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CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION

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Title: CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION


1
CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION
The reasonable person adapts himself to the
world, while the unreasonable one persists in
trying to adapt the world to himself. George
Bernard Shaw
2
What is Culture?
  • Culture is the "lens" through which you view the
    world.
  • It is central to what you see,
  • How you make sense of what you see,
  • How you express yourself.

"Culture is the arts elevated to a set of
beliefs." Tom Wolfe
3
Four Fundamental Patterns of Cultural Difference
What is different?
1. Communication Styles
2. Attitudes toward conflicts
3. Decision making styles
4. Approaches to knowing
What is hidden below the surface?
1. Beliefs
2. Values
3. Expectations
4. Attitudes
4
Culture Involves Unwritten Rules for Social
Norms
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vcKUvKE3bQlY

5
COMMUNICATON
Communication is the sending of a message from a
source to a receiver with the least possible loss
of meaning.
THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS
The speaker sends a message that is in some kind
of code. The listener decodes the message and
responds, thereby giving the speaker feedback.
6
What is effective communication?
  • An Art, Science and Practice

Effective speaking
Understanding peoples perceptions
Effective listening
7
CODES USED IN COMMUNICATION
  • Verbal Communication
  • Words
  • Voice
  • Non-Verbal Communication
  • Gestures
  • Postures
  • Facial Expressions
  • Eye Contact
  • Vocal Characteristics
  • Personal Appearance
  • Touch

8
Cross Cultural Communication
Intercultural Communication is the process of
sending and receiving messages between people
whose cultural background could lead them to
interpret verbal and non-verbal signs differently.
9
Why is Cross Cultural Communication Important ?
Globalization Cross border movement of people,
goods and data brings more and more cultures into
contact with one another and increases the
potential of cross culture communication.
  • Business Opportunities
  • Job Opportunities
  • Improves the contribution of employees in a
    diverse workforce
  • Sharing of views and ideas
  • Talent improvisation
  • An understanding of diverse market

10
Verbal Communication Differences
1.Words 2.Voice 3. Delivery
11
High Context and Low Context Cultures
High Context Culture- Cultures that rely heavily
on non-verbal and subtle situational cues in
communication. Low Context Culture- Cultures
that rely heavily on words to convey meaning in
communication.
12
Non-Verbal Communication Differences
13
Case In Point Eye Contact
In some cultures, looking people in the eye is
assumed to indicate honesty and
straightforwardness in others it is seen as
challenging and rude.
14
In the USA, most effective way to connect with
people is to look them in the eye.
15
Most people in Arab cultures share a great deal
of eye contact and may regard too little as
disrespectful.
16
In American culture, a certain amount of eye
contact is required, but too much makes many
people uncomfortable.
17
In South Asian and many other cultures, direct
eye contact is generally regarded as aggressive
and rude.
18
Case in Point Gestures
  • A motion of the hands, head or body to emphasize
    an idea or emotion.

How can a Gestures distort the message..
Perfect! OK!
Zero! Worthless!
Rubbish!
19
USAOK
JAPANMONEY
RUSSIAZERO
BRAZILINSULT
20
How the same gestures can be treated differently
in different cultures . . .
21
Gestures Around the World
Argentina - Do you have a telephone ? Brazil -
Cuckold (Your wife is cheating on you.) USA -
Sign for the Texas Long Horns
22
Technical Communication Differences in Content
  • In China, content should be fact-based, focus on
    long-term benefits for readers.
  • In Mexico, South America, and many African
    countries, family backgrounds are of great
    importance, even in business documents.
  • In the Middle East, Arabs often value
    negotiating/bargaining.
  • In Asian countries, the reputation of the
    writer/company is essential to credibility.
  • In Indonesia, the phrase Yes, but actually
    means no when speaking.

23
Differences in Organization
  • In Arab cultures, documents/meetings start with
    attempts to build common bonds, rather than the
    American way of getting to the point.
  • Asians often prefer to start with non-business
    info such as the weather.
  • In India, the term thank you is considered a
    form of payment. If someone has done you a favor,
    you should not say thank you in the
    intro/conclusion of an e-mail or letter or you
    will indicate you are paying for the favor.

24
Differences in Style
  • In China, overt persuasion is rude. Build strong
    relationships instead.
  • Arabic style values repetition, and seems
    ornamental to North Americans.
  • In Mexico and much of South America, informal
    stylelack of respect.
  • In sub-Saharan Africa, readers prefer a win-win
    tone where both sides benefit.
  • Some Native Americans prefer the sense that
    everyone had input avoid direct writing style.
  • In North America, women are more direct than
    anywhere.

25
Differences in Design
  • Arabic and some Chinese scripts read right to
    left.
  • In some Asian cultures, a white flower or white
    dress can symbolize death.
  • Europeans say Americans use too many graphics,
    too much white space.
  • Graphs/charts with obvious meanings to Americans
    can baffle international readers.
  • When giving presentations in some Native American
    cultures, hand gestures/eye contact should be
    limited/minimized.

