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An island, a continent: Sardinia

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Title: An island, a continent: Sardinia


1
An island, a continent Sardinia
  • Heres my region geographical and historical
    outline

2
Some hints about history
  • The first inhabitants came from Northern Africa,
    from the Iberian peninsula, from Liguria and from
    Tuscany. The settlers tilled the land, started to
    trade and exploited the obsidian, a volcanic
    glass, that they sold to merchants from Corsica
    and Provence.
  • In about 2,500-2,000 B.C. with the people from
    Greece and Crete, we have the first urban
    settlements and some sheep-farming activities.
    They made tools more pleasant, introduced the
    cult of the dead with tombs and niches called
    domus de janas(fairies houses) and reproduced
    the dwellings of the first Sardinians, circular
    and with a cone shaped roof.

3
From the Nuraghi onwards
  • In about 1,500 B.C. we have the Nurarghic Age or
    the Bronze Age, characterized by the creation of
    the nuraghi and the fusion of bronze.The
    nuraghi, made with huge stones and a vaulted
    roof, situated in a commanding position,
    represent the mark of this age, the most
    flourishing in the history of Sardinia.
  • The domination of the Phoenicians in the IX and
    VIII century B.C. influenced life on the coasts,
    with the building of sea ports and later, with
    the Carthagenese, of a road network, houses and
    water facilities.
  • The Roman conquest in 238 B.C. brought streets,
    baths and temples, and the seeding of land for
    corn growing.
  • The Christian Age introduced olive trees and
    vines and factories for brick-works.
  • With the Vandals and the rise of the Byzantine in
    533 A.C., followed by the Pisani, the Spanish,
    the French, the Austrian and the Piemontesi,
    Sardinia started to acquire some habits of the
    conquerors but it remains a wild land, with a
    routine life mainly influenced by winds and the
    sea.

4
Geographical features
  • Sardinia is the second largest island in the
    Mediterranean Sea, with its 23,815 square km,
    including the small islands surrounding it S.
    Antioco, S. Pietro, the Asinara, La Maddalena and
    Caprera.
  • It has the shape of a footprint or of a sandal
    print, and for this reason the ancient Greeks
    called it Ichnusa (footprint) or Sandaliotis
    (sandal print). The edges of this shape are the
    coasts, very pictoresque and varied.
  • The hinterland is characterized by fruitful
    planes called Campidani (from the Latin campus),
    plateaus and mountain chaines, such as the
    Gennargentu (literally the silver door) with the
    Lamarmora peak, the mountains of Oliena and the
    needles of the Sette Fratelli (the Seven
    Brothers).

5
Geographical features 2
  • The coasts of Sardinia are generally high and
    rocky, with deep bays and inlets surrounded by
    small isles. Sardinian rocks go back to the
    Ancient Paleozoic (300,000 years ago), so there
    arent any high mountains because of the long
    erosion process.
  • The Gennargentu is the highest peak in the
    center of the island (1,384 m.) and the Mount
    Limbara (1,362) is the highest in the North.
  • The climate is generally mild, influenced by the
    Atlantic, African and Artic air masses. During
    the year, approximately 300 days are sunny and
    the others rainy, with a great concentration of
    rainS in winter and autumn, sometimes in spring
    too.
  • The island is very windy, the mistral ( a
    North-West wind, fresh and strong) dominates but
    also the Sirocco and the Levant are very
    frequent, especially along the east coast.

6
The map
  • Heres a map of our island with its four
    provinces Cagliari (the headtown), Sassari,
    Oristano and Nuoro.

7
Some photos of our main towns
  • CAGLIARI
  • ORISTANO

8
Nuoro and Sassari
  • Nuoro
  • Sassari

9
Towns and villages of Sardinia The new provinces
  • In Sardinia there are 377 villages, 1.648.046
    inhabitants, on a surface of 24.090 kmq and a
    density of 68 inhabitants for kmq.
  • Sardinia has got 4 new provinces
  • (CI) Carbonia- Iglesias, with the chief town
    Iglesias-Carbonia
  • (MD) Medio-Campidano, with the chief town Sanluri
  • (OG) Ogliastra, with the chief town
    Lanusei-Tortolì
  • (OT) Olbia-Tempio, with the chief town
    Olbia-tempio

10
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11
SARDINIAN TRADITIONAL COSTUMES
  • The most typical costumes are local, varying from
    village to village. The typical element of the
    mans costume are the cap, the shirt, the gilet,
    the jacket, the ragas, the white pants of
    linen, the coat, the characteristic gabbanu
    typical of the pastoral tradition and the
    mastruca, a big skin capsize of ship with wool.
    Besides we often find the collettu, a coat of
    leather as long as the knee, opened in the front
    and held by a leather belt.

12
The female costume
  • The female costume is, usually very rich
    and colurful, with a shawl and a head scarf, a
    white blouse and a corset of different materials
    and colours. The skirt is pleated and usually
    completed by a a colourful apron made with fine
    materials.The costume is decorated with rich
    jewels made with gold or silver, and coral or
    pearl mounted in it.
  • The costume represents an ancient way of
    dressing thet reveals where you come from, your
    social class and your origins. It is still
    popular in everyday life, especially in small
    centres, in a less decorated and poorer version.

13
Archaelogy in Sardinia
  • Nuraghi are defensive structures dating back to
    the II millennium b.c., that is the Age of
    Bronze. They are circular towers with the shape
    of a truncated cone made with polished stone,
    with internal rooms and dome-shaped ceilings.
    Their use is still controversial, some think it
    had a defensive role, some think it was used a s
    a religious structure to gather the community in
    particular situations (wars, plagues, social
    innovations)

14
Archeology in Sardinia
  • The city of Nora was founded by the Phoenician
    around the IX century b.c. In the early period of
    Roman domination, Nora was probably the seat of
    the Governorship and later it was proclaimed a
    municipium, enjoying a period of prosperity
    especially in the II and III century a.d.

