Carbohydrate - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Carbohydrate

Description:

Carbohydrates and Diabetes Type I vs. Type II Diabetes Carbohydrates role in blood glucose Glycemic Index Glycemic Index Factors Influencing GI Carbohydrates and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:403
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 54
Provided by: RobertH107
Learn more at: http://aulanni.lecture.ub.ac.id
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Carbohydrate


1
Carbohydrate
  • Aulanniam
  • Laboratory of Biochemistry
  • Brawijaya University

2
Six Classes of Nutrients
  1. Carbohydrate
  2. Protein
  3. Fat
  4. Vitamins
  5. Minerals
  6. Water

3
Carbohydrates and Relation to Health
  • Dietary fiber and prevention of chronic diseases
  • Carbohydrates and dental health
  • Carbohydrates and diabetes
  • Carbohydrates and weight loss???

4
Carbohydrates and Prevention of Chronic
DiseasesHealth Benefits of Fiber
  • Reduce the risk of
  • Heart disease
  • Diabetes
  • Diverticular disease (gastrointestinal / GI)
  • Other
  • Relieves Constipation
  • Hemorrhoids
  • Lowers the GI/GL
  • Makes you feel full

5
Complex Carbohydrates
  • Starch
  • digestible plant polysaccharide
  • Fiber
  • indigestible polysaccharide residues of food
  • Cannot be broken down by human digestive enzymes
  • some broken down by bacteria in the digestive
    tract
  • few, if any, calories because not digested
  • Examples cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, gums

Polysaccharide long chain of 10 or more glucose
molecules linked together the chains can be
straight or branched another term for complex
carbohydrates
6
Dietary Fiber
  • Components of the cell walls of plants
  • cereal grains, fruits, vegetables
  • Polymer of monosaccharides
  • Human digestive enzymes cannot break down
  • Cellulose 3000 glucose

7
Dietary Fiber - Two groups
  • Insoluble
  • fibers that mostly do not dissolve in water
  • not digested by bacteria in the large intestine
  • Soluble
  • fibers that either dissolve or swell in water or
  • are metabolized by bacteria in the large
    intestines

8
Fiber Sources
Soluble Fiber - Heart Insoluble Fiber GI tract
? Oatmeal ? Nuts and seeds ? Legumes dried peas beans ? Fruits apples pears ? Whole grains ? Wheat bran ? Vegetables carrots celery
9
Degree of polymerization
  • Monosaccharides
  • Storage, energy modules, metabolic intermediates
  • Disaccharides, trisaccharides
  • Storage
  • Oligosaccharides
  • Molecular Recognition
  • Polysaccharides
  • Structure, storage

10
Fisher Projectionsof chiral monosaccharides
  • Next-to-bottom carbon hydroxyl extends to the
    right --- a D sugar cf. with L amino acid

11
fig 9-3a
12
fig 9-3b
13
Hemiacetal/-ketal structures of monosaccharides
  • Reaction of an aldehyde or ketone with an alcohol
  • favorable intramolecular reaction

14
fig 9-5
15
Intramolecular hemiacetals/ketals of
monosaccharides are RINGS
stereo
chair
open chain
Haworth
16
Anomers
  • Sugars that vary in configuration about the
    anomeric (aldehydic or ketonic) carbon
  • Convention ? hydroxyl down,
  • ? hydroxyl up

17
fig 9-6
18
Fig 9-7
19
Hexose derivatives
  • Amino sugars
  • Acetamido sugars
  • Deoxy sugars
  • Fucose, rhamnose, abequose
  • Other glycosidic additives
  • Lactic acid
  • Oxidized sugars
  • Sugar phosphates

20
Fig 9-9
21
Reducing sugars
  • Aldehydes are oxidized by mild agents
  • Cu2 aldehyde (or ?-hydroxyketone) ? Cu
    acid
  • Disaccharides react more slowly

22
Fig 9-10
23
Disaccharides
  • Glycosidic linkage
  • Acetal (or ketal) formed. 2nd monosaccharide
    acts as an alcohol

24
Fig 9-5 (repeat)
25
  • Reducing
  • one anomeric C not glycosidically linked
  • Nonreducing
  • Both anomeric Cs linked (fructose, trehalose)