26
Example Graphic Revised
Created by Program for Appropriate Technology in
Health (PATH)
Goal show nonreaders in Sudan how to prepare
oral rehydration solution for child with diarrhea.
27
Blocks to Cultural Communication
1. Ethnocentrism Inability to accept another
culture's world view-- My way is the
best." 2. Discrimination
Differential treatment of an individual due to
minority status actual and perceived
e.g., We just aren't equipped to
serve people like that." 3.
Stereotyping Generalizing about a person while
ignoring presence of individual
difference e.g., She's like that because she's
Asian all Asians are nonverbal."
28
4.Cultural Blindness Differences are
ignored and one proceeds as though
differences did not exist e.g., There's no need
to worry about a person's culture.
5.Cultural Imposition Belief that everyone
should conform to the majority e.g.,
We know what's best for you if you don't like
it you can go elsewhere."
6.Tone Difference Formal tone change becomes
embarrassing and off-putting in some
cultures.
29
DEVELOPING CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS
"Tact is the ability to describe others as they
see themselves. Abraham Lincoln 
30
Skills To Overcome Differences
"To handle yourself, use your head to handle
others, use your heart."   Donald Laird
31
Skills To Overcome Differences
  • Respecting Differences and Working Together
  • Building Trust Across Cultural Boundaries
  • Connecting with People

32
Skills To Overcome Differences
  • Understanding Body Language
  • United States of America
  • Americans tend to refrain from greetings that
    involve hugging and other close physical contact.
  • When sitting, U.S. citizens often look very
    relaxed. They may sometimes sit with the ankle of
    one leg on their knee. Arab Countries
  • The left hand is considered unclean in the Arab
    countries.
  • When sitting, keep both feet on the ground.
  • The "thumbs up" sign is offensive throughout the
    Arab world.
  • South Korea
  • Bows are used for expressing appreciation, making
    apologies and requests, as well as for greetings
    and farewells.
  • When the Japanese want to give the impression
    that they are in deep thought, they will
    sometimes fold their arms.

33
Business Attire
Wear Proper Business Attire
34
Selecting and Presenting Business Gifts
35
Selecting And Presenting Gifts
  • Unwrapping gifts
  • Saudi Arabia - Gifts are opened in private.
  • USA - Gifts are opened in public.
  • Appreciated Gifts
  • Indonesia - Gifts such as tokens or mementos of
    your country or your company logo are
    appreciated.
  • Turkey Give wine or liquor if you are sure
    your hosts drink alcohol candy,
    pastries roses, glassware, such as a vase,
    goblet, or decanter make prized gifts
  • Gifts to avoid
  • UAE - Alcohol / perfumes containing alcohol and
    pork and pigskin products are to be avoided.
  • China - Do not give anything in sets of four or
    gifts that carry the association of death,
    funerals such as clocks, cut flowers, white
  • objects.

36
Handshake
  • How do you do it?
  • The handshake should be firm.
  • While shaking hands establish eye contact and
    always smile.
  • The person who initiates the handshake is the
    one who closes it.

37
Improving Cross Cultural Communication
38
Welcome Topics Topics to Avoid during
Conversation
39
Welcome Topics during a Conversation
  • Welcome Topics of Conversation
  • Indonesia Family, travel/tourism, sports,
    praising the local cuisine, future plans and
    success of the group or organization
  • Germany Sports--particularly soccer, tennis,
    current events, politics among those who imbibe,
    beer is often a good topic of conversation

40
Topics to avoid during a Conversation
  • Topics to Avoid
  • Indonesia Politics, corruption, criticism of
    Indonesian ways, commenting on Indonesian customs
    that you find peculiar, religion
  • Saudi Arabia Middle Eastern politics and
    international oil politics, Israel, criticizing
    or questioning Islamic beliefs, women/ inquiries
    or complimentary remarks about the female family
    members of your Saudi associates
  • South Korea Korean politics/local politics, The
    Korean War, Socialism and Communism, Japan and
    your contacts in Japan, your host's wife,
    personal family matters
  • Germany World War II, personal questions

41
Precautions in Cultural Communication
  1. Slow down
  2. Separate questions
  3. Avoid negative questions
  4. Take turns
  5. Write it down
  6. Be supportive
  7. Check meanings
  8. Avoid slang
  9. Watch humor
  10. Maintain etiquette
  11. State objectives clearly
  12. Use terms consistently
  13. Rank issues by importance
  14. Minimize adj./adv. use
  15. Minimize prep. phrases
  16. Highlight actions, deadlines, dates
  17. Spell check!

42
Communicaiton in todays scenario is not a
National Match but is an Olympics where there
are international players. Only the
individual/organization that has done its
homework well and developed its cross-cultural
ethos can survive.
43
Faster Rapport Building
Faster Rapport Building
Listen Carefully Be Polite Research Target
Culture Talk to your Colleagues
44
Success Rate Will Increase
Success Rate will Increase
45
Source
http//www.authorstream.com/Presentation/jagjyot-
135607-cross-cultural-communication-mba-culture-ma
nagement-new2-education-ppt-powerpoint/
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