Burgenland), Hungarian
(official in Burgenland).
The China - FACTS
Background For centuries China stood as a
leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the
world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th
and early 20th centuries, the country was beset
by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats,
and foreign occupation. After World War II, the
Communists under MAO Zedong established an
autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring
China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over
everyday life and cost the lives of tens of
millions of people. After 1978, his successor
DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on
market-oriented economic development and by 2000
output had quadrupled. For much of the
population, living standards have improved
dramatically and the room for personal choice has
expanded, yet political controls remain tight.
Based on CIA The World Factbooks
The China - FACTS
Important Information Location Eastern Asia,
bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow
Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and
Vietnam Area total 9,596,960 sq km Border
countries Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km,
Burma 2,185 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533
km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos
423 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km,
Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km,
Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km,
Vietnam 1,281 km regional borders Hong Kong 30
km, Macau 0.34 km Climate extremely diverse
tropical in south to subarctic in north Natural
resources coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural
gas, mercury, tin, tungsten,
antimony, manganese,
molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite,
aluminum, lead, zinc,
uranium Population 1,298,847,624 (July 2004
est.) Ethnic groups Han Chinese 91.9,
Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu,
Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities
8.1 Religions Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist,
Muslim 1-2, Christian 3-4 Languages
Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based
on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu
(Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan
(Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects
Based on CIA The World Factbooks
The Iran - FACTS
Background Known as Persia until 1935, Iran
became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the
ruling monarchy was overthrown and the shah was
forced into exile. Conservative clerical forces
established a theocratic system of government
with ultimate political authority nominally
vested in a learned religious scholar. Iranian-US
relations have been strained since a group of
Iranian students seized the US Embassy in Tehran
on 4 November 1979 and held it until 20 January
1981. During 1980-88, Iran fought a bloody,
indecisive war with Iraq that eventually expanded
into the Persian Gulf and led to clashes between
US Navy and Iranian military forces between
1987-1988. Iran has been designated a state
sponsor of terrorism for its activities in
Lebanon and elsewhere in the world and remains
subject to US economic sanctions and export
controls because of its continued involvement.
Based on CIA The World Factbooks
The Iran - FACTS
Important Information Location Middle East,
bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf,
and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan
Area total 1.648 million sq km Border
countries Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km,
Azerbaijan-proper 432 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
exclave 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km,
Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km Climate
mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along
Caspian coast Natural resources petroleum,
natural gas, coal, chromium,
copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur
Population 69,018,924 (July 2004 est.)
Ethnic groups Persian 51, Azeri 24, Gilaki
and Mazandarani 8, Kurd 7, Arab 3, Lur 2,
Baloch 2, Turkmen 2, other 1 Religions
Shi'a Muslim 89, Sunni Muslim 9, Zoroastrian,
Jewish, Christian, and Baha'i 2 Languages
Persian and Persian dialects 58, Turkic and
Turkic dialects 26,Kurdish 9, Luri 2, Balochi
1, Arabic 1, Turkish 1, other 2
Based on CIA The World Factbooks
The Latvia - FACTS
Background After a brief period of independence
between the two World Wars, Latvia was annexed by
the USSR in 1940. It reestablished its
independence in 1991 following the breakup of the
Soviet Union. Although the last Russian troops
left in 1994, the status of the Russian minority
(some 30 of the population) remains of concern
to Moscow. Latvia joined both NATO and the EU in
the spring of 2004.
Based on CIA The World Factbooks
The Latvia - FACTS
Important Information Location Eastern
Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between
Estonia and Lithuania Area total 64,589
sq km Border countries Belarus 141 km, Estonia
339 km, Lithuania 453 km, Russia 217 km
Climate maritime wet, moderate winters
Natural resources peat, limestone, dolomite,
amber, hydropower, wood, arable
land Population 2,306,306 (July 2004 est.)
Ethnic groups Latvian 57.7, Russian 29.6,
Belarusian 4.1, Ukrainian 2.7, Polish 2.5,
Lithuanian 1.4, other 2 (2002) Religions
Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Russian Orthodox
Languages Latvian (official), Lithuanian,
Russian, other
Based on CIA The World Factbooks
The Poland - FACTS
Background Poland is an ancient nation that was
conceived around the middle of the 10th century.
Its golden age occurred in the 16th century.
During the following century, the strengthening
of the gentry and internal disorders weakened the
nation. In a series of agreements between 1772
and 1795, Russia, Prussia, and Austria
partitioned Poland amongst themselves. Poland
regained its independence in 1918 only to be
overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World
War II. It became a Soviet satellite state
following the war, but its government was
comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor
turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the
independent trade union "Solidarity" that over
time became a political force and by 1990 had
swept parliamentary elections and the presidency.
A "shock therapy" program during the early 1990s
enabled the country to transform its economy into
one of the most robust in Central Europe, but
Poland currently suffers low GDP growth and high
unemployment. Solidarity suffered a major defeat
in the 2001 parliamentary elections when it
failed to elect a single deputy to the lower
house of Parliament, and the new leaders of the
Solidarity Trade Union subsequently pledged to
reduce the Trade Union's political role. Poland
joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in
Based on CIA The World Factbooks
The Poland - FACTS
Important Information Location Central
Europe, east of Germany Area total
312,685 sq km Border countries Belarus 407 km,
Czech Republic 658 km, Germany 456 km, Lithuania
91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206 km,
Slovakia 444 km, Ukraine 526 km Climate
temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe
winters with frequent precipitation mild summers
with frequent showers and thundershowers
Population 38,626,349 (July 2004 est.)
Ethnic groups Polish 96.7, German 0.4,
Belarusian 0.1, Ukrainian 0.1, other 2.7
(2002) Religions Roman Catholic 95 (about
75 practicing), Eastern Orthodox, Protestant,
and other 5 Languages Polish
Based on CIA The World Factbooks
The Ukraine - FACTS
Background Ukraine was the center of the first
Slavic state, Kievan Rus, which during the 10th
and 11th centuries was the largest and most
powerful state in Europe. A new Ukrainian state,
the Cossack Hetmanate, was established during the
mid-17th century after an uprising against the
Poles. Despite continuous Muscovite pressure, the
Hetmanate managed to remain autonomous for well
over 100 years. During the latter part of the
18th century, most Ukrainian ethnographic
territory was absorbed by the Russian Empire.
Following the collapse of czarist Russia in 1917,
Ukraine was able to bring about a short-lived
period of independence (1917-1920), but was
reconquered and forced to endure a brutal Soviet
rule that engineered two artificial famines
(1921-22 and 1932-33) in which over 8 million
died. In World War II, German and Soviet armies
were responsible for some 7 to 8 million more
deaths. Although final independence for Ukraine
was achieved in 1991 with the dissolution of the
USSR, democracy remained elusive as the legacy of
state control and endemic corruption stalled
efforts at economic reform, privatization, and
civil liberties. A peaceful mass protest "Orange
Revolution" in the closing months of 2004 forced
the authorites to overturn a rigged presidential
election and to allow a new internationally
monitored vote that swept into power a reformist
slate under Viktor YUSHCHENKO.
Based on CIA The World Factbooks
The Ukraine - FACTS
Important Information Location Eastern
Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between
Poland, Romania, and Moldova in the west and
Russia in the east Area total 603,700
sq km Border countries Belarus 891 km, Hungary
103 km, Moldova 939 km, Poland 526 km, Romania
(south) 169 km, Romania (west) 362 km, Russia
1,576 km, Slovakia 97 km Population
47,732,079 (July 2004 est.) Ethnic groups
Ukrainian 77.8, Russian 17.3, Belarusian 0.6,
Moldovan 0.5, Crimean Tatar 0.5, Bulgarian
0.4, Hungarian 0.3, Romanian 0.3, Polish 0.3,
Jewish 0.2, other 1.8 (2001) Religions
Ukrainian Orthodox - Kiev Patriarchate 19,
Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate 9,
Ukrainian Greek Catholic 6, Ukrainian
Autocephalous Orthodox 1.7, Protestant, Jewish,
none 38 (2004 est.) Languages Ukrainian,
Russian, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian
C E N T E R ul. Kurpiowska 5/77, 35-620
Rzeszów, Poland, tel./fax 4817 857 85 25,
e-mail, www.
The pictures from countries Lets start the
The Intercultural Training in Poland
C E N T E R ul. Kurpiowska 5/77, 35-620
Rzeszów, Poland, tel./fax 4817 857 85 25,
e-mail, www.
The Stereotypes
The Intercultural Training in Poland
The Stereotypes
  • In characteristics of doing business in different
    cultures, it is difficult to avoid creating
  • The descriptions and characteristics attributed
    to different cultures are only a very general and
    rough introduction. They can only provide a very
    broad framework. It is even more important to
    talk with people from these cultures and study in
    more depth to understand the variations and
    nuances that are critical for successful business
    in different cultural settings.

