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FOREST RESOURCES

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FOREST AREA COVER Our focus will be on : Present scenario Threats posed due to human activities The resources Forest conservation and sustainable resource use. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: FOREST RESOURCES


1
FOREST RESOURCES
2
ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS a case study
  • CONDITION THAT PREVAILED BEFORE
  • One of the finest tropical evergreen forests
  • Rich biodiversity
  • Low population, tribals living in harmony with
    nature.

3
CONDITION THAT EXISTS NOW
  • Forest degradation due to legal and illegal
    logging.
  • Degradation of soil, soil erosion.
  • Heavy flow of sediments into coastal waters
    killing substantial amount of corals.
  • Threat to the biodiversity (saltwater crocodile
    and Andaman wild pig have become endangered
    species).
  • Threat to tribes.
  • Population pressure is high.

4
CAUSES
  • Extraction of timber from 1883.
  • Govt. supported migration of people from other
    parts of the country.
  • The 340-km long Andanman trunk road.
  • Increased interference of man.

5
FOREST AREA COVER
Class Area in sq.km. Percentage of Geographic area
DENSE FOREST 377358 11.48
OPEN FOREST 255064 7.76 
MANGROVES 4,871 0.15
SCRUB 51,896 1.58
NON FOREST 2,598,074 79.03
TOTAL 3,287,263 100.00
SOURCE FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE, 1999
6
www.mapsofindia.com
7
www.mapsofindia.com
8
Our focus will be on
  • Present scenario
  • Threats posed due to human activities
  • The resources
  • Forest conservation and sustainable resource use.
  • Community participation

9
STATE OF WORLDS FORESTS
  • The total forest area of the world amounts to 3.6
    billion hectares in 1999 , down from 6 billion
    hectares 8000 years ago
  • 56 countries have lost between 90 and 100 of
    their forests.
  • 15 million hectares of forest were lost annually
    in the last two decades,largely in the tropics.
  • 12.5 of plants and 75 of animal species are
    threatened by decline of forests
  • In the developing countries alone, some US 45
    billion is lost through poor forest management.
  • About 14 million hectares of forestland are lost
    annually, due to conversion of forests into
    cropland.

Source WCFSD report ,1999
10
Plant species under threat
  • Threat Category (IUCN ) Number
    of species
  • Extinct
    19
  • Extinct/Endangered
    43
  • Endangered
    149
  • Endangered/Vulnerable
    2
  • Vulnerable
    108
  • Rare
    256
  • Indeterminate
    719
  • Insufficiently Known
    9
  • No information
    1441
  • Not threatened
    374
  • TOTAL
    3120

IUCN RED LIST OF ENDENGERED SPECIES 2000
11
Animal species under threat
IUCN RED LIST OF ENDENGERED SPECIES 2000
12
Medicinal plant(endangered)
  • For the next 5 years following seven plants
    require concentrated attention
  • Aloe vera (Ghrita Kumari)
  • Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi)
  • Centella asiatica (Mandookparni, Gotu Kola)
  • Rauwolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha)
  • Catharanthus roseus (Periwinkle)
  • Taxus baccata / Taxus wallichiana (Himalayan Yew)
  • Artemisia annua

13
  • INITIATIVES ON THE PART OF
    INDEPENDENT COMISSION
  • To get a political as well as technical
    approach for the solutions in forest degradation
    a group of 30 former heads of government and
    state, was established by the name of world
    commision on forestes and sustainable development
    (WCFSD). The independent commisions objectives
    were to
  • Increasing awareness about preserving the natural
    environment and contributing to economic
    development.
  • Broadening the consensus on the data ,science
    and policy aspects of forest conservation and
    management.
  • Building confidence between north and south on
    the forest matters, with emphasis on
    international cooperation.
  • the commission held public hearings in
    Asia,Africa,Euriope,Latin America and the
    Caribbean and North America and dealt with forest
    dwellings, local communities, farmers, industry
    executives etc.

