METHODS OF FERTILIZER APPLICATION - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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METHODS OF FERTILIZER APPLICATION

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Methods of fertilizer application Methods of fertilizer application Sucker treatment Sucker treatment is a most common method adopted for all types of inoculants. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: METHODS OF FERTILIZER APPLICATION


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Importance of Fertilizers application
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FERTILIZER USE EFFICIENCY
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FERTILIZER USE EFFICIENCY
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FERTILIZER USE EFFICIENCY
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FERTILIZER USE EFFICIENCY
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FERTILIZER USE EFFICIENCY
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FERTILIZER USE EFFICIENCY
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Fertilizers application based on
  • The relative efficiencies of the various methods
    depends on many factors.
  • Broadcast application may be less effective than
    banded or seed row application under some
    conditions.
  • Fertilizer placed in the seed row can delay or
    severely reduce crop emergence.

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  • The maximum rate that can be safely placed in the
    seed row depends on
  • Crop type
  • Soil moisture
  • Soil type (clay and organic matter content)
  • Type of fertilizer
  • Row spacing and
  • Spread of seed and fertilizer (type of opener)

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  • LCC is an ideal tool to optimize N use at high
    yield levels, irrespective of the source of N
    applied, viz., organic manure, biologically fixed
    N, or chemical fertilizers.
  • Thus, it is an eco-friendly tool in the hands of
    farmers. Now, it is manufactured with 4 colors
    called Four Panel LCC 6 colors called Six Panel
    LCC.
  • Moreover, LCC is provided with water-proof
    laminated instruction sticker in the required
    regional language.

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Four Panel Leaf Color Chart
Six Panel Leaf Color Chart
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Purpose of Using LCC 
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Advantages of using LCC
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a) Broadcasting In generally banana crops broad
casting methods are not followed . b)
Placement It refers to the placement of
fertilizers in soil at a specific place with or
without reference to the position of the seed.
Placement of fertilizers is normally recommended
when the quantity of fertilizers to apply is
small, development of the root system is poor,
soil have a low level of fertility and to apply
phosphatic and potassic fertilizer.  
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iii) Localized placement It refers to the
application of fertilizers into the soil close to
the seed or plant in order to supply the
nutrients in adequate amounts to the roots of
growing plants. The common methods to place
fertilizers close to the seed or plant are as
follows
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  • a) Drilling
  • In this method, the fertilizer is applied at
    the time of sowing by means of a
    seed-cum-fertilizer drill.
  • This places fertilizer and the seed in the
    same row but at different depths.
  • Although this method has been found suitable
    for the application of Phosphotic and Potassic
    fertilizers in cereal crops, but sometimes
    germination of seeds and young plants may get
    damaged due to higher concentration of soluble
    salts.

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  • b) Side dressing
  • It refers to the spread of fertilizer in between
    the rows and around the plants. The common
    methods of side-dressing are
  • Placement of nitrogenous fertilizers by hand in
    between the rows of crops like maize, sugarcane,
    cotton etc., to apply additional doses of
    nitrogen to the growing crops and
  • Placement of fertilizers around the trees like
    mango, apple, grapes, papaya etc.

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  • c) Band placement
  • If refers to the placement of fertilizer in
    bands.
  • Band placement is of two types.
  • i) Hill placement
  • It is practiced for the application of
    fertilizers in orchards. In this method,
    fertilizers are placed close to the plant in
    bands on one or both sides of the plant.
  • The length and depth of the band varies with the
    nature of the crop.

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  • ii) Row placement
  • When the crops like sugarcane, potato, maize,
    cereals etc., are sown close together in rows,
    the fertilizer is applied in continuous bands on
    one or both sides of the row, which is known as
    row placement.
  • d) Pellet application
  • It refers to the placement of nitrogenous
    fertilizer in the form of pellets 2.5 to 5 cm
    deep between the rows of the paddy crop.
  • The fertilizer is mixed with the soil in the
    ratio of 110 and made small pellets of
    convenient size to deposit in the mud of paddy
    fields.