The Stereotypes
  • Here are some samples of dilemma that your
    company/organisation might face
  • 1 Your country believes in gender equality. What
    happens when a woman from your country is treated
    by locals as a second-class citizen, following
    that countrys customs? What obligations does her
    company have to her? How should she respond?
  • 2 Your company has strict rules on receiving
    gifts. However, in the country in which you are
    working, it is customary to exchange gifts.
    Without offending your business partners
    (distributors, suppliers, etc.), what should you
    do? What should your company do?
  • 3 The company overseas subsidiary to which you
    are posted appears to be taking advantage of the
    excess of qualified workers seeking employment
    even though your company provides much sought
    after employment. Your conscience is bothered.
    What should you do? What rights and obligations
    does your company have in such a situation?

The Stereotypes
  • What can we do to avoid stereotypes?

C E N T E R ul. Kurpiowska 5/77, 35-620
Rzeszów, Poland, tel./fax 4817 857 85 25,
e-mail, www.
The CultureBusiness
The Intercultural Training in Poland
Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The CultureBusiness
  • Business practices in China
  • The exchanging of business cards in customary in
    Chinese business culture. One side should be
    printed in English and one in Chinese. You should
    present your card with both hands and with the
    Chinese side facing up. When accepting your
    colleague's card study it carefully before
    placing it on the table, never in the back
    pocket, as this is extremely disrespectful.
  • During negotiations, humbleness and patience is
    the key to success. The Chinese sense of time
    means that they use it knowingly and there is
    always enough.
  • In most cases, initial meetings may be more of a
    social opportunity as oppose to a negotiation
  • An important element before commencing a business
    meeting in China is to engage in small talk. Be
    prepared, as this may include quite personal

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The CultureBusiness
  • CHINA (Part two)
  • Chinese business etiquette (Do's and Don'ts)
  • DO maintain eye contact with your interlocutor,
    avoiding eye contact is considered untrustworthy.
  • DO address your Chinese counterparts with a title
    and their last name. If the person does not have
    a title, use Mr' or Madam'.
  • DO wait for your Chinese counterpart to initiate
    formal greetings. Handshakes are the most popular
  • DON'T assume that a nod is a sign of agreement.
    More often than not, it signifies that the person
    is simply listening.
  • DON'T show excessive emotion whilst conducting
    business, as it may seem unfriendly
  • DON'T use direct negative replies, as they are
    considered impolite. Instead of saying no',
    answer maybe' or I'll think about it.

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The CultureBusiness
  • Business practices in India
  • Meetings in India will generally begin with
    friendly small talk. This may include personal
    questions about your family and is seen as a way
    of building rapport and trust before business. In
    India, the family unit is highly valued,
    therefore showing interest and respect towards
    your Indian counterpart's family is vital for
    establishing successful relationships.
  • In Indian culture disagreement is rarely
    expressed in a direct manner. The word no' is
    often avoided and is replaced by other non-verbal
    cues and indirect communication.

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The CultureBusiness
  • Indian business etiquette (Do's and Don'ts)
  • DO use titles wherever possible, such as
    Professor or Doctor. If your Indian
    counterpart does not have a title, use Mr,
    Mrs, or Miss.
  • DO wait for a female business colleague to
    initiate the greeting. Indian men do not
    generally shake hands with women out of respect.
  • DO remain polite and honest at all times in order
    to prove that your objectives are sincere.
  • DON'T be aggressive in your business negotiations
    it can show disrespect.
  • DON'T take large or expensive gifts as this may
    cause embarrassment. If you do take a gift make
    sure you present the gift with both hands.
  • DON'T refuse any food or drink offered to you
    during business meetings as this may cause
    offence. In addition, it is useful to bear in
    mind that traditionally, Indians are vegetarians
    and do not drink alcohol

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The CultureBusiness
  • Business practices in Japan
  • Business in Japan cannot begin until the exchange
    of business cards or meishi' has been completed.
    Use both hands to present your card, which should
    be printed in both languages. On receiving your
    counterpart's business card make a show of
    examining it carefully before placing it on the
    table. It is important to deal with another's
    business card with care.
  • A significant part of former Japanese business
    protocol was gift giving. In contemporary
    Japanese business culture, although not expected,
    the gesture is still practiced and will be
    accepted with gratitude. However, be careful not
    to take too big a gift as it may be regarded as a
  • It is good business practice to engage in small
    talk before negotiations. Expect your Japanese
    counterpart to ask questions regarding your
    education, family and social life. More private
    questions are not acceptable.
  • In Japanese business protocol contracts are not
    necessarily final agreements or a sign that
    business in over. In Japan, looking after
    partners or clients even after business is very
    important. Aftercare and long-term relationships
    are positively encouraged.