14
CLASSIFICATION OF FORESTS AND ITS
EXPLOITATIONThree main categories of forests
i.e.old growth, secondary growth and plantations.
  • Old growth or frontier forests are uncut forests
    that have not been seriously disturbed by human
    activities or natural disasters for several
    years.
  • Secondary growth forests are formed due to result
    of secondary ecological succession that has taken
    place due to clearance by human activities or
    natural disasters and then left undisturbed.
  • Plantations consists of commercially valuable
    trees which are managed forests created by
    clearing old-growth or second-growth forests.
    These are a source of industrial wood.

15
PRODUCTS AND SERVICES PROVIDED BY FORESTS
  • INDUSTRIAL WOOD AND FUELWOOD
  • NON-WOOD PRODUCTS
  • ECOSYSTEM SERVICES
  • OTHER CONTRIBUTIONS

16
Wood and non wood products
  • Timber
  • Tendu leaves
  • Bamboo
  • Sal seed
  • Honey
  • Medicinal plants
  • Rubber
  • Pickle
  • Biodiesel
  • Ply wood

www.orissafdc.com
17
Ways of destruction of forests
  • Natural
  • Forest fire
  • Climatic change
  • Human made
  • Commercial logging
  • Commercial harvesting
  • Construction
  • Intentional fire
  • Mining

18
Impact of deforestation
  • Erosion of topsoil
  • Floods
  • Extinction of plants and animals
  • Local climatic change
  • Global warming
  • Loss of livelihood of local communities

19




















  • SUSTAINABLE FO REST MANAGEMENT

20
FOREST CONSERVATION
  • Foresters and local people are working together
    to conserve forests.
  • Extractive Reserves-Protected forest in
    whichlocal people are allowed to harvest products
    like fruits, fibre , medicine etc.
  • Main objective is to improve the life of the
    people while conserving biodiversity.

21
Communities involved in Forest Conservation
  • Joint Forest Management
  • Concept introduced in 1980s.
  • In JFM local communities are involved in
    planinng the conservation programme.
    eg.-The Tamilnadu Afforestation
    Project(TAP)
  • SOCIAL FORESTRY
  • Used in India in 1976.
  • Plantation of eucalyptus tree

22
Efficient use of wood
  • Paper made from natural fibres and agricultural
    residues.
  • China plans to make 60 of its paper from tree
    free pulp.
  • In India Navneet publications use eco friendly
    papers to make copybooks.

23
Some notable examples in the field of forest
conservation
  • CHIPKO MOVEMENT Gaura Devi
  • The Green Belt Movement Wangari Maathai
  • Struggle in AmazoniaChico Mendes
  • Red wood trees CaliforniaJulia Butterfly


24
VASUNDHARA
  • Vasundhara is a non-governmental
    organisation,working primarily in Orissa with
    natural resources management focused on
    sustainable rural livelihoods.
  • Trying to improve community-state collaboration.
  • Facilitates policy changes in the direction of
    sustainable community
  • based forest management systems.
  • Main area of work deals with policy advocacy,
    research and documentation, capacity building and
    networking.
  • Instrumental in initiating coordinated action and
    response from the civil society on forestry
    issues.
  • SOURCEWWW.ENVINDIA.COM

25
ACTIONS
  • RESEARCH AND DOCUMENTATION-focused on supporting
    efforts to improve access and control of
    eco-system people,people who depend upon their
    immediate ecosystem for sustenance on their
    natural resources, forestry-agriculture etc.
  • NETWORKING AND ALLIANCE BUILDING - especially
    for creating a pressure group for policy changes
    for devolution of power to local communities for
    resource management.
  • CAPACITY BUILDING EFFORTS-for village
    institutions especially in two field locations
    which include information generation, networking,
    alliance building, training workshops and
    meetings etc.

26
Recommendations for conservation of forests
  • Stop destructions of forest
  • Use of sustainaible forest management approach
  • Research and training programme.
  • Proper planning for the whole landscape and not
    the forest in isolation

27
THANK YOU
  • GROUP 9
  • ANANDA SAHA ( 9)
  • SUBHODIP GANGULI (53)
  • VIJAYESH KR. PANDEY (57)
  • VIKAS CHATURVEDI (59)
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