15
ROMAN THERMAE
  • Fordongianus is the most important Roman
    city in the interior of the island. During the
    period of the Roman invasions the Romans changed
    the settlement into a fortified outpost Forum
    Traiani. The Roman baths are the main attraction
    of this place where hot water still flows from
    some springs.

16
PRANU MUTTEDDU
  • The necropolis of Pranu Mutteddu, a few
    kilometres from Cagliari, is an important remain
    of the Neolithic civilization in Sardinia. The
    main attraction is the domus de janas graves,
    dug in large sandstone blocks carried from far
    away to the centre of a large circle with menhir.
    The long line of menhir is orientated along the
    course of the sun.

17
THE TOPHET
  • The foundation of the Phoenician town of S.
    Antioco (Ca) was accompanied by that of the
    tophet, a particular form of necropolis and
    sanctuary typical of the Phoenician-Punic
    civilization in the Western Mediterranean sea it
    is an open air sacred area where only the ashes
    of dead born babies and children were buried.

18
MAIN FESTIVALS
  • The festival of S. Efisio begins on the
    1st of May. It is dedicated to the omonymous
    martyr that the ancient Sardinians used to
    implore to be saved from the terrible effects of
    a plague and during the pirates invasion in
    1655. A solemn procession with the statue of the
    saint leaves from the district of Stampace, in
    Cagliari, and finishes in a small church
    dedicated to the saint in Nora

19
THE SARTIGLIA
  • It takes place in February in Oristano it is an
    ancient equestrian joust with Spanish origins
    during which the best riders have to take a steel
    star hanging from a rope with the point of the
    sword, without stopping their fast riding along
    the streets of the town. The winner is the rider
    who takes more stars. Riders wear traditional
    costumes and a characteristic white mask.

20
THE REDEMEER FESTIVAL
  • It is the most important religious festival in
    Nuoro it takes place every 29th August from 1901
    on the Ortobene Mountain. It is dedicated to
    Christ, the Redemeer pilgrims go on foot to the
    town of Nuoro till the top of the Ortobene and
    there they take part to all the religious events
    celebrated by the Bishop of Nuoro. It is a very
    solemn festival.

21
SARDINIAN GASTRONOMY
  • SARDINIAN GASTRONOMY IS ORIGINAL AND RICH, BASED
    ON ANCIENT RECIPES HANDED DOWN FROM GENERATION TO
    GENERATION.
  • Each province has its own tradition and uses the
    typical products of the area. The geographical
    posiition of the island, surrounded by the sea,
    the main ingredients of Sardinian gastronomy are
    very different but also very simple and natural.

22
STARTERS
  • Starters, preceding lunch and dinner, are
    represented by mixed salted pork meats, cured
    ham, Sardinian pecorino cheese, olives, and fresh
    vegetables. You may also find starters including
    crabs, mussels, clams, snails, lobster, octopus
    and sea dates.

23
BREAD AND PASTA
  • The Sardinian tradition has different kinds of
    pasta, dried and fresh, and typical breads. The
    basic ingredient is the hard bran of grain, used
    to prepare malloreddus, the bread carasau (also
    known as music card) the fregola, made with a
    handmade pasta in a small marbles shape and
    toasted in the oven the culurgionis, with
    ricotta stuffing.

24
SECOND COURSE
  • The most characteristic meat dishes are pork on
    the spit, roasted and flavoured with branches of
    myrtle, kid and stewed lamb, and also mixed grill
    of fish.

25
PORK MEAT
  • In Sardinia pork meats are prepared according to
    ancient procedures and with very simple
    ingredients salt, few spices and an accurate
    seasoning. The characteristic pork meat is the
    pig or wild boar mountain ham also dried or
    smoked sausages are considered a symbol of the
    island.

26
CHEESE
  • SARDINIA IS THE SYMBOL OF THE PASTORAL
    CIVILIZATION. GOAT AND SHEEP BREEDING REPRESENTS
    THE MOST IMPORTANT ECONOMICXAL ACTIVITY. Among
    the most appreciated cheeses we find the
    Sardinian pecorino, a D.O.C. cheeese produced
    exclusively in Sardinia.

27
SWEETS
  • The traditional Sardinian pastry is varied and
    has sweets for every event. The basic ingredients
    for most of them are the almonds the most
    appreciated by everybody are the famous
    amaretti and is pabassinas, with raisins and
    sapa.

28
WINES
  • SARDINIA HAS AN ANCIENT WINES-PRODUCING
    TRADITION, WITH HIGH QUALITY WINES. They are
    strong and with a high gradation. The most famous
    wines are the Cannonau, the Malvasia, the
    Vermentino, the Nuragus, the Monica.

29
LIQUORS
  • Also the liquors have a very ancient
    tradition, as they contain many aromatic plants
    characteristic of the island landscape. The most
    typical is the myrtle, white and red, but also
    the liquor of the Indian fig and the aqua
    vitae, known as filu e ferru are very
    popular.

30
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31
SOME SHOTS OF THE ISLAND
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35
The end
  • Dear friends, this is the end of our long journey
    across our region. We hope you will like it, even
    if its a bit longWe would have liked to say
    many more things, well then, come and see what we
    missed!
  • We send you our best greetings and we are
    sure that you can forgive us if we were boring.
    Lots of love from classrooms 2nd a and 3rd a of
    the Giovanni Pascoli school and from our
    teacher Ms. Cambosu. Byeeeeeeeeeee!!!!
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