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The CultureBusiness
  • Japanese business etiquette (Do's and Don'ts)
  • DO use apologies where the intention is serious
    and express gratitude frequently as it is
    considered polite in Japan.
  • DO avoid confrontation or showing negative
    emotions during business negations. Express
    opinions openly but evade direct or aggressive
  • DO greet your counterparts with the proper
    respect and politeness. If your counterpart bows
    make sure you return the gesture, which is
    usually performed shortly and shallowly. More
    often than not, a handshake is sufficient.
  • DON'T give excessive praise or encouragement to a
    single Japanese colleague in front of others.
    Remember that the group is often more important
    than the individual.
  • DON'T address your Japanese counterpart by their
    first name unless invited to do so. Use the
    titles Mr' or Mrs' or add san' to their family
    name for example, Mr Hiroshima will be
    Hiroshima san
  • DON'T use large hand gestures, unusual facial
    expressions or dramatic movements. The Japanese
    do not talk with their hands.

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The CultureBusiness
  • Business practices in Russia
  • Business cards are essential. If possible, ensure
    that one side is printed in Russian and one side
    in English.
  • Presentations should be straightforward and
  • Although many principal concerns are discussed in
    an informal environment final negotiations will
    be conducted in the office.
  • Generally, when beginning a meeting, the head of
    the organisation will open the discussion and
    introductions should then be made in order of

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The CultureBusiness
  • Russian business etiquette (Do's and Don'ts)
  • DO shake hands firmly when greeting and leaving
    your Russian partners and make direct eye
  • DO partake in small talk, which normally involves
    talk of family and personal matters, before
    dealing with business.
  • DO take a gift that symbolizes the stature of
    your company and the importance of the impending
    business deal, preferably an item characteristic
    of your local area or one that displays the
    company logo.
  • DON'T be afraid to show some emotion, the
    Russians won't!
  • DON'T as the Russian proverb states hurry to
    reply', but hurry to listen'.
  • DON'T praise or reward anyone in public as it may
    be viewed with suspicion or cause envy and
    jealousy. Remember the collective rules over the

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The CultureBusiness
  • Business practices in France
  • In French business culture it is customary to
    only use first names when invited to do so.
    Sometimes the French will introduce themselves by
    saying their surname first, followed by their
    Christian name.
  • Lunch is the best place to forge business
    relationships in France. The subject of business,
    however, should only be brought up by the host
    and at a later stage in the meal.
  • A business meeting should begin and end with a
    brisk handshake accompanied by an appropriate
    greeting and the exchanging of business cards.
  • Despite the formality of French business culture,
    it is not uncommon practice to stray from the
    agenda during meetings. Initial meetings are
    often dedicated to information sharing and
    discussion, rather than reaching final decisions.

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The CultureBusiness
  • Business etiquette (Dos and Donts)
  • DO maintain a constant air of formality and
    reserve during all business practices and at all
    levels within the business, using titles wherever
  • DO make direct but moderate eye contact with your
    French business colleagues.
  • DO try to learn a few basic French phrases and
    use them whenever possible. Your efforts will not
    go unnoticed.
  • DONT discuss your family or other personal
    matters during negotiations.
  • DONT be put off by frequent differences in
    opinion and rigorous debate during business
    negotiations. The French will appreciate your
    ability to defend your position.
  • DONT rush or display signs of impatience with
    your French counterparts. The French take their
    time before arriving at a decision.

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The CultureBusiness
  • Business practices in the UK
  • Business meetings in the UK are often structured
    but not too formal and begin and end with social
  • First names are used almost immediately with all
    colleagues. Exceptions are very senior managers.
    However, you should always wait to be invited to
    use first names before doing so yourself.
  • Business cards are an essential prop and are
    usually exchanged.
  • Negotiations and decisions are usually open and
    flexible. Your British counterparts will favour a
    win/win approach.

