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Airborne Data Acquisition: New and Emerging Technologies

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Title: Airborne Data Acquisition: New and Emerging Technologies


1
Airborne Data Acquisition New and Emerging
Technologies
  • 2008 NSGIC Midyear Conference
  • Annapolis, MD March 9-12, 2008

2
Large-Format Frame Digital Cameras
Craig Molander, Surdex Corporation
3
Large-Format Frame Digital Cameras
  • 40 in North America today
  • Predominant systems Intergraph DMC and
    Vexcel/Microsoft UltraCam
  • Frame format analogous to traditional film
    cameras (13K pixels wide)
  • Large-format 10K pixels or more wide

4
DMC in Aircraft…200 lbs More Weight Than Film
5
Large-Format Frame Digital Cameras
  • Simultaneous multispectral
  • 12 bits/pixel dynamic range
  • Extensive post-processing options
  • 1M each 2-3X film cameras!

6
3 Resolution More Common for Urban Areas
7
General
  • Cost-driven system design factors…
  • Generally rectangular format approximately same
    width as film system of similar resolution
  • Most employ pan-sharpening panchromatic at
    higher resolution, color/MSI at lower resolution

8
Panchromatic, Color, CIR…Simultaneously
Direction of Flight
9
Pan-Sharpening Steps
Panchromatic Image
Up-Sampled Color Image
Fused Color Image
10
Rectangular Format
  • Generally 50-60 shorter (along track) than wider
    (cross-track)
  • 1.5-2X more exposures…slightly raising production
    costs
  • Less lean downtrack…improved orthos

11
Advantages
  • Frame geometry can use existing
    processing/exploitation software
  • Any resolution 1.5 to 1 meter
  • Fewer images than small-format
  • Not totally dependent on ABGPS/IMU

12
RFP Considerations
  • Limit pan-sharpening ratio to maximum 51
    (colorpan)
  • Restrict acquisition to ltGSD 5 (limit flight
    altitude)
  • Suggest 4-band and/or color/CIR as deliverables

13
Small Format Cameras Oblique Imagery
Bob Williams, Sanborn Map Company
14
Oblique Imagery Advantages
  • 3D yields more information than 2D imagery
  • Obliques obtained with same flight mission
  • Building Data Sets textures or skins
  • 911 dispatch advising first responders
  • Building entrance exits
  • Accomplish height vertical measurements
  • IAAO as adopted oblique standards for appraisal

15
Down Camera
16
Back Camera
192Feet
17
Back Camera
Surface Area 6,512 Square feet
18


19
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20
3D Building and Terrain Models
21
3D Buildings with skins
22
Small Format Camera Disadvantages
  • Most Cameras are not certified by USGS
  • 8X to 10x more frames for processing
  • Different flight objectives
  • Leaf free season is often ignored
  • DEM extraction is more difficult
  • Super-wide focal lengths
  • Poor base to height ratio excessive building
    lean

23
8x to 10x more frames for processing

112
Images per sq. mile
18 Images per sq. mile


24
Different flight procedures objectives
25
Questions to Ask?
  • What accuracy standard will be achieved?
  • Is the product seamless or individual frames?
  • What is the source of DEM generation or update?
  • Is the camera certified?
  • Is a CP, LS or PE involved?
  • Similar but different objectives…

26
Pushbroom Digital Cameras
Dave White, Fugro EarthData
27
ADS40 (2nd Generation) Push-broom Technology
Push-Broom Concept
  • Acquires continuous strips of imagery along
    flight line
  • 5 spectral bands acquired concurrently (R, G, B,
    NIR, PAN)
  • 12-bit imagery
  • Single lens and same ground sample distance for
    all 5 bands, eliminating the need for pan
    sharpening
  • RGB and IR at nadir (no band separation)

Push-broom system
Frame-based system
28
Multiple Map Products
  • Natural color and color-infrared orthoimages from
    1-meter to 2-inch pixel resolution (1"1,000' to
    1"25' scale) to NMAS and ASPRS standards
  • Ground- or true-orthoimage generation
  • DEM or DSM data
  • CIR and True Color data processed together
    reducing production cost
  • Color, CIR, and panchromatic stereo pair
    generation
  • 4-band TIFF ortho image

29
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30
True Ortho vs. Ground Ortho
  • 1-foot TrueOrtho
  • Ground 1-foot orthophoto

Courtesy ISTAR S.A
31
Other ADS40 Derived Products
  • Planimetric Mapping
  • Creation or updating of planimetric features
  • Buildings
  • Hydro network
  • Impervious surfaces (roads, parkings, driveways,
    etc.)
  • 3D photogrammetric mapping
  • 2D heads-up digitizing
  • All CADD and GIS formats supported

32
Other ADS40 Derived Products
  • Topographic Mapping
  • Auto-correlated DSM / DEM
  • Photogrammetrically-derived DTM
  • 1' to 10' contours
  • 3D stereo-compilation of breaklines and mass
    points

33
Other ADS40 Derived Products
  • 3D City Models
  • Fully detailed 3D building models
  • 3D visualization and simulation
  • Emergency preparedness