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Advantages of placement of fertilizers
  • When the fertilizer is placed, there is minimum
    contact between the soil and the fertilizer, and
    thus fixation of nutrients is greatly reduced.
  • The weeds all over the field can not make use of
    the fertilizers.
  • Residual response of fertilizers is usually
    higher.
  • Utilization of fertilizers by the plants is
    higher.
  • Loss of nitrogen by leaching is reduced
  • Being immobile, phosphates are better utilized
    when placed.

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  • a) Starter solutions
  • It refers to the application of solution of N,
    P2O5 and K2O in the ratio of 121 and 112 to
    young plants at the time of transplanting,
    particularly for vegetables.
  • Starter solution helps in rapid establishment and
    quick growth of seedlings.
  • The disadvantages of starter solutions are
  • Extra labour is required, and
  • the fixation of phosphate is higher

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  • b) Foliar application
  • It refers to the spraying of fertilizer solutions
    containing one or more nutrients on the foliage
    of growing plants.
  • Several nutrient elements are readily absorbed by
    leaves when they are dissolved in water and
    sprayed on them.
  • The concentration of the spray solution has to be
    controlled, otherwise serious damage may result
    due to scorching of the leaves.
  • Foliar application is effective for the
    application of minor nutrients like iron, copper,
    boron, zinc and manganese. Sometimes insecticides
    are also applied along with fertilizers.

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  • c) Application through irrigation water
    (Fertigation)
  • It refers to the application of water soluble
    fertilizers through irrigation water.
  • The nutrients are thus carried into the soil in
    solution.
  • Generally nitrogenous fertilizers are applied
    through irrigation water.

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  • d) Injection into soil
  • Liquid fertilizers for injection into the soil
    may be of either pressure or non-pressure types.
  • Non-pressure solutions may be applied either on
    the surface or in furrows without appreciable
    loss of plant nutrients under most conditions.
  • Anhydrous ammonia must be placed in narrow
    furrows at a depth of 12-15 cm and covered
    immediately to prevent loss of ammonia

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  • e) Aerial application
  • In areas where ground application is not
    practicable, the fertilizer solutions are applied
    by aircraft particularly in hilly areas, in
    forest lands, in grass lands or in sugarcane
    fields etc.

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BIO - FERTILIZERS APPLICATION METHODS
  • There are three ways of using these N
    fixing/P.S.M. bacteria.

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BIO - FERTILIZERS APPLICATION METHODS
Sl.No. Method of Application Crops Dose/ packets/Acre Water Ratio BF water Soil
1 Root dip application    All crops  200g bio-fertilizers   400 ml 12
2 sucker /set treatment        Sets of sugarcane base of banana 1 or 2kg 50 or 100 litres 150  
3 Soil application    All crops 2 kg for wetting 40-50kg
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  • Sucker treatment
  • Sucker treatment is a most common method adopted
    for all types of inoculants.
  • The sucker treatment is effective and economic.
  • The coating can be done in a plastic bucket . For
    this purposes, a plastic bucket or big can be
    used.
  • Solutions can be used as sticker add _at_15-25 ml/kg
  • The bucket have to filled with 10 sugar solution
    or 40 Gum Arabic or synthetic glue or glues of
    vegetable or animal origin or honey or mineral
    oil or peanut oil or soybean oil or 10 molasses
    or tice starch etc.
  • The use of sticker is in view of to increase the
    amount of inoculants that will adhere to sucker
    so that number of rhizobia on the each sucker
    must retain higher population i.e. 103 to 106.

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  • Root Dipping
  • The required quantity of Azospirillum has to be
    mixed with 5-10 ltr of water at one corner of the
    field and all the plants have to kept for minimum
    ½ an hour before plating.
  • Soil Application
  • Mix 4 kg each of biofertilizers in 200 kg of
    compost and leave it overnight. Apply this
    mixture in the soil at the time of sowing or
    planting.
  • In plantation crops apply this mixture near root
    zone and cover with soil.
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