26
Disaccharide nomenclature
  • Nonreducing end on left
  • Linkage (n?m)-
  • Reducing end
  • Note that nonreducing end configuration is fixed
  • Reducing end can mutarotate, thus 1st component
    given as ?- or ?-, 2nd ambiguous (next slide)

27
Fig 9-11
28
Table 9-1
29
Important disaccharides
  • Maltose
  • Lactose
  • Sucrose
  • Trehalose

30
Fig 9-12
31
Table 9-2
32
Storage polysaccharides
  • Plants
  • Starch
  • Amylose llinear polyglucose, ?-1,4 linked
    (?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-), M 106
  • Amylopectin polyglucose, ?-1,4 linked, ?-1,6
    branched 1 per 24-30, M 108
  • Animals
  • Glycogen
  • polyglucose, ?-1,4 linked, ?-1,6 branched 1 per
    24-30, M 106

33
Fig 9-15 b
34
Fig 9-14
0.10 ?m
1.0 ?m
35
fig 9-15
36
Structural Polysaccharides
  • Plants
  • Cellulose linear polyglucose
  • ? 1,4 linked
  • M 106
  • Certain exoskeletons
  • Chitin linear poly(N-acetyl-D-glucosamine)
  • ? 1,4 linked

37
Fig 9-17a and 9-18
Cellulose
Chitin
38
Structural polysaccharides, cont
  • Bacterial cell walls peptidoglycans
  • Extracellular matrix of multicellular animals -
    glycosaminoglycans

39
Fig 9-19
40
Fig 9-20
41
Sugar-protein and sugar-lipid conjugates
  • Glycoconjugates
  • Proteoglycans
  • Glycosaminoglycans bound to proteins
  • Glycoproteins
  • Oligosaccharides bound to proteins
  • Glycolipids
  • Oligosaccharides bound to lipids (heads of
    membrane lipids)

42
Fig 9-29
43
Fig 9-27
44
2. Carbohydrates and Dental HealthDental Caries
(Cavities)
Cavities
Bacterial Sugars
  • MECHANISM
  • Bacterial acid dissolves enamel
  • Carbohydrate serves as food for bacteria
  • Plaque on teeth sugars stay in but acids dont
    go out
  • CARIOGENIC FOOD FACTORS
  • Fermentable contains sugars
  • Sticky
  • Stays in mouth a long time (think taffy)

45
3. Carbohydrates and Diabetes
  • Diabetes An inability to regulate blood glucose
    levels
  • A disease in which an individual does not produce
    or properly use insulin
  • Results in
  • abnormally high levels of glucose in blood
  • Because of
  • lack or ineffectiveness of insulin
  • hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches
    and other food into energy needed for daily life
  • the true cause continues to be a mystery,
  • although both genetics and environmental factors
  • such as obesity and lack of exercise play roles

46
Type I vs. Type II Diabetes
Type 1 Insulin Dependent
Type 2 Non- Insulin Dependent
Incidence
  • 5-10 of cases
  • Pancreas unable to make insulin to meet needs
  • Genetic predisposition environmental factors
  • Insulin injections
  • Dietary Intervention
  • Reduce the amount of simple sugars
  • Eat foods w/ dietary fiber
  • Person will lose weight
  • 90-95 of cases
  • Maybe insufficient insulin or cells maybe
    unresponsive to insulin
  • Genetic predisposition obesity
  • Dietary intervention
  • Weight loss intervention
  • Person is always hungry
  • Increase in obesity

Insulin
Risk factor
Treatment
47
Carbohydrates role in blood glucose
Glycemic Index
  • A numerical system
  • Measures extent of rise in circulating blood
    sugar a carbohydrate triggers
  • GI number, blood sugar response

48
Glycemic Index
  • estimate of how quickly food affects your blood
    sugar

49
Glycemic Index
  • High GI gt 70 potatoes, white bread
  • Low GI lt 55 pasta, whole grain bread
  • Not just about individual foods
  • its about our diet

50
Factors Influencing GI
  1. Biochemical structure of the carbohydrate
  2. Absorption process
  3. Size of the food particle
  4. Contents and timing of the previous meal
  5. Co-ingestion of fat, fiber, or protein

51
Carbohydrates and Weight Loss??
  • Low carb diets
  • Diet and low calorie foods

52
http//www.sigmaaldrich.com/img/assets/ 4202/sigma
_metabolic_path-new.pdf
53
(No Transcript)
About PowerShow.com