34
Other ADS40 Derived Products
  • Image Classification Thematic Mapping
  • Automated classification
  • Land-use/land-cover
  • Benthic habitats (SAV)
  • Wetland delineation

ADS40 1m CIR
35
Advantages of ADS40
  • Summary
  • Excellent image quality and accuracy
  • Highly automated process for fast turnaround
  • Multiple products for diverse applications
  • DSM and DEM
  • Ground- and True-Orthoimages
  • Perfectly co-registered natural color and
    color-infrared orthos
  • Planimetric and topographic mapping
  • Land use / land cover
  • Cost-effective production

36
LiDAR and Other Imagery Sensors Jay Arnold,
3001
37
Airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR)
  • Airborne LiDAR includes topographic, bathymetric
    (and atmospheric)
  • Approximately 50 topo systems and 4 hydro systems
    in service in North America
  • Systems have matured over the past decade
  • Typical system costs gt 1M
  • Hydro/bathy can be gt 5M
  • Some topo systems lt 500K

38
Common LiDAR Sensors
  • Optech (www.optech.ca)
  • 3100EA
  • Max 100 kHz
  • Altitude max 3,500 m
  • Up to 4 returns
  • Z accuracy 5-20 cm
  • ALTM Gemini with Multipulse
  • Max 167 kHz
  • Altitude max 4,000 m
  • Up to 4 returns
  • Z accuracy 5-10 cm

39
Common LiDAR Sensors
  • Leica Geosystems (www.leicageosystems.com
  • ALS40
  • Max 15kHz, then max 58kHz
  • Altitude max 6,000 m (2500 m)
  • 2 returns, then up to 3 returns
  • Z accuracy 15-30 cm
  • ALS50 Phase II w/ Multipulse
  • Max 150 kHz
  • Altitude max 6,000 m
  • Up to 4 returns
  • Z accuracy 8-24 cm

40
Common LiDAR Sensors
  • Riegl (www.riegl.com)
  • LMS Q560
  • Max 240 kHz (160 kHz mean measurement) rotating
    mirror
  • Altitude 450m 1,000 m typical
  • Full waveform return
  • Z accuracy 20mm (qualified)

41
Common LIDAR Sensors
  • Optech/USACE CHARTS/SHOALS (http//shoals.sam.usac
    e.army.mil/)
  • JALBTCX CHARTS
  • Integrates
  • Optech SHOALS (Bathy and Topo)
  • ITRES CASI 1500 Hyperspectral
  • DuncanTech 4000 Digital Camera

42
CHARTS sensor suite
Optech SHOALS-3000 Integrated Laser System
DuncanTech-4000 RGB camera
Itres CASI-1500 Hyperspectral Imager
SHOALS-3000 Operator Console
CASI-1500 Operator Console
Bottom Aircraft Port
43
SHOALS-3000
  • Laser pulse rate
  • 3 kHz hydro
  • 20 kHz topo
  • Laser spot spacing
  • 2 5 m hydro
  • 1 2 m topo
  • Elevation accuracy
  • 30 cm at 95 hydro
  • 15 cm at 95 topo
  • Flight altitude
  • 300 400 m hydro
  • 300 1200 m topo
  • Flight speed
  • 135-165 knots
  • RGB images
  • Georeferenced
  • 1 Hz, 60 alongtrack overlap
  • 20 50 cm pixel resolution
  • jpg format

44
USACE Coastal Mapping
(1,000 m)……………………..Hydro Topo………(500 m)
Hydro waterline to 1,000 m _at_ 4 m spacing Topo
waterline to 500 m _at_ 1 m spacing Imagery _at_ 20 cm
resolution Hyperspectral - TBD
45
Common LiDAR Sensors
  • Airborne Hydrography AB (AHAB) Hawk Eye II
    (www.airbornehydro.com)
  • Hydro (bathy), Topo, Imagery simultaneously (same
    flight)

46
LiDAR Flight Planning
47
Example Flight Path
48
Data Density
  • 1 m topo LiDAR product provides 25x more surface
    detail than a 5 m LiDAR product but also requires
    much more storage
  • Next slide illustrates the difference in detail
    between 5 m and 1 m LiDAR models

49
5 m Bare-Earth LiDAR Model
5 m Bare-Earth LiDAR Terrain Model
1 m Bare-Earth LiDAR Terrain Model
50
LiDAR Real Life Applications
  • Redefining flood plains

Q3 Flood Plain
LIDAR Flood Plain
Additional homes in the flood plain
51
LiDAR Real Life Applications
  • Emergency response routing and evacuation
    According to State officials, 10 lives were saved
    in Louisiana by having LiDAR maps during the
    Katrina response

52
LiDAR Real Life Applications
  • Forest metrics w/ bare earth under LiDAR-derived
    tree classification

53
LiDAR Real Life Applications
  • 3D Urban Modeling Intensity Images

54
References
  • www.optech.ca
  • www.leicageosystems.com
  • www.riegl.com
  • http//shoals.sam.usace.army.mil/
  • www.airbornehydro.com
  • www.3001inc.com

55
Thank You and Questions
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