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The CultureBusiness
  • British business etiquette (Do's and Don'ts)
  • DO respect personal space. The British value
    their space and keeping an acceptable distance is
  • DO remember to shake hands on first meetings. It
    is considered polite to do so.
  • DO make direct eye-contact with your British
    counterpart, however remember to keep it to a
    minimum or it could be considered impolite or
  • DON'T ask personal questions regarding your
    British counterpart's background, occupation or
  • DON'T underestimate the importance of humour in
    all aspects of business in the UK.
  • DON'T forget that instructions are often
    disguised as polite requests.

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The CultureBusiness
  • Business practices
  • First names are generally only used with family
    and close friends and colleagues. Therefore,
    always use last names and appropriate titles. You
    will often find that colleagues who have worked
    together for years still maintain this level of
  • Business meetings follow a formal procedure.
    German managers work from precise and detailed
    agendas, which are usually followed rigorously
    moreover, meetings always aim for decisive
    outcomes and results, rather than providing a
    forum for open and general discussion.
  • German business protocol requires that colleagues
    should be greeted with a firm, but brief,
    handshake on both arrival and departure.
  • In German business dealings, it is important to
    provide solid facts and examples to back up
    proposals, given the German preference for
    analytical thinking and rational explanations.

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The CultureBusiness
  • Business Etiquette (Dos and Donts)
  • DO take plenty of business cards with you and
    ensure they include full details of your
    background, qualifications, and titles.
  • DO maintain direct eye-contact when addressing
    German colleagues, especially during initial
  • DO use the formal version of you (Sie), unless
    someone specifically invites you to use the
    informal Du form. It is usually best to let
    your German counterpart take the initiative of
    proposing the informal form of address (this
    implies readiness to develop a personal
  • DONT discuss personal matters during business
    negotiations, as this is considered to deviate
    from the task at hand.
  • DONT attempt to continue negotiations after a
    contract has been signed. Your German colleagues
    may view this with suspicion, which could lead to
    an unsuccessful business agreement.
  • DONT use exaggerated or indirect communication
    styles during business meetings with you German
    counterparts. It creates an impression of
    insincerity and dishonesty.

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The CultureBusiness
  • Business practices
  • The decision-making process in Spain is usually
    unhurried and can be a gradual, detailed
    procedure that involves consideration from
    various levels within the company. In this
    respect, maintaining good relationships with your
    Spanish counterparts from all positions are vital
    for success.
  • When arriving at an appointment it is advised to
    present your business card to the receptionist.
    Wherever possible, business cards should be
    printed in English on one side and in Spanish on
    the other. You should present your card with the
    Spanish side facing the recipient.
  • An initial introduction at both business and
    social meetings generally include a formal
    handshake whilst making direct eye contact and is
    extended to everyone present, male and female.

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The CultureBusiness
  • Business etiquette (Do's and Don'ts)
  • DO remain patient in all dealings with your
    Spanish counterparts. The Spanish are sometimes
    noted for their relaxed approach to business and
    Spanish bureaucracy can be frustrating. However,
    be wary of the mañana' stereotype as you will
    find that certainly in the northern regions such
    as Catalonia and the Basque Country that
    deadlines and punctuality are much more closely
    adhered to.
  • DO try to maintain a friendly and personal
    atmosphere during negotiations. In order to be
    effective in Spain, Spanish business culture also
    requires a sense of self-dignity, consideration
    and diplomacy.
  • DON'T expect to enter into business discussions
    at the start of a meeting. Your Spanish
    colleagues will want to establish a familiar
    environment on which to build new business
    relationships. This may include asking personal
    questions regarding your family life and
  • DON'T presume that business can be explicitly
    discussed over meals, it is generally considered
    a sociable activity and therefore you should wait
    until your Spanish colleagues initiate such
  • DON'T display signs of over assertiveness or
    superiority. Your Spanish counterparts will
    appreciate a more modest approach to business

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The CultureBusiness
  • Business practices in the United States
  • It is customary to begin and end business
    meetings with a brief but firm handshake.
    Maintaining direct eye contact during this
    initial greeting and whenever in conversation is
    also essential, as it demonstrates to your
    American colleagues your interest and sincerity.
  • The exchanging of business cards is a casual
    affair in the US and as such demands no clear
    ritual or set of rules. Americans regard business
    cards as a resource for future information. On
    the occasions when they are exchanged, it may be
    done either during introductions or when leaving.
  • During negotiations, it is important to remember
    that the aim of most business discussions in the
    US is to arrive at a signed contract. Americans
    consider negotiations as problem-solving
    situations based on mutual benefit and personal
    strengths. Subsequently, emphasis is placed on
    ones financial position and business power.
  • When doing business in the US, you will be
    expected to adhere to rules and guidelines that
    your US business counterparts must also follow.
    Company policy and business procedures such as
    legally binding contracts, are aspects of
    American business culture that require strict

