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QUALITY%20OF%20HALAL%20MEAT

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QUALITY OF HALAL MEAT Dr. Javaid Aziz Awan Country Director, Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America, Faisalabad Some Ifanca Certified Companies in Pakistan AB ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: QUALITY%20OF%20HALAL%20MEAT


1
QUALITY OF HALAL MEAT
  • Dr. Javaid Aziz Awan
  • Country Director,
  • Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America,
  • Faisalabad

2
About IFANCA?Islamic Food and Nutrition Council
of America
  • Not for Profit Technical Islamic Organization
  • Supervising production of Halal foods
  • Certifying halal products
  • Finding solutions for new challenges
  • Publishing relevant information
  • Consulting Islamic scholars on issues facing
    Muslims in selecting food products.

3
IFANCA Strategy
  • IFANCA strives to satisfy
  • Client Companies
  • Halal Recognition Authorities
  • Halal Consumers
  • IFANCA - most knowledgeable organization in the
    field
  • IFANCA - provides services second to none
  • IFANCA - builds relationships with the client
    companies, halal recognition authorities and
    halal consumers.

4
IFANCACrescent M Certification
  • IFANCA certificates and certified products
    accepted world over
  • IFANCA - recognized by organizations like
  • MUIS Singapore
  • JAKIM Malaysia
  • MWL Saudi Arabia
  • MUI Indonesia
  • United Arab Emirates

5
IFANCA Crescent M Certification
  • Global Affiliations
  • IFANCA provides Halal certification in over 55
    countries directly or through affiliates like
  • IFCE, Europe
  • AFIC, Australia
  • NZIMM, New Zealand

6
Some Ifanca Certified Companies in Pakistan
  • AB Mauri Pakistan (Pvt) Ltd., Lahore
  • English Biscuit Manufacturers (Pvt.) Ltd. Karachi
  • Coronet Foods, Hattar
  • Capital Food Industries, Hattar

7
Some Ifanca Certified Companies in Pakistan
  • Gaziani Industries (Pvt) Ltd. Karachi
  • Nabeel Industries (Pvt) Ltd., Lahore
  • Pakistan Gum Industries (Pvt)., Ltd. Karachi
  • Pepsi-Cola International (Private) Ltd., Hattar
  • Super Gum Industries Ltd. Karachi

8
Some Ifanca Certified Companies in Pakistan
  • National Foods, Karachi
  • Nestle Pakistan, Lahore

9
IFANCA Halal Certification Logos
10
GUIDANCE FOR MUSLIMS
  • Holy Quran and the Sunnah provide guidance and
    inspirations for life on Earth
  • Food laws among guidelines
  • Ensure foods Muslims eat have positive bearing on
    their health
  • In fact the very first law to be passed on to
    Mankind was a food law

11
VII19 Al-Araf
12
THE FIRST DIVINE LAW
  • The Holy Quran
  • And unto man O Adam! Dwell thou and thy wife in
    the Garden and eat from whence ye will, but come
    not nigh this tree lest ye become wrong-doers
    VII-19 - Al-Araf

13
THE LAST DIVINE LAW
  • The last Divine law incidentally a food law
  • Revealed during last pilgrimage of the Holy
    Prophet Muhammed (pbuh)
  • They ask thee O Muhammed what is made lawful for
    them. Say all good things are made lawful for
    you V4 Al-Maidah
  • Aim of Divine revelations
  • Ensure man eats right type of food for his
    nourishment

14
MEAT
  • Meat indispensable for sound human health
  • Provides several essential nutrients
  • Proteins
  • Amino acids
  • Mineral elements
  • Vitamins

15
MEAT
  • Meat subject to spoilage by
  • Chemical reactions
  • Biochemical reactions
  • Biological agents, including bacteria
  • Meat responsible for food-borne diseases
  • Hence must be produced to
  • Minimize chemical and biochemical changes
  • Prevent chances of bacterial contamination and
    growth to preserve quality

16
HALAL MEAT
  • Slaughtering of animals and birds
  • essential to prepare for food purposes
  • Pre-slaughter management and bleeding methods
  • regulated by legislations and religious
    practices
  • Earliest recorded laws on handling, care and
    slaughter of animals
  • Revelations in the Holy Quran and
  • Ahadith by the Holy Prophet (pbuh)

17
ESSENTIALS OF ISLAMIC METHOD OF SLAUGHTERING
  • Islamic method of slaughtering - based on two
    important principles
  • Tasmiya
  • Tazkiyah
  • Tasmiya - invoking name of Allah
  • means slaughter being done with His permission
  • This in accordance with several commands given in
    the Holy Quran

18
V4 Al-Maidah
19
ESSENTIALS OF ISLAMIC METHOD OF SLAUGHTERING
  • Forbidden to you (for food,) are dead meat,
    blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which hath
    been invoked the name of other than God that
    which hath been killed by strangling, or by a
    violent blow, or by a head long fall, or by being
    gored to death that which hath been partly eaten
    by a wild animal, unless ye are able to slaughter
    it (in due form) .. (V4) Al-Maidah

