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Indian Politics

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Indian Politics Nehru Dynasty 1947-1996 Years of Competition 1996-present Two Party System? Two Half Parties? Regional parties? * * * * * * * This explains, in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Indian Politics


1
Indian Politics
  • Nehru Dynasty 1947-1996
  • Years of Competition 1996-present
  • Two Party System?
  • Two Half Parties?
  • Regional parties?

2
1. Nehru Dynasty
  • Jawaharlal Nehru Indira Gandhi Rajiv
    Gandhi
  • 1947-1964 1966-1977 1984-1989
  • 1980-1984

3
Congress Party
  • Manmohan Singh Sonja Gandhi Rahul Gandhi
  • PM President General Secretary
  • of the Party (one of nine)

4
Congress Ideology
  • Secularism
  • Socialist economics 1947-1991
  • Economic Reform 1991-present
  • Manifesto for 2009 elections

5
Congress Dominates
Election Year Seats for Congress Seats for Second Largest Party
1952 364 16
1957 371 27
1962 361 29
1967 283 44
1971 352 44
1977 (lost power) 154 298 (Janata Party alliance)
1980 353 35
1984 415 30
1989 (lost power) 197 143
1991 (formed coalition) 226 120
6
Indira Gandhi
7
Congress (I)
8
Congress after Indira Gandhi
  • 1984-1989 1991-1996
  • Rajiv Gandhi P. V. N. Rao

9
2. Years of Competition
  • Factors
  • End of Nehru Dynasty
  • Economic reform
  • Corruption in Congress
  • Rise of regional, religious, caste-based parties

10
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
  • Hindutva (Hindu Nationalism)
  • RSS (Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh)

1984 2
1989 88
1991 120
1996 160
1998 176
1999 182
11
Others
  • Leftist parties
  • Communist Party of India (Marxist)
  • Regional parties
  • AIADMK (All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhigam)
    regional party of Tamil Nadu state
  • Janata Dal (Secular) (Karnataka, Kerala)
  • Telugu Desam Party (Andrha Pradesh)
  • Samajwadi Party (Uttar Pradesh)
  • Caste-based Parties
  • Bahujan Samaj Party

12
Why Did Congress Party Lose its Appeal?
  • Nehru Dynasty over
  • Corruption
  • 1991 Economic Reforms

13
1947-1991Socialist Economic Policy
  • Nationalization
  • National Planning Commission 1950
  • Five Year Plans
  • Hindu Rate of Growth -- 3.2

14
1990s Economic Crisis
15
Political-Military Crisis 1989-90
16
The Reforms
  • Open up economy to foreign investment
  • Privatization
  • Ending government control of economy
  • Reduce government regulation
  • Export Processing Zones
  • Architect of reforms
  • Finance Minister
  • Manmohan Singh

17
Economic Results (from BBC News China and
India, Key Facts http//news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/s
pl/hi/guides/456900/456964/html/nn3page1.stma)
18
Political Results
  • 1996 Election

Party 1991 Seats 1996 Seats
Congress 225 136
BJP 119 160
19
BJP Constituency
  • Elites who benefit from government policy
  • Government employees
  • Business protected by the government
  • Poor who live off government assistance
  • Anti-affirmative action groups
  • Hindu nationalists

20
1996 Election
  • Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 160
  • Congress Party 136
  • National Front 110
  • National Front forms government

21
1998
  • BJP forms government
  • National Democratic Alliance (15 parties)
  • PM A. B. Vajpayee 1998-2004
  • Indian nuclear tests
  • May 1998

22
1998 Election
  • BJP 176
  • Congress Party 140
  • United Front 97

23
21st Century Congress Regroups
  • Sonia Gandhi

24
1999 Election
  • BJP 182
  • Congress Party 112
  • BJP/NDA remains in power

25
2004 Election
  • BJP/NDA
  • India Shining
  • vs.
  • Congress/United Progressive Alliance (UPA)
  • It is a contest between the Congressand the BJP
    that is systematically undermining the very
    essence of Indian civilization and destroying the
    very idea of India.
  • 2004 Election Manifesto

26
2004 Election
  • BJP 138
  • Congress Party 145 (UPA 219)
  • Left Parties 56
  • UPA and Leftist parties form coalition
  • PM Manmohan Singh

27
2009 Election
  • BJP 116
  • Congress Party 206
  • UPA retains power
  • PM Manmohan Singh

28
Challenges and Developments
  1. Two parties or Two Half Parties
  2. Regional parties
  3. Can Congress get beyond the Dynasty?

29
1. Two parties or Two Half Parties?
  • 272 (273) the magic number!
  • Stability?

Party Congress BJP
1991 226 119
1996 136 160
1998 140 176
1999 112 182
2004 145 138
2009 206 116
30
2. Regional Parties
  • 2009 Lok Sabha
  • 2 National parties
  • 1 semi-national party (CPI-M) with seats in four
    states
  • 39 Regional parties

31
3. Congress and the Nehru Dynasty
32
  • Liberhan Commission Report
  • Narendra Modi
  • Chief Minister of Gujarat
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