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The CultureBusiness
  • American business etiquette (Do's and Don'ts)
  • DO address your American business colleagues with
    a title, such as Dr, Ms, Mr, or Mrs, and
    their last name when meeting someone for the
    first time. You may find that, your American
    counterparts will insist on using first names
    almost immediately this is not a sign of
    familiarity but simply reflects the casual
    business style of Americans and their emphasis on
  • DO say please and thank you to everyone for
    even the smallest kindness. Politeness is highly
    valued in the United States and Americans will
    expect you to be as polite as they are.
  • DO be prepared to partake in preliminary small
    talk with your American counterparts at the
    beginning of a business meeting. This will often
    include topics such as sport or the weather and
    is seen as a way to lessen apprehension and
    create a comfortable environment before entering
    into business affairs.
  • DONT expect all companies to be the same.
    Business culture in the US differs from company
    to company on many levels, including industry,
    region and business structure. It is advised to
    research as much as possible about the individual
    business culture of your American associates
    before meeting with them.
  • DONT make any other form of physical contact
    such as hugging when greeting your American
    counterpart for the first time. Americans respect
    their privacy and personal space.
  • DONT be offended or surprised if your American
    colleagues cannot accept a gift. Gift giving is
    often discouraged or limited by many US companies
    and therefore most employees are unable to accept

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The Culture quiz
  • Answers
  • False. He is simply asking you how you are and
    enquiring after your health.
  • False. This is a symbol of death used at funerals
    and should never be done.
  • True.
  • True.
  • False. You are expected to leave before them.

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The Culture quiz
  • Answers
  • False. It is a visual way to communicate to the
    speaker that you understand what they are saying
    or that you agree with him.
  • True.
  • False. It is customary to greet the oldest
    members first as a sign of respect.
  • True.
  • False. The correct way is to hold your hands
    together below your chin, nod or bow slightly,
    and say namaste". However, handshakes are also
    appropriate in contemporary Indian culture.

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The Culture quiz
  • Answers
  • False. The most senior member of the team
    generally enters the room first, followed by his
    subordinates in order of rank. The least senior
    member will sit closest to the door.
  • True.
  • False. Silence is often used as part of the
    thought process and is never thought of as
  • True. It is generally used when it is not known
    what feelings to express.
  • True. It is a positive sign that you are enjoying

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The Culture quiz
  • Answers
  • False. It is considered bad luck to shake hands
    over a threshold and should be done either inside
    or outside.
  • True. Even numbers of flowers are only given at
    funerals and are a sign of bad luck.
  • True. A Russian superstition that is still
    present today.
  • True.
  • False. The Western sign for OK' is considered
    rude in Russia.

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The Culture quiz
  • Answers
  • True.
  • False. A French host will be expected to
    carefully choose the wine to match the meal.
  • False. Interrupting is a sign that you are
    interested in what your business colleagues have
    to say.
  • True.
  • False. Leaving food on your plate is considered

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The Culture quiz
  • Answers
  • True. It is important to respect rank in the UK.
  • False. Asking about another's salary in the UK is
    particularly offensive and should never be done.
  • True.
  • False. Never arrive early. It is advised to
    arrive 10-20 minutes after the stated time when
    visiting someone's home.
  • True.

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The Culture quiz
  • Answers
  • True
  • True.
  • False. It is customary for everyone to wait until
    the host has drunk first.
  • True.
  • False. You will generally find that Germans are
    very private people and will therefore keep their
    office doors closed.

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The Culture quiz
  • Answers
  • False. Employees from varying levels within a
    company rarely mix during business lunches.
  • True.
  • True.
  • True.
  • False. In Spain, gifts are not normally exchanged
    at business meetings. However, if they are given,
    it is usually only after the successful
    completion of a deal.

Based on Intercultural Communication by Jodie
R. Gorrill, M.A.
The Culture quiz
  • Answers
  • True.
  • True.
  • False. Building company as oppose to personal
    relationships and getting the best deal are
    valued higher in American business culture.
  • True
  • False. This gesture is often used to show
    camaraderie, appreciation or praise in America
    and as such should be taken as a compliment.

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