20
ESSENTIALS OF ISLAMIC METHOD OF SLAUGHTERING
  • Tazkiyah means purification - cleaning meat of
    blood by slaughter
  • Consumption of blood prohibited in Holy Quran -
    VI146
  • All lawful animals and birds contain blood
  • Blood must be drained as per these commands

21
ESSENTIALS OF ISLAMIC METHOD OF SLAUGHTERING
  • The Holy Prophet (pbuh) gave comprehensive
    guidelines on slaughtering of animals in
    following Hadith
  • Verily Allah, has prescribed proficiency in all
    things. Thus, if you kill, kill well and if you
    slaughter, slaughter well. Let each one of you
    sharpen his blade and let him spare suffering to
    the animal he slaughters.

22
ESSENTIALS OF ISLAMIC METHOD OF SLAUGHTERING -
Slaughterer
  • Must be adult Muslim or
  • Must believe in Holy Scriptures
  • Must be in possession of his mental faculties

23
PRE-SLAUGHTER HANDLING OF ANIMALS - 1. Selection
of animals
  • Islam strictly prohibits
  • Pork
  • Carrion
  • Dead animals
  • Carnivorous animals
  • Birds of prey
  • Amphibians
  • Reptiles

24
1. Selection of animals
  • Islam permits
  • All herbivorous, even-toed ruminants
  • Animal meant for slaughtering be
  • Healthy
  • Free from any apparent or hidden
    impurities/diseases
  • Must be legally owned.

25
2. Pre-slaughter handling of animals
  • Modern methods require animal prior to
    slaughtering not be subjected to
  • Stress
  • Fatigue
  • Neurotic
  • Excitement
  • Rough handling of animals in pre-slaughter
    period
  • Adversely affects meat quality
  • Results in dark, firm and dry meat
  • Fatigued or starved animals
  • Organisms from gut may invade blood stream

26
2. Pre-slaughter handling of animals
  • Proper relaxation before slaughtering
  • Helps animal to bleed well
  • Builds up muscle glycogen to lower meat pH
  • Increases storage life of meat by reducing
    chances of microbial growth
  • Improves taste due to conditioning/ tenderness
  • Helps delay or reduce fermentation in stomach -
    may otherwise give meat characteristic smell
    known as bone taint.

27
2. Pre-slaughter handling of animals
  • Undesirable - animal awaiting slaughter view
    slaughtering process cause stress
  • Animals under stress - lead to undue emotional
    instability, fatigue, anorexia, etc.
  • Discharge hormones from adrenal glands
  • adrenaline from adrenal medulla
  • 17 hydroxy- and 11-deoxycorticosterones from
    adrenal cortex
  • Hormones deplete muscle glycogen and potassium
  • Deleterious effects on meat quality
  • Prevention - tranquilizers recommended to calm
    stocks in transit.

28
2. Pre-slaughter handling of animals in Islam
  • Islam promotes calm and rested animals prior to
    slaughtering
  • Not fatigued
  • Not excited
  • Not nervous

29
2. Pre-slaughter handling of animals
  • Islam prohibits
  • Any act that causes neurosis or excitement or
    other abnormal behavioural changes in animal
  • Sharpening knife in front of slaying animals
  • Practice of collective slaughtering - other
    animals viewing their companion being killed
  • Research reveals
  • Practices inhumane
  • Cause stress

30
3. Feeding the animals
  • Two schools of thoughts
  • Animal to remain hungry - Fasting
  • Animal be well fed
  • Advantages of fasted animals claimed
  • Bleed better
  • Carcass has brighter appearance
  • Carcass easier to dress
  • Reduced bulk of animals stomach
  • Reduced chances of bacterial contamination from
    gut

31
3. Feeding the animals
  • Disadvantages of fasted animals
  • Loss in weight of carcass
  • Loss in weight of liver
  • Lower glycogen reserves in muscles
  • Reduced gustative quality of meat

32
3. Feeding the animals
  • Well-fed animals
  • Glycogen level in muscle reaches higher level
  • Ensures production of adequate lactic acid
  • Lowers pH of meat
  • Meat has good
  • Appearance
  • Taste
  • Tenderness
  • Longer shelf-life

33
3. Feeding the animals
  • Meat of soothed and well-fed animals
  • pH attains 5.5 or even lower level
  • Meat of fatigued or neurotic animals
  • pH varies from 6.5 to 7.0
  • Often recommended to feed animals prior to
    slaughtering - meat of good keeping and eating
    quality
  • In some cases sugar solution fed to quickly
    restore glycogen level in tissues

34
3. Feeding the animals in Islam
  • Holy Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) advised that animals
    destined for slaughtering be
  • well fed
  • provided with drinking water
  • Preferable - animals have free access to feed
    and water prior to slaughtering
  • Result - good quality meat.

35
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE
  • Conventionally, slaughtering process consists of
    two to three different stages
  • Depends on religious practices and legislations
  • Stunning
  • Jews not in favour of stunning
  • Muslims divided on the issue
  • Western countries require stunned
  • Bleeding method governed by religious and
    national legislations

36
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 1. Stunning
  • Stunning widely practiced in Western abattoirs
  • Main objective
  • Make animal unconscious
  • Make death gentle and painless
  • No standard method for all animals under all
    conditions
  • Stunning effective in having calm animal

37
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 1. Stunning
  • Stunning - outcome of industrial revolution
  • Maximum animals be slaughtered in least time
  • Probably no relation with mercy on animals
  • Industrial revolution
  • Provided mankind with innumerable benefits
  • Inflicted damaging blows on some aspects of human
    nutrition
  • Example - refinement of wheat flour
  • Stunning might turn out harmful

38
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Bleeding
  • Quick incision recommended using very sharp knife
    on front of the neck to severe
  • Wind pipe
  • Oesophagus
  • Carotid arteries
  • Jugular veins
  • Positions for incision
  • Hanging animal on its hind legs
  • Laying on the ground

39
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Bleeding
  • To produce good carcass bleed animal
    effectively
  • Heart and respiratory system must function
    continuously as long as possible after severance
  • This attained when heart and respiratory
    functions retained by maintaining medulla
    oblongata/spinal cord
  • Animals convulse

40
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE - Bleeding
  • During convulsions blood squeezed out of vessels
  • Hence more blood drains out - a pre-requisite for
    meat of superior quality
  • Evidence suggests more blood lost from sheep in
    horizontal position than those hung vertically

41
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Bleeding
  • Blood excellent medium for growth of
    microorganisms
  • Meat retaining more blood than critical level
    liable to bacterial spoilage
  • Blood retention in tissues can cause unpleasant
    appearance and discolouration in meat
  • Keeping and eating qualities of meat depends, in
    part, on removal of maximum blood from carcass

42
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Laying Animal for
Bleeding
  • Lay animal (except camel) on its left flank,
    preferably facing Kibla
  • Laying enables animal to convulse - results from
    contraction of muscles due to lack of oxygen in
    brain cells when incision made
  • Ensures maximum blood drainage owing to body
    pressure on heart - outranks other slaughtering
    techniques
  • Ensures rapid onset of unconsciousness and
    painless death
  • Prevents retraction of carotids

43
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Bleeding
  • While giving incisions with sharp knife
  • Recite name of Allah
  • Bismillah Allah-o-Akbar
  • Allah-o-Akbar
  • Subhan Allah
  • La illaha illila
  • Takbir - religious significance to believer
  • makes submission to Allah, that life taken out
    of animal with His permission

44
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding techniques
  • Slaughtering actually done in the name of Allah
    and not in name of any person or deity in
    accordance with following commands
  • So eat of (meats) on which Gods name has been
    pronounced if ye have faith in His Signs Vl118,
    Vl121 Al Anam

45
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Bleeding techniques
  • Islamic method
  • Use sharp knife or any sharp object for bleeding
    except finger nail and bone
  • Incision made in neck
  • Throat cut transversely to severe carotid
    arteries, jugular veins, oesophagus and trachea
    without injuring spinal cord
  • Two essentials in slaughter of animals for meat
  • animals be dispatched without unnecessary
    suffering
  • bleeding be as complete as possible
  • Both met in Islamic method of bleeding

46
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Bleeding techniques
  • When both carotid arteries severed
    unconsciousness in sheep induced between 3 to 6
    seconds
  • Islamic method ensures maximum blood drainage
    from body before completion of death process
  • Connection between brain and body retained via
    spinal cord
  • Brain sends messages to heart and lungs
  • Heart pumps blood to parts of body - drained out
    from severed blood vessels in neck

47
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding techniques
  • Results of a comparative study
  • Maximum blood lost in Kosher method
  • Jewish method similar to Islamic as regards
    physical details
  • Minimum when chicken simply beheaded

48
Conclusion
  • Islamic method ensures
  • Minimum suffering to animal
  • Maximum bleeding
  • Lower pH of meat
  • Better meat quality

49
ANIMAL RIGHTS
  • Islam recognized animal rights long before
    recognition of human rights in Western World
  • Numerous Ahadith reflect Islam advocates
    kindness and mercy towards animals
  • Nourish animals well
  • Save animals from hunger and thirst
  • Show kindness to animals
  • Do not hit or mark animal on its face
  • Do not shoot arrows at cattle or bird tied or
    held up
  • Do not fight animals for sports or recreation
  • Do not unjustly kill even a sparrow or smaller
    bird (other than for food)

50
  